Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Research Paper on Sleepy Hollow

Research Paper on The Legend of Sleepy Hollow

When Ichabod woke from what seemed like an endless sleep, he realized that he was without a head and he was holding a pumpkin in one hand. When he stood up he saw that his horse had been replace with a black stallion. At first he was very confused but later realized that he was now the dreaded headless horseman.

It took Ichabod some time to get use to his new body without a head and his new horse that was much more rambunctious then his old plow horse that he had borrowed from the farmer. One thing that was hard for Ichabod was not being able to eat, he had no real head, just a pumpkin. Ichabod still thought about his dear Katrina daily and was always trying to devise a plan of how to win her hand in marriage.


Ichabod soon realized that he had become the headless horseman because he was struck in the head by the pumpkin. So he figured all he had to do was catch Brom Bones one night when he was in the forest and strike him with his pumpkin. Then Brom Bones would trade places with Ichabod and Ichabod would be able to marry the dear Katrina.

Ichabod knew that he may have to wait some time before Brom would come through the forest and it would have to be at night. So he found a nice place in a tree near the road so he could catch a glimpse of anyone who was to pass by. And there he waited patiently. Almost a year had gone by and still no sign of Brom. Then he realized that the Van Tassels would probably be holding another party like they had before, and Brom Bones was sure to attend.

Early in the afternoon Ichabod caught a glimpse of Brom Bones and Katrina on their way to Katrina's house. Ichabod knew tonight was the night, he thought over and over again about how he was going to go about eliminating Brom Bones. He carved out his plan in the side of the tree that he was living in and studied it for hours.

Darkness came and Ichabod was getting very antsy and excited to finally win the dear Katrina for himself and eliminate Brom Bones. As he was waiting by the road on his horse and pumpkin head in hand, he heard a horse trotting through the woods. His heart was going fast, almost as fast as when he saw Katrina for the first time. The footsteps were getting closer and sounding like they were going at a slower pace then before. Ichabod had a flash back of when he came across the headless horseman for the first time.

He could see the horse off in the distance, he started to ride into position and there he waited for what seemed liked hours. The horse was getting closer and closer and Ichabod had a firm grip on his reigns ready to take off into a full gallop at any moment. He held his pumpkin tightly applying a firm grip and taking a few warm up throws.

Finally the time had come, the horse slowly trotted by where Ichabod was, he slowly creeped out behind the horse and he caught a quick glimpse and sure enough it was Brom Bones the horse was spooked and took off running but Ichabod was close behind. He could see the bridge off in the distance and knew he had to throw the pumpkin before Brom Bones even got close the bridge.

Then Brome Bones horse stopped suddenly throwing Brom to the ground. His chance was now Ichabod heaved his Pumpkin as hard as he possibly could. He nailed Brom Bones directly in the forehead knocking him out cold.

Ichabod began to feel light headed and fell to the ground. He woke up in the Van Tassels house with Katrina by his side. It had worked he had switched places with Brom Bones and now he would be able to fulfill his dream of marrying Katrina.

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Monday, May 23, 2011

Research Paper on Ignorance

Research Paper on Ignorance

I have noticed that throughout history almost every civilization, culture, and people seem to have a religion. I believe that this is because of their primitive state of being and the ignorance of not knowing anything else to contradict the ignorance.

Rome and Greece were very scientifically oriented societies. Ironically they too had religion. They believed in the all-too-famous Greek and Roman Mythology. Today people look at these two civilizations and think that they can justify believing in a sun god because they had no way of knowing about the earth's rotation. My point is that today hardly any one shares in these pagan beliefs. The only people are those who are isolated and undisturbed in the backwoods, like in Africa or South America. The ancient Greek and Roman gods were proven to be false. I would bet that if you went back in time and you tried to tell a citizen of one of these two civilizations that their gods were not real they would probably not even take what you said into consideration. This is similar to what the religious people of today do to me when the subject is brought up. They may often look at the ceiling and gasp. Could they do anything more childish? At a moment like this all I can think of is saying, "Did I offend the supposedly omnipotent, imperceptible ghost-man in the "heavens"?"


The people of today think of it as impractical and primitive to have people worship the sun or pray for rain. How come the people who see this still have beliefs of their own? This is proof of simple-mindedness. They believe in a myth, a mere fairy-tale. To me the Bible is just a catchy read translated into Hebrew (the Torah) and Arabic (the Qur'an), with some details lost or twisted in the unprofessional translations. The poor author probably didn't even make a good profit from sales. This book was a late bloomer, but I will give it the gratification of it being a "classic".

Religion through my eyes is an addiction. Karl Marx is famously quoted for saying, "religion is the opium of the masses." This explains the susceptibility of the common people. It is an addiction of gratification and explanation. I'd say that people are better off taking up a habit like smoking. Religion and smoking seem to take away the same amount of time off your life. Religion takes away prime years and it is also confining. Smoking takes off the last years of your life when people are usually waiting to die or dying anyway. And plus, smokers seem to enjoy themselves. Religious people can be worrisome and embellish themselves with religion to make them liked in a superficial manner. These people have to justify everything they do and every event that occurs. When will these people finally face reality and realize that everything does not have an answer. I, myself, am filled with overwhelming intolerance towards these numerous people.

I can't picture how people could believe in things that are all in the mind. The answer I always get is that they have faith. Faith, what a joke! Faith in what? Faith in an ordinary building filled with pedophiles and perverts, stricken by their own beliefs and victim to the vicious game that "god" plays with their social anatomy and their reality. Natural law does not call for this isolation. I can only imagine the boredom of being confined to yourself for a "religious eternity". Life isn't that long and the clergy of catholic churches spend most of it singing about the same event that historically may not have even happen.

I am extremely xenophobic towards specific religious dress. How can either, wearing curls and a little hat or a blanket-tarp that covers the whole body make you any better then anyone else. I wouldn't mind it if it was someone's style but they are doing it for all the wrong reasons. I am pitiful for these people who actually believe that these superficial items will ensure their place in a magical kingdom in the sky where all good lingers. I hate to break it to these people, but you're going to live and then you're going to die. Now's the time to do something with your life before time runs out. Nothing is after this. Enjoy what time you have in the here and now.

Furthermore, there are too many conflicting religions anyway. How could all the Hindi people be as keen on having a faith that makes them believe that they will be reincarnated, when at the same time the Christians and Jews are just as keen on reaching this so-called "heaven"? These are totally different ideas and each religion speaks of all people being of the religion from the conception of humanity. If all people were created by god then how come they don't all believe, let alone worship in the same god if any. All it is is a bunch of ritualistic pagan stories that were handed down, and depending on the way they spread, tells of what people believe what. How come Hercules or Paul Bunyan aren't believed to be real, but a god, a ghost, and an incomprehensible being are believed to be true by the majority of the world's population? These are the people in control and telling you what to do. These are also the doctors and helpers that can hold their lives in their hands. Have these people ever heard of common sense?

I am witness to a religious shocking reality. In common religious instruction I witnessed what I would call a cult-like crime. The togetherness-and-love-lacking nuns were imbedding the idea that "god" comes before all else into the minds of poor susceptible, naive little children. No matter what is happening these children are told to remain faithful to their "lord almighty" no matter what. I cannot get past nor understand how in the limited time that a person has in life they could choose a theory over a physical being.

On a more personal note, worshiping idols seems hypocritical to me. Doesn't wearing a cross around you neck and clenching it in prayer fall into the category of worshiping idols? Praying in front of the religious statues also seems like idol worship. The praying to saints or other religious figures is also up there with the others. To me, the idea of the catholic pope takes the cake. He is nothing but a figurehead like the Japanese shogun. It's like a joke and it seems like the priests are trying to see what they can get away with. This man I physically incapable of normal functions. He is an old and crippled man.

Confession defeats the whole purpose of the commandments and again shows how two-faced the church is. For some reason someone made praying erase and justify anything wrongful a person has done. The confidentiality that a priest has with his subject is suspicious. Maybe it is because I believe in giving and eye for an eye, but the priest not telling of a crime would make him part of the plot.

Specifically, the Catholic Church is successful in today's world because of the money. In the past the church was a place for relief from reality. In this modern world, the church serves no purpose. People have advanced too much for the church to still seem like the only alternative. Too many things have been proven to be false or contradictory. Now it is a giant world wide conglomerate. The church has gone to a peaceful alternative from reality to a business as bug as McDonald's.

I am not a totally close-minded; in contrary to what you may now believe. I can be optimistic. All of these people could be right. If this is so, I may be, for lack of a better word, screwed, in the "after life" or what not. I prefer to take this risk because I'd rather be at a convenience now instead of being at a convenience in a supposed, imagined, theoretical, hypothetical, and unlikely world beyond reality.

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Research Paper on Harriet Beecher Stowe

Research Paper on Harriet Beecher Stowe

Harriet Beecher Stowe became one of the most famous writers, reformers, and abolitionist women of the 1800's in large part due to her best selling fictional book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. Stowe became most recognized for Uncle Tom's Cabin, written in 1852, which aroused considerable anti-slavery feelings before the Civil War began. In her writings about the evils of slavery, Harriet used her knowledge of the abolitionist movement and her vivid imagination, stirring many emotions and controversy on a nationwide level. As an avid writer, Harriet also contributed to periodicals and local publications in addition to her poetry, children's books, and novels. She lived much of her life near slaves and did not believe in the institution of slavery; hence, inspiring her to become a voice for anti-slavery both in her writings and personal values and beliefs.

She was born, Harriet Elizabeth Beecher, the seventh child born to Lyman and Roxana Beecher on June 14, 1811 in Litchfield, Connecticut. Harriet was one of thirteenth children; her two sisters, Esabella and Catherine were from Mr. Lyman's first marriage. There were seven brothers and they all became ministers and reformers, just like their father. Reverend Lyman was a well-known Congregational Revivalist, and persuasive speaker. Harriet and her siblings were raised with strong moral principals and strict religious beliefs, which stayed with them all throughout their lives. In 1816, Harriet suffered a great loss at the very young age of five. Her mother, Roxana, died of tuberculosis.


From that point on in her life, Harriet became very attached to her eldest sister, Catherine. Although Reverend Lyman remarried, Harriet never created much of a bond with his second wife. Harriet, after attending Litchfield Academy, was sent to Hartford Female Seminary, which was founded by her sister, Catherine. Catherine, who became respected for her teaching methods, was like a mother to Harriet and became one of her greatest influencers and mentors throughout her life and writing career. Two other very prominent relatives in Harriet's life were her Uncle Samuel and Aunt Harriet Foote. Not only did her aunt and uncle influence her culturally, they also encouraged her to write as they had witnessed hr gift for writing early on.

In 1832, Harriet's father was invited to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he was to become the president of Lane Theological seminary. Harriet, along with her sister Catherine, made the move to Cincinnati with him. Harriet was influenced to make this move with her father by her sister, Catherine and their Uncle Samuel and Aunt Harriet Foote. They knew that if she followed her father and sister, she would continue to be inspired to pursue her writing talent. Shortly after their move, Catherine and Harriet established a school together, The Western Female Institute, in which Harriet became one of the teachers. The move for Harriet was an eye-opening experience, where she witnessed for the first time, the brutality of slavery and cruelty of slave auctions. Harriet's first account of this cruelty was when she observed a black family being separated and sold-off one by one. This outraged, saddened, and frustrated her, but she had not decided to write about it at that time. In 1836, at the age of 24, Harriet met and fell in love with the man that became her husband, Calvin Stowe, age 33. Calvin Stowe was a clergyman at her father's seminary, as well as an educator, and staunch abolitionist. He also shared Harriet's disbelief in slavery. Calvin and Harriet had seven children together within a 15-year time span.

In 1834, Stowe began her literary career. She entered a prize contest writing a children's geography book with her sister Catherine. Soon after she began contributing to the magazine, The Western Monthly, which featured many of her stories and essays. Her first book, The Mayflower, a short fictional story written in 1843, was also known as, Sketches of Scenes and Characters of the Descendants of the Pilgrims. Stowe's second published work was The Two Altars, also known as, The Two Pictures in One, in 1851. This book was written in response to the Fugitive Slave Law, which outlawed people to assist slaves in escaping, passed in 1850. It was published in two installments in the New York Evangelist, June 12 and June 19, 1851.

Her most famous novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin, written in 1852, was inspired by a vision Harriet had at church one day. When the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 passed, Harriet was furious and extremely disturbed, and wrote to one of her sisters expressing her frustration. Her sister wrote back saying, Hattie, if I could use a pen as you can, I would write something that would make this whole nation feel what an accursed thing slavery is.

Harriet did just that, thus the birth of Uncle Tom's Cabin. And behold the tears of such as are oppressed; and on the side of their oppressors there was power. Whereof I, praised, the dead that are already dead more than the living that are yet alive.

The response to Uncle Tom's Cabin was mixed, regionally, and consequently Harriet felt the need to further educate and inform people. As a result, she wrote a follow-up novel in defense of Uncle Tom's Cabin, to critics who argued it was inauthentic. This novel written in 1853 was titled A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin.

From 1856 - 1878, Harriet published numerous novels, studies of social life essays, and small volume religious poems. She also wrote several shorter works, some of which were published in the Atlantic Monthly and Christian Union. Most of those writings were focused on the New England community way of life. Several of her older novels, such as Old Town Folks (1869) and Poganuc People (1878), was partly based on her husband's childhood reminisces.

Stowe's best-known work, Uncle Tom's Cabin, was first published in the anti-slavery newspaper The National Era, from June 1851 to April 1852. The National Era compelled the American public, to, for the first time, realize that slavery was not just a national problem, but slaver were also people with aspirations and hopes just like their own. The fictional novel was finally published in book format in 1852, outsold all other books of the century, and received quite a bit of positive Northern reaction. By 1857, Uncle Tom's Cabin had sold over half a million copies in the Unites States and was translated into 37 languages.

Eliza made her desperate retrest across the river just in the dusk of twilight. The gray mist of the evening, rising slowly from the river, enveloped her as she disappeared up the bank, and the swollen current and floundering masses of ice presented a hopeless barrier between her and her pursuer.

Stowe once stated, "I could not control the story, the Lord himself wrote it, I was but an instrument in His hands and to Him should be given all the praise."

Southerner's on the other hand, did not react positively to Uncle Tom's Cabin. In Uncle Tom's Cabin, Stowe stirred up emotions in the South, through her vivid characterizations. She used stereotypical descriptions, illustrating exactly what slaves, slavery, and southerners were all about. She did this with little personal knowledge, but rather from her imagination and information from the abolitionist movement. Southerner's felt that her intentions were an indictment and an attack on their way of life, when in reality was against the institution of slavery.

Consequently, Uncle Tom's Cabin became ammunition in the arguments between the North and South. Stowe did not intend to anger the Southerner's, but rather to educate the nation. Harriet, quite distressed that her work was misunderstood, published in 1853, an explanation of the book, titled, A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin. As per the Southerner's, this follow-up account, fell on deaf ears. Southerner's at that point felt that her second book was unworthy of serious consideration.

Several additional, less successful novels followed. In 1856, Stowe wrote her next novel, Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp, where she states:

There is no study in human nature more interesting than the aspects of the same subject in the points of view than different characters.

The Minister's Wooing, written in 1859, was a novel depicting Newport, Rhode Island, analyzes New England characters in a profound way. The book focuses on its characters, Samuel Hopkins, Congregationalist minister of Newport and Mary Scudder, daughter of Hopkin's widowed landlady. My Wife and I, written in 1871, is the story of a man, Harry Henderson, and his wife. In this novel, Harry's wife is struggling for the opportunity to study medicine. The novel speaks to the views on women's rights and on the education of marriage for Harry.

In 1857, Harriet suffered a horrible personal loss once again in her life. Her son, Harry, a Dartmouth student, died in a drowning accident. Although in much pain, Harriet had a very strong outlook on life; this outlook revealed in her statement with regard to hard time:

When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you, till it seems as though you could not hang on a minute longer, never give up then, for that is just the place and time that the tide will turn. (Creative quotations from Harriet Beecher Stowe, Quote #1)

In 1870, Stowe lost another son, but this time it was to alcoholism. Her son Fred disappeared in San Francisco, California, never to be seen or heard from again. Soon thereafter, Harriet's husband, Calvin, decided to retire. Following Calvin's retirement, the family moved to Hartford and spent their winters in Northern Florida. Calvin's retirement did not, however, in any way signify the retirement of Harriet's writing career.

Throughout the later part of her career, Harriet traveled and met famous people, including President Abraham Lincoln. It is said, but never confirmed, that upon meeting President Lincoln, at the White House, he said to her:

So this is the little lady who made this big war. (Ellis Robert, 3095)

In 1869, Harriet sent a copy of her sixth novel, Oldtown Folks, to a much younger, less famous writer, Elliot George. She did so out of respect for George, as a writer, and to receive perspective from a realist. Harriet continued throughout the rest of her days to correspond with Elliot professionally and personally. In the early 1870's, Harriet became part of a sensational post Civil War scandal. Harriet had written an imprudent and detailed account of the poet, Lord Byron's sins. These sins were revealed to her years earlier by Byron's deceased widow, Lady Byron. This book turned many people against Harriet, although her other books continued to sell successfully throughout the 1870's, regardless.

In 1888, Harriet's mind began to wonder and become weaker, but she continued to write lucid letters to friends and family. In 1889, her son Charles Edward Stowe wrote a biography, The Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe. Contained in the biography are some of Stowe's frequently long and "chatty" letters. Hundred's of Stowe's letters still remain unpublished today, and are scattered among various archives. On July 1, 1896, Harriet Beecher Stowe died in Hartford, Connecticut after fighting off illnesses for two years prior.

My impressions of Harriet Beecher Stowe, both on a personal level as well as professionally, are of great respect, admiration and courage. Contained within the work that I read, Harriet seemed shy and understandably, somewhat depressed as a child with the death of her mother. Nonetheless, even with such a tragic event so young, Harriet seemed to use her writing as perhaps an outlet for her emotions. She was very fortunate to have had the opportunity to attend very well regarded schools such as Litchfield Academy and Hartford Female Seminary, in addition to having influential people like her sister Catherine, which I believe allowed her to truly recognize her ability to express herself through her writing.

As a mother, Harriet seemed to raise her seven children with the same strictness as her mother, father and sister, Catherine, believed in and raised her. Though she seemed stern, she seemed to idealize motherhood while maintaining her religious, righteous beliefs. Given her faith and religious convictions, I got the sense that she managed to be career driven and well balanced when it came to her literary career, while still a nurturing, kind mother.

As a writer, Harriet Beecher Stowe is one of the most well-known abolitionist women of her time. Harriet's bravery and honesty as a woman writer in relation to her beliefs towards the slavery movement, had a strong influence on altering how many others, especially in the North, thought about slavery, and became largely noticeable in her most recognized work, Uncle Tom's Cabin. Although some of work in her later years contained the same moral fiber as Uncle Tom's Cabin, the timing of the novel was key!

As a writer, Harriet's valor and passion concerning the evils of slavery reformed a nation during a very tumultuous period of time and allowed her to be a significantly celebrated author through her novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin.
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Sunday, May 22, 2011

Essay on Fly Fishing

Essay on Fly-Fishing

Fly-fishing is challenging and inspiring. It draws anglers to wild and beautiful rivers in search of trout and salmon that are equally wild and beautiful (Davis 1). To most people the sound of a fish taking string is an annoying noise. To a fly fisherman, it is music. The sport of fly fishing has been around for many years, and is very relaxing.


The fly rod use to be made of bamboo and sometimes it is still used. A rod has to bend and work equally well in any direction up, down, sideways, across the flats, or across the corners. The early fly fishermen thought that only a round rod would bend in these ways. They rounded off the corners of their rods, but this cut away the most valuable part of the bamboo. The idea of building them of several strips of bamboo is quite old. They are now made of graphite or fiberglass.

The fly lines are designated alphabetically the nearer the letter to the beginning of the alphabet, the larger it is. The line alphabet goes on from "A-I". Most fly lines are designed to float.

Leaders are designed to reduce the visible connection between the fly line and fly. While no leader can be completely invisible to the fish, it is far less conspicuous than the end of the fly line. Being somewhat translucent, it is safe to assume that it absorbs and reflects the color of its backgrounds.

Casting with the fly rod is very different from any other. With the rod set up, the reel underneath, grip the cork firmly in your right hand - with your thumb extending along the top. The hand you cast with is called your rod hand. First, get out about two rod lengths of line to provide enough weight to begin. Now, to start a cast, lift the rod back smoothly until it is vertical. The bending of the rod and your wrist speed will send the line flying backwards. This is called the back cast. When the line has straightened out in the rear bring the rod forward just far enough to get maximum line speed again. Both these motions must be blended together smoothly (McClare 28).

The fly patterns were ideally suited to American fishing, and were selected on the basis of their popularity throughout the country (Mclare 213). The Coachman rates first on most lists as an ideal pattern for fishing in broken water, at dusk, or on overcast days when visibility is limited. The Hendrickson has long been an eastern favorite for brown trout and probably is best used on flat or rippling waters. The Cahill is a good choice for early season, when the streams are just getting down to a comfortable fishing level. This is probably the most important dry fly in eastern waters. The Brown and Black Bivisibles can be used on water that would suck conventional flies under. And best of all they minimize drag. The Blue Dan ranks among the top dozen trout patterns. It s one of the oldest popular trout flies in existence. The Quill Gordon is another old favorite. The bluish color Hendrickson is very similar to the Quill Gordon. Yet, the Quill is very fragile. The Donnelly Variant and the Winged Multi-Color have rather longish wings and thus fail to qualify among erudite purists, but both are excellent trout flies. One other fly worthy of special mention is the Durham. The excellent float qualities of this pattern probably account for its popularity with the practical western dry fly angler.

The wild, beautiful, and relaxing traits of fly fishing are what bring people back for more. I personally think that fly-fishing is great, especially if you're up for a challenge, and everyone should try it.

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Essay on FDR

Short Essay on FDR

During this time of economic crisis, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the president who started programs through the New Deal in which was meant for an economic recovery in the United States. FDR's New Deal was a great idea except for the Supreme Court cases that arose due to problems in certain programs started.

The New Deal all started with Franklin D. Roosevelt when he attempted to re-boost the economic crisis in America during The Great Depression. He was born in born in Hyde Park, New York on January 30, 1882 at his family's country estate in the midst of the rolling hills and rural majesty of the Hudson Valley. Franklin was the son of James Roosevelt and his second wife, Sara Delano. He also had a half-brother twenty-six years his senior. Other than that, he had no other siblings. He goes by the nickname of "FDR" which is short for Franklin Delano Roosevelt and is known throughout time as the president for life.


According to "The American President," FDR graduated from Harvard College in 1903 and headed to Columbia Law School from 1904-1907. He has had an abundance of different careers in his life such as a lawyer, an author, a member of the New York State Legislature from 1911-1913, an Assistant Secretary of the Navy from 1913-1920, Vice President of the Fidelity and Deposit Company from 1921-1928, Governor of New York from 1929-1933, and finally President of the United States from 1933-1945. He was a part of the democratic political party throughout his whole life. (Online American President)

While in his serving in his presidency, came the horrifying time known as the Great Depression. According to Jonathon Lee, "Speculation arose in the 1920s and caused many people to by stocks with borrowed money and they used these stocks as security for buying more stocks. This didn't work because the Broker's loans went from under $5 million during the middle of 1928 to $850 million in September of 1929. The stock Market was very unsteady after this happened because it was based on borrowed money and lying people. Then the investors lost their confidence in the market, and created the stock market crash of 1929 taking the investors with it." (Lee)

The Great Depression caused many problems with the economy. As Elizabeth Chisholm from "Microsoft Encarta" states, "It became both quite a physical and psychological impact on the entire nation. Thousands went hungry and Children suffered long term effects from a lack of eating and insufficient medical care." People had to grow food and eat berries and other wild plants in the countryside while selling apples and pencils in the urban areas. Land owners planted "relief gardens" for food and to barter to the poor families. In the meantime, living conditions changed when multiple families were forced to crowd into small housing facilities and apartments. (Chisholm)

The divorce rate which would be likely to increase actually went down because couples could not afford to abode in separate households. Also, others who were planning on getting married postponed their wedding plans due to a lack of economic funding. (Online Lee)

Unemployed men felt like failures when they could not support their families and lost their class when they saw their wives and children working. These wives and kids were working to the point where they were too ashamed to get help from friends or family. Women were blamed for taking the jobs of men and in 1931 when the Federation of Labor endorsed it.

As Jonathan Lee explains, "Women continued to work jobs known as "women's work" such as nursing the children, or housework." Even if the women were able to get an industrial job known as a "man's work," they were usually discriminated against and paid less than men. This seldom ever happened though because of discriminating employers didn't think that women were qualified for the job. (Lee)

President Hoover's philosophy on the depression was that he believed that it was caused by problems with the United States economy and that the problems were beyond any control of the U.S. He thought that the key to economic recovery was confidence in the economy. Factories and businesses tried to maintain confidence, and even as they shut down, Hoover continued to insist that recovery was on its way. He called for a steady payment of higher wages or workers to keep the economy stable and it worked for a while until these industries had to start making pay cuts on the workers salaries.

He had many business leaders promise to keep the worker's wages reasonable and steady and when this didn't work, they all blamed his attitude for the depression. (Gupta)

Feeling the pressure, he finally began to act. The government then created more jobs, built new public buildings, roads, parks, and dams. A Presidents Emergency Committee on Employment had recommended local relief programs. The Hawley-Smoot tariff was passed by Congress in 1930 to protect domestic industries from foreign competitors. The tariffs backfired against America when European nations countered them by raising their tariffs on American goods from Europe. Hoover set up the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) in 1932, which gave the banks government credit so that they could extend the loans to the people. Although the people disagreed with this idea with the thoughts that it gave more wealth to the bankers and not the people themselves.

Hoovers efforts were not effective enough. He wanted the state and local governments to handle the recovery but they did not have enough money in their programs. As Jonathon Lee states, "During this time of crisis, President Roosevelt thought of an idea or a program to give relief, create jobs, and stimulate economic recovery for the U.S. as fast as possible. This program was known as The New Deal." The New Deal was the main name for the idea and it also had many other programs built inside to help certain aspects of the depression. (Lee)

The first program created was the Emergency Banking Act which On March 6, 1993 he shut down all of the banks in the nation which gave the government the opportunity to inspect the health of all banks. This program worked as it reestablished American faith in banks. Americans weren't afraid that they would lose all of their savings due to a bank failure. (Lee)

One of the other programs he made was the Home Owners Loan Corporation and the Agriculture Adjustment Administration. This was to help people keep their houses. The outcome of this was farmers killed off certain animals and crops as they told to by the AAA. Many could not believe that the federal government was condoning such as action when many Americans were starving.

Then he set up the National Labor Relations Act as Robert S. McElvaine states which legalized practices allowed only irregularly in the past, such as closed shops in which only union members can work and collective bargain. Roosevelt then created the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) of June 1933. The NIRA was formed in order to boost the declining prices and help the businesses and workers at the time. The NIRA also allowed trade associations in many industries to write codes controlling wages, working conditions, production, and prices. It also set a minimum wage. (McElvaine)

One of the best parts of the NIRA is the Public Works Association (PWA). The PWA launched projects such as the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River. This was very successful.

"My parents said that they would be back for me. They said they were going to look for work and they would be back soon. I was six weeks old when they left. They never came back. This was due to the Depression." This just goes to show that the economy could fall at any time and there are programs out there that do work to help boost the economic catastrophes back to the ordinary. The New Deal was created to help the depression out and get back to full economic recovery through programs listed above. There are many more programs in the deal but these are the main objectives and the most successful.

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Friday, May 20, 2011

Research Paper on Jean Piaget

Research Paper on Jean Piaget

Every parent and teacher goes through the dilemma of figuring out when to teach their child and at what stage in life do we teach them. Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, stated that children go through a period of stages in which they develop. The four stages of Piaget's theory grouped the development of a child into age groups, in which interaction with people and the natural world is necessary for cognitive development. Briefly, the four stages of Piaget's theory are the sensorimotor stage (birth until 2), the preoperational stage (2 until 6 or 7), the concrete operational stage (6 or 7 until 11 or 12), and the formal operation stage (11 or 12 through adulthood). According to Piaget, children in the pre-operational stage use mental representations, such as mental images, drawings, words, and gestures, rather than just motor actions to think about objects and events. Children in this stage think faster, are more flexible and efficient, and more socially involved. Their thinking is limited due to egocentrism, focus on only perceptual states, reliance on appearance rather than underlying realities, and the inability to comprehend reversibility. In Piaget's opinion, children in the pre-operational were incapable of succeeding at his conservation tasks, because they lacked knowledge to conserve. Conservation means to understand that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes. Piaget's conservation tasks involved tests for conservation of number, solid, and liquid. According to Piaget, children in the concrete stage are able to easily solve the problems faced in the conservation task due to their cognitive development.


In Piaget's conservation task, 5 year olds were asked to follow procedures for the conservation of number, solid quantity, and liquid quantity. The conservation of number involves taking two rows with the same number of things, for example coins, fruits, and buttons that are equally spaced. Initially, the 5 year olds knew that the two rows were had the same number, but if one row was shortened, children failed to notice that the two rows were the same. On the task for conservation of solid quantity, he showed young children two pencils, two pens, or two sticks of the same length laying down next to one another. Piaget, then moved one of the sticks to show the children that by moving one of the sticks, it would make it longer than the other and as he had predicted, the children were unable to realize that the two sticks were of the same length. In the task of conservation of liquid, he described he showed young children the same amount of water in two identical glasses and allowed the children to realize that both of the glasses were of the same size and the water in them were of equal proportion. Piaget then took one of the glasses and poured the water into a longer, thinner glass and concluded that the children were unable to comprehend that the new glass contained the same amount as the original two glasses of water. According to Piaget, children's thinking is perception bound in the pre-operational stage and that they could not focus their attention on two aspects, because their attention was to only one aspect.

In two studies done of Piaget's conservation tasks, it was evident that children during the pre-operational stage are unable to succeed as the tests. Anderson and Cuneo found that twenty children, ages 6 and 7, were put to Piaget's tasks with regard to the concept of area failed. Twenty other children, who were at the age of 8, were able to apply "an additive rule" to solve the problems, while the nonconserving children showed patterns of concentrating on only one of the two dimensions. In another study, Fiati (1992) studied children in the Volta regiorn of West Africa and attempted to find a correlation between children learning in different cultures and conservation. Since children in the Volta region were growing up in isolated, agricultural villages their experiences with time, money, and mathematical computation were different from children living in settings with schools. Under these conditions, Fiati discovered that the children living in the non-school setting lacked comparable abilities to the children that went to school. Fiati concluded that children's central conceptual structures for numbers did not advance past the unidimensional level. He also stated that these unidimensional structures are universal and that children tested on central conceptual structures progressed through the same stages and at the same rate, but on the test of specific understanding, there was "cross-national differences" and from this Fiati concluded that if a culture values a particular task and invests time and effort in to teaching them, it is likely that children will pass the tasks. According to these studies, it is conclusive that children at the stage of pre-operational have problems with Piaget's tasks, but according to Fiati, if these tasks are practiced and effort is put in to learning them, children can pass the tests.

After reviewing Piaget's conservation tasks and the studies done on them, I set up an experiment designed to mimic Piaget's test for conservation of number, solid quantity, and liquid quantity. The idea that children at the age of 5 are not capable of passing the tasks of conservations, while 8 year olds are able to succeed will be tested in the following experiment. The purpose of this experiment is to test Piaget's belief that children at the stage of Pre-operational are not able to succeed at the conservation tasks because it is not in their ability to understand such concepts.

My subject is a four year old girl named Sarah, who according to Piaget would be in the pre-operational stage and would not succeed at the task that will be presented to her and ten year old Kiran, who would succeed. Before presenting Sarah and Kiran with the tasks, I had to prepare the experiment according to the way Piaget had performed it. There were some modifications in the experiment in that I used M&M candies for the conservation of number and also assured the subjects that they would be rewarded for their participation, in order to keep their interest. For each task, the subjects were separated and had no knowledge of what was going to be presented to them before performing the task. In testing the conservation of number, I set two rows M&M candies, approximately eight, on a table and counted out the numbers of M&M candies to Sarah. She realized that each row had eight candies and responded "eight", when I asked her to confirm how many candies were to each row. I, then took the candies in one of the row and placed them further apart from each other and asked Sarah to tell me if both rows of candies were the same. According to Piaget, Sarah would respond that the row with the candies further apart had more and according to her response, that is exactly what she did. I, then had Sarah leave the area of the experiment and had Kiran follow the same procedures as Sarah had done. When asked about the rows after the transformation, Kiran replied that they both were the same, except that one of the rows were spaced further apart. This sort of response is what Piaget had predicted and this is due to the fact that Kiran is in stage, where is capable of handling these tasks, while Sarah is not able to comprehend the transformations.

For the test of liquid quantity, I had two identical glasses and filled them up with water and placed them on the table. I then took another glass, except that it was longer and thinner as compared to the two other glasses. I asked Sarah to look at the two identical glasses and tell me that if both of the them had the same amount of water and she responded "yes". After getting a response from her, I attempted to take the water from one of the glasses and pour it in the longer and thinner glass. After pouring it in the glass, I asked Sarah if both of the glasses had the same amount of water and she concluded that the tall and thinner glass had more water. I then asked Sarah to leave the room where the experiment was being held and had Kiran come in and follow the same procedures. I asked Kiran to tell me if both of the identical glasses had the same amount of water and she determined that both were of the same amount. After performing the transformation, she realized that both of the glasses, while different in size and shape, still had the same amount of water. Up till this part of the experiment, both Sarah's and Kiran's responses were of no surprise and to note, both subjects had full concentration while performing Piaget's tasks. The idea of receiving something in response to the participation might have played a part in their full concentration and honest responses.

In the task of conserving solid quantity, I had two pencils of the same length placed next to one another and had Sarah look at them and asked her if they were the same and she said they were the same. After getting a response, I moved one of the pencils ahead of the other and asked her if they were still the same and she said "no". She failed to realize that both of the pencils were of the same length except that one was just moved ahead of the other. When Kiran was put to the test, she realized that both of the pencils were of the same length in the initial part of the task and after the transformation concluded that they were the same length regardless of the transformation.

As Piaget had predicted, all the results were consistent with his findings and had the support of his stage theories, that Sarah was incapable of performing such tasks, while Kiran was able to due to her placement in the concrete operational. According to Piaget, changes or stages in childhood development are universal and the results stated above prove that, but could it be that it was something about the way the experiment was performed that caused such results to occur. In each task, Sarah was shown the items before and after the transformations and she consistently believed that after the change in formation, the items were not the same. Sarah's placement in the pre-operational stage concludes that she does not have cognitive ability to succeed in the tasks. Neither Sarah or Kiran were not rushed in to any judgment about the tasks and their answers were purely on their cognitive abilities. There was additional information provided about the items involved or the situation of the transformation, all questions and procedures were identical in each subject's case and as a result we concluded that both Sarah and Kiran were able to display Piaget's beliefs. Kiran was very consistent in her answers and had no difficulty understanding the directions and procedures whatsoever. Neither of the subjects looked for cues from the experimenter and no cues were provided to the subjects. The results show that Kiran and Sarah are in different stages of development and this is the cause of the difference in responses.

In conclusion, it is evident that Piaget's tasks of conservation were designed to produce success in children beyond the pre-operational stage. Both participants in the study, displayed exactly what Piaget had predicted and led the results to show that Piaget's theory could be correct in terms of universal development. But, this would be true if children were placed in a controlled environment their whole life and their interactions with others were controlled also. If the procedures modified in such that the children were able to perform the task with the experimenter, the results might have been different. Sarah might have been more involved in putting the M&M candies on the table and counting them with the experimenter out loud. This act of involvement would allow Sarah to successfully accomplish his conservation tasks. Sarah's attention, understanding of the concepts of numbers and the hands on experience on the tasks would make her realize that the transformations did not change the amount of candy, water, or the length of the pencil. Based on these changes, Sarah would be in the preoperational stage and be able to conserve the number and do conserve liquid very early in life contrary to Piaget's theory of stages and his tasks.

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Thursday, May 19, 2011

Essay on Kids

Essay about Kids

"Latchkey Kid" is a term that came into existence during World War II. It was used to describe the large number of youth who were left without direct adult supervision. During this period of time, most Americans were involved in the war effort. Many fathers were in military service and many mothers went to work outside of the home to support their families and help our country win the war. As a result, there were fewer adults available to watch younger children. Is this still a problem in society today?

For twenty years following the end of the war, America experienced a period of great economic growth. Jobs were abundant and wages were good. Fathers could financially support their families and mothers usually stayed at home with their children. The phrase "latchkey kid" was seldom used during this period. But for the past twenty years, however, the phrase has been born again. The number of children left without supervision is now increasing with every year. Family instability, single parent homes, and two working parent households are on the rise. More children have less supervision today than ever before.

The growing number of latchkey kids and the rising number of problems children must face has created great concern among parents and other professionals. They have begun to seek answers to a number of important questions. What are the effects of leaving young children to care for themselves before they are emotionally ready? How can we ensure the safety of children who care for themselves? Only recently have these questions began to seek national attention.


According to the U.S. Department of Labor ( Essence magazine ), 30% of mothers with children under age 13 allowed their children to stay home alone after school. However, only 1% of these mothers reported that they would leave their children in self-care if they had a choice. There are many reasons why this happens. The most common reason is employment. Single parents may have to work outside of the family for financial support. Two - parent families may need the extra income. In some cases, children are left unsupervised because their parents are pursuing other interests or goals, such as furthering their education. In other cases, children may find themselves alone because their parents are unable or unwilling to provide adequate care. Children in the last category are often referred to as abused or neglected youth.

Latchkey kids must usually accept more responsibility for taking care of themselves. They nay also need to perform many household chores. Older children may be responsible for the care and supervision of younger siblings, acting as junior parents. When parents are not available for extended periods of time, even very young children may be forced to make adult decisions in an effort to solve daily problems. It is important for parents to remember that the roles of their children should fit their stage of development.

Working parents must often rely on their children to help with household chores. Many children want to feel like they are contributing to the family unit and will accept household responsibilities. Children who are expected to handle responsibilities beyond there maturity level have a risk of developing emotional problems. Some children need structure and time consuming activities to reduce boredom. Other kids may feel burdened by excessive responsibilities. Most experts suggest that parents and children work together to decide how and when certain tasks should be performed.

Older latchkey kids can be very helpful to the family in the care and supervision of younger siblings. The ability to adequately handle this responsibility, however, depends on the level of maturity and other personality factors of the older child. Some studies have shown that younger children are sometimes abused by their older siblings. Parents should not automatically make older siblings responsible for the care of younger siblings. The personalities and relationships of the children involved need to be considered. When parents use their authority, they need to do so carefully and with clear directions concerning each child's roles and responsibilities.

Studies show that many latchkey kids experience significant feelings of fear, isolation, and boredom. Approximately 40% of children in self-care admit to worrying about staying at home without adult supervision. Their main worry is of burglary. Nearly 30% of girls and 20% of boys report being afraid to play outside. About 20% of the calls to supportive telephone services for children in self-care are from youth experiencing feelings of loneliness. An additional 15% of these callers are sad, worried, scared, or crying.

Accidents in unsupervised and under-supervised homes are a major cause of injury and death for young children. About six thousand children die each year as a result of accidents and fires in the home. 20% of all calls to fire departments result from fires started by children. Many calls to police departments are from children who need to be reassured about their safety. The majority of these children are unsupervised. Parents of latchkey kids need to insure that the home environment is as safe as possible for their children by taking the necessary precautions. Keep the home in good physical repair. Teach children to put toys away after using them. Do not allow children to use dangerous appliances without adult supervision. Lock up tool, weapons, dangerous chemicals, and medications. Emergency telephone numbers should be kept by the phone and children should be taught how to call for help.

Experts say that parents should identify potential emergencies before giving their children self-care responsibilities. Parents should then discuss the best way to handle these situations so that children clearly understand what they should do. Parents may decide to have drills to make sure that each member of the family knows what to do in an emergency situation. Latchkey children who realize they have back-up support tend to feel more confident about handling emergencies.

Studies suggest that latchkey kids are at higher risk to develop social and emotional problems than are children with ongoing adult supervision. Children in self-care often tend to have higher rates of discipline problems and illegal school absenteeism. Furthermore, latchkey kids tend to score lower than supervised children on tests designed to measure social adjustment and academic achievement. Communication is the key to helping latchkey kids feel emotionally secure. Latchkey kids often need added reassurance that they are loved and that their ability to handle self-care responsibilities is valued. Families that practice close communication when they are together, as well as when they are apart, provide a strong sense of emotional security for their children. Parents who must spend extended time away from their children may find it helpful to write notes or telephone their children regularly to let them know that a loving parent is only a telephone call away.

Peer pressure usually has its strongest influence on children from the fifth through the ninth grades. Studies suggest that kids who report home after school and follow an established routine on their on are no more susceptible to peer pressure than supervised children. Kids who are at home are less susceptible than those who go to a friend's house. Those who visit a friend's house before of after school are less susceptible than those who hang out. Also, latchkey kids whose parents know their whereabouts are less likely to be influenced by peer pressure.

School administrators and teachers generally encourage parents to take an active interest in their child's education. Parents should regularly meet with teachers and other school staff to learn about their child's behavior and educational progress. Parents can improve the educational process by setting study hours and checking homework. Those who take an active interest in their child's education greatly reduce the potential for school related problems.

As children mature and learn to make their own decisions, they grow less dependent upon parents and peers. How children express their emotions provides an indication of their ability to be self-reliant. Children who express their emotions in immature ways are generally less self-reliant and less capable of self-care and sibling-care responsibilities that are children who express there emotions in mature ways. The behaviors of children also provide an indication of their ability to be self-reliant. Children who have mastered certain behaviors and tasks are generally more self-reliant and can handle bigger responsibilities.

All youth under the age of sixteen who are regularly left at home for extended periods of time may be considered "latchkey kids." Children between the ages of 6 and 14 are the major focus of concern. The extended periods of time without adult supervision usually occur during non-school hours, such as before the school day has begun and after it has ended. Also included are those days when school is not in session, such as holidays and summer vacations.

It is estimated that as many as ten million American children regularly care for themselves before or after school. Many latchkey kids begin their self-care responsibilities at about eight years of age. Many places have solutions to this problem. Most communities offer summer programs to help children and their parents by offering supervised recreational activities. Many latchkey kids go to camp or visit relatives during the summer. However, not all families can afford to pay for such alternatives. Parents anticipating the need for childcare during the summer may want to contact their school, church, Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., or local children's services agency for information about summer latchkey programs.

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Research Paper on Gender Discrimination

Research Paper on Gender Discrimination

In this country, one of the most common types of discrimination is based on gender. Throughout history there has never been a time or place where women enjoyed complete equality with men. As Belle S. Spafford confirms, "Since ancient times women have been considered men's inferiors-physically, morally, and intellectually" (8). Has a woman ever been able to share the same rights or even earn the same wages as men without working twice as hard? Although the current situations concerning this controversy have improved from ancient times, it is still devastatingly imbalanced.

Many often associate the words gender and sex as the same category. In fact, it is much different and it has everything to do with the way society classifies a woman in terms of social order. According to the Random House Webster's College Dictionary, sex is defined as, "the female or male division of a species as differentiated with reference to the reproductive functions," gender is defined as, "the societal or behavioral aspects of sexual identity" (539). Sex and gender may not be the same category, but to some, they are believed to be related in a cause and effect manner in terms of society. As Myra Jehlen points out, "taking masculinity as a given expressed a traditional conviction that the differences between men and women arise from natural causes to organize a cultural order" (264).


The aspect of society in which gender discrimination is most apparent would be in the labor force. Even in the early ages, young girls were sent out to work as domestics while the boys were sent out to be apprentices to learn a trade. Women generally wouldn't work outside the home unless it was ultimately necessary, for example, if her husband got laid off or died. Although some levels of integration have been implemented, "most women and men continue to work in sex-typical jobs with coworkers of the same sex" (Roos, 1).

While women have been characterized by society as the weaker ones who should just stay home as the homemaker, it is an undeniable fact that, "Throughout history, women have been laborers" (Spafford, 48). Even in ancient civilizations, women have worked as laundresses, seamstresses, hairdressers, and midwives. In rural cities, the women were, "involved in all aspects of farming, from raising crops and livestock to spinning yarn and preserving food" (Spafford, 48).

Luis Rodriguez's mother is a great example of a working woman. She worked hard for the family while she knew her husband's dreams were going to fall apart. Rodriguez remembers, "Heavy blue veins streak across [her] legs, some of them bunched up into dark lumps at her ankles. [She] periodically bleeds them to relieve the pain" (23). Women are expected to keep the home together, but in literature, they're often portrayed as the ones that are keeping the family together behind the scenes, spiritually and financially.

It seems that corporate America does discriminate against women, unknowingly. Men have created "glass ceilings" (Knights, 45) for women in the workplace. "A glass ceiling is an artificial barrier that allows women to see the top of the corporate ladder but at the same time denies them access to the higher rungs of that ladder" (Knights, 44). Women keep their eyes on the glass ceiling constantly trying to reach it, but it always seems so close yet it's so far.

The most problematic aspect of working women remains to be the wages that they earn, or rather unable to earn. There are many factors that determine the amount that a woman is able to earn. Some of these factors include their marital status, childbearing status, and educational status.

The probability of a man holding a continuous job is much greater than a woman's because a woman's chances are very much dependant upon the route that her family life takes. Comparisons are often made in studies between ever-married women and never-married women because their obligations to their household lives are different. A never-married woman would have a broad variety of job options to choose from because of their lack of household responsibilities. An ever-married woman, however, may have various other responsibilities such as a husband and children to tend to, which may limit their occupational opportunities. As Patricia A. Roos has noted, "If human-capital theory is correct, never-married women should be more like men in their occupational attainment than ever-married women, that is they should have an occupational advantage over women who do have marriage and childcare obligations" (98). The size of a woman's family may not be a direct variable in her continuous work in a certain field. However, the amount of time that she chooses to spend on her responsibilities as a housewife may lead to shorter work hours and eventually becomes a major reason for her job discontinuity.

Education is also a primary factor in determining the position and wages that a person can receive in any occupation, regardless of gender. It was previously assumed that distributions of occupational positions were direct effects of levels of education acquired, but studies prove that that assumption is generally false. At the same time, the study also shows that "men and women receive similar prestige returns to their educational investments" (Roos, 99). This statement holds true in many situations because many women usually go to school until they come to a point where they pursue a family life more than an educational career. The men in the family usually go further in school while the women are taking care of the family. Hence, the men would receive the amount of prestige according to his level of education, while the woman receives her share of prestige according to her lower level of education.

More women today have higher education with higher grade point averages than men do. "In 1999, women earned 57% of all bachelors degrees. The sad part is that more women today choose to receive degrees in law or medical careers than in corporate business careers. This is due to the lack of female role models in Corporate America. As of March 1999, women only represented 11.9 percent of corporate officers in America's 500 largest corporations" (Thomason, 44).

According to the Glass Ceiling Commission in a report published in 1995, "women are frequently routed into career paths like customer relations and human resources because these jobs usually do not lead to a top corporate job. With the glass ceiling in place, women's hard work and degrees do not pay off. Even with equal education, executive women earn $187,000 average where men, in the same job, earn $289,000 annually (Knights, 50).

Even with the amendments, which were supposed to provide women the same wages as men, they are still being worked twice as hard to earn those wages. As Spafford confirms, "Despite the fact that many countries, particularly in developed regions, have enacted antidiscrimination legislation aimed specifically at protecting working women, these laws are often poorly enforced or too weak to be effective, and blatant discrimination remains rampant."

A woman's marital status not only plays a part in her distribution of wages, it also plays a great role in her distribution of authoritative positions in the workplace. A never-married woman is most likely employed in a "professional or technical employment" (Roos, 123) due to her abilities to maintain and be committed to a continuous profession. A married women and those who are mothers are more likely to be involved in jobs such as "clerical, retail sales, and service employment" (Roos, 123) because they may be "...easier to reenter and/or perhaps more compatible with home and childcare responsibilities" (Roos, 123).

Unlike women, men don't really have to worry about their value of labor depreciating. As the women get married and begins to bear children, she might have to leave the work force for a while before getting back on track to her career. During this time away from her occupation, the value of her labor decreases, or also known as the "depreciation of earning power" (Humphries, 335). According to studies done in Gender and Economics, "During the home-time interval associated with marriage or the birth of the first child, this net depreciation amounts to, on average, 1.5 percent per year" (335). This rate of depreciation depends upon many factors such as level of education, amount of time involved with the market, and also whether or not she has children.

Since the beginning of time, society has placed women on a lower rung on the ladder than men. Over the years, women have fought hard for their equality. Although changes have been made to try to alter the situation, it hasn't helped much. Women have overcome a great deal to be where they are now, and with much more effort up ahead, these issues will improve even more in the future.

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Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Essay on KFC

Essay on KFC

How well did KFC fare under its various owners--Heublein, Reynolds and PepsiCo? What value did they add to the KFC enterprises? Did they have anything to offer KFC that would help KFC improve its financial performance or competitive strength?

Under Heublein quality-control issues and restaurant cleanliness was a problem. Heubein came from a liqueur industry and he did not have experience in the restaurant business. Heublein assigned a new management team to redirect KFC's strategy. In 1977 a "back-to-back" program was established to remodeling existing restaurant putting special emphasis on cleanliness and service. Marginal products were eliminated and product consistency was reestablished. Once the operating problem was under control, then they started building new restaurants.


Heublein was under the impression that his management skills were enough to conduct KFC and that KFC did not required much management intervention. His lack of experience in the restaurant business brought about other operations related problems.

Reynold had little more experience in restaurant than Heublein when it acquired KFC. As opposed to Heublein, RJR differed in management style for KFC, whereby, RJF allowed KFC's managers to operate autonomous with little interference. RJF avoided many operation problems that plagued Heublein during its ownership of KFC. RJR did not enhance the business operation of the fast food service, they only damage KFC's image, relating it to a tobacco business.

PepsiCo. predominant in consumer product orientation, provided KFC the experience required to operate the restaurant business. The marketing strategy of fast food followed by many of the PepsiCo's patterns, as the marketing of soft drink and snack food would be eventually, the perfect combination. Restaurant chains also provided an additional outlet of numerous synergies by operating the three business under the same corporate umbrella. This strategies improved the financial performance and competitive strength of KFC.

What are the chief economy and business characteristics of the global fast-food industry?

The global fast food industry is made up of eight major sectors composed by sandwich chains, pizza chains family restaurant, grill buffet chains, dinner housed, chicken chains. Mc Donald, the sandwich chain and the largest in the industry, accounts for the 35 percent of the sandwich segment. Burger king with 16 percent of the market, runs in the second place of the sandwich fast food industry. Mc Donald generated the greatest per store share. Dinner house such as Applebee's and Red Lobster made up the second largest and fastest-growing fast food segment. Much of the growth in dinner houses came from new unit construction , a market contrast with other fast-food chains. Its characteristics are well known brand names, franchising, local management of it branch.

What forces are driving change in the industry?

Fast food restaurant have been forced to change due to the growing income of consumers which provide them with better and affordable alternative such as a full services restaurant. Full Service restaurant differ tremendously with the fast food restaurant in atmosphere, ambience and food quality. Demand for more healthier food among consumer is an other driving force that prompt fast food chains to change.

Declining margins in the fast-food chains reflected the increasing maturity in the US fast-food industry. As an alternative to domestic expansion, many restaurant began to expand into international markets to benefits from international market.

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Research Paper on Inclusion

Research Paper on Inclusion in Education

It is very important for classroom teachers to understand the specific needs for students with physical and/or health impairments. Teachers also must be educated to accommodate and adapt to the students specific learning needs.

There are ranges of different physical and health impairments that can be in a regular classroom. Some may include neuromotor impairments such as traumatic brain injury, seizure disorders, and cerebral palsy. Other conditions that are found for health impairments can include the following: congenital heart failure, hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, and diabetes.


Some classroom teachers are lucky to have intensive training programs or in-services to help them become more knowledgeable. While other classroom teachers may have one class that may have or may not have dealt with the specific impairment that will be in their classroom. This article helps teachers to plan and manage their classroom accordingly to the student with special needs. The main ideas for the article are health-related issues/medical concerns, arrangement of the physical environment, assistive equipment, instructional adaptation, and social skills and management.

There are eight concerns that every teacher should know for health-related and medical issues. Teachers should know the warning signals of that student. A student with diabetes could show signs of low blood sugar by fatigue. Universal precautions are very important to students with special needs. This means that how susceptible are these students to other airborne diseases. The example given in the article tells us to wear rubber gloves when handling bodily fluids. Teachers should know what the legal issues are. Who is legally responsible if something should happen to the student? One great concern would be the emergency care plans. What equipment might the teacher need if something should happen? The teacher would have to adapt to routine treatments if that student needed insulin shots or any other medical treatment. Along with those treatments the teacher must have information on the original medical orders for the student. This is in case of side effects and must include the administering directions. This concern is also quite important for the students nutritional needs. A special diet may be closely monitored. The last concern deals with the students level of self-help. This information will be included in the IEP.

The second part of this article deals with the physical environment. This will include the building accessibility in coordination with the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) and the Vocational Rehabilitation Act (1973). The classroom should be design to accommodate the students with special needs so they can have access to every part of the room. With that in mind more lighting may be needed, more monitor gauges on equipment, more electrical outlets, and even maybe temperature to help the students adapt better to their environment. Assistive equipment may also be needed in the classroom. This could range from mobility, communication, or daily living.

A major part of dealing with inclusion is the instructional adaptation. Some concerns of the teacher may be scheduling, seating arrangements, specialized materials, response mode, assignment completion, test modifications, and home learning. Teachers having to worry about instructional concerns they also have great concern for social skills and classroom management. Students with and without physical and health impairments will be in together in one room. The teacher must deal with peer interactions, extracurricular activities, a discipline plan, and counseling.

I thought this was an excellent article. There was so many issues that I never thought I would have to consider. All of the suggestions and concerns will be taken with me into my classroom. My school district that I work for has many of these students with special needs in regular classroom. I have not yet had any student with special needs in my classroom but I greatly appreciate the information in this article.

Warning!!! All free online research papers, research paper samples and example research papers on Inclusion topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education.

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Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Essay on Bad Friends

Essay about Bad Friends

Adolescent involvement with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing and sexual presentation is beginning at a younger age. Adolescence is a time when we are more vulnerable because social influence is important to all of us; we want to detach from our parents and establish an identity of our own. Since much time is spent with friends and or peer groups an important question has risen: Do friends or peer groups influence not only positive behaviors but also exactly how much influence do these existing ties make or break adolescent risk behaviors such as the ones mentioned.


Using data collected from a peer network data set known as the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health or Add Health how it is frequently referred to. 1,969 seventh through twelfth grade students were interviewed in their own homes. The questions asked were about their experience with and attitudes toward adolescent risk behaviors. Each student was to select 10 friends, 5 boys and 5 girls. Researchers used a unidimensional scale to pair and compare behaviors. Several options were examined to measure influence by friends. Not all 10 friends were used for each student instead 1 friend was randomly selected for each to obtain the influence effect. Data was analyzed using the T1 and T2 test of significance.

Risk behaviors existed and differed by activity. High percentages existed when the information was weighed only using the student. When the existing information was compared with that of the friend again it only showed association with demographics, age and gender. The researcher clearly saw that same sex friends do influence the risk behavior in teens. Per studies the level of influence depends on the risk behavior for some behavior it was not as high and for others not as low. The percentage findings prove that the friends using will introduce or reinforce the risk behavior but also for the non using friends it will refrain and deter from further use.

I think the overall intent of this study was to prove linkage between the early adolescent period and the role "friends" play in risk behaviors. There's an old saying in Spanish "dime con quien andas y te dire quien eres" which basically translates to "Tell me who you're with and Ill tell you who you are." This saying is backed up by these findings. Friends are a critical factor in any adolescent behavior. While growing up I would frequently get in trouble and would be demanded to stop "hanging around" the bad crowd because of the bad influence and I always responded "I did it cause I wanted t not because they told me too." With this research conducted by Kimberly A. Maxwell, PhD and other readings I can see the correlation between friends and the risk behaviors mentioned. We are the behavior of our friends.

What the researcher fails to mention is the role of parents and the relationship skills acquired from the family after all parents may help their children form solid, high quality friendships that will see them through the tough times of adolescence. The environment plays a huge role as well in these actions being taken. If satisfactory relationships with parents are established the risk behavior activity level is less likely to take place. No correlation was proven to show adolescents expectations from their parents and actual behavior. There are many factors that enter into a young adolescent's decision to be involved in risk-taking behavior. It is clear from this study and others. During this period of cognitive development, clearly expressed and clearly understood parental guidance has a powerful effect on the behavior of the student. Knowing the facts surrounding risk behaviors does not translate into avoidance of the behavior. Education provided through programs play a small role in these behaviors. Parents who do not want their children to participate in risk taking behavior must take an active role in making that message clear.

This study proves the negative will influence the negative and positive-to-positive. Friends are our networks during adolescence and we seek them for referencing but ultimately in come from home if good values are instilled at an early age than the risk behaviors are less likely to occur. It all stems from home.

Warning!!! All free online essays, sample essays and essay examples on Bad Friends topics are plagiarized and cannot be completely used in your school, college or university education.

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