Sunday, July 29, 2012

Organizational Structure Essay Example

Organizational Structure Essay

The existing organization structure of Scholle Packaging
Scholle Packaging is one of the leaders of the world packaging industry. Basically, the company focuses on packaging. Its packaging services vary from liquid packaging to metallized coating for plastic and paper, as well as other kinds of packaging. In such a way, the company provides a large range of services concerning packaging. Nowadays, Scholle Packaging targets at the expansion in international markets and has already started to operate in many countries of the world. In fact, today, Scholle Packaging is an international and well-recognizable brand.

Naturally, the organization structure of the company contributes considerably to the positive performance of Scholle Packaging in the international arena. In this respect, it should be said that the organization structure of the company includes the major business unit that provide the effective and coordinate work of the entire company. To put it more precisely, Scholle Corporation includes several units working for the same purpose. One of the major units is Scholle Packaging which mainly deals with packaging. Basically, it operates in food, beverage and industrial markets. Another unit is JW Automarine, which, unlike the previous one, design and produce packaging using fabric and films.

Furthermore, there is Flextainer, which focuses on flexible systems and accessories for Scholle worldwide. Also, it is worthy of mention another important unit, Scholle Chemical, which produces ink, lacquer basis, many protective and specialty coating for medical, printing and other applications. This unit is basically oriented on the Atlanta-area market. Finally, there is Vacumet, which is specialized on the converting of vacuum metallized plastics, holographic and metallized papers.

All units coordinate their work that contributes to the excellent performance of the entire multinational company.

The implementation of the proposal to include Pinter Inks Strategic Business Unit in the company’s current Strategic Business Unit
Basically, the implementation of the proposal to include Printer Inks Strategic Business Unit in the company’s current Strategic Business Unit may be quite perspective since it will increase the effectiveness of work of the company at large due to the increased role of this unit. To put it more precisely, the inclusion of Printer Inks SBU into the current SBU of Scholle Packaging will provide larger opportunities to create new and more attracting packaging for customers. In fact, this step will be a logical response of the company to the growing demand from the part of the customers in packaging industry, especially in liquid packaging. The company is constantly enlarging its customer base and this is why the inclusion of the new unit will naturally help the company to satisfy increasing needs of customers, especially in such specific areas as liquid packaging.

Obviously, Printer Inks SBU will be able to focus on the major area of the printer inks business, including printer inks, inkjet cartridges, and laser toner. Also, the new SBU will definitely enable the company to more fully use its resources in this area. Naturally, the inclusion of the new SBU may be accompanied with the necessity to introduce certain changes such as the coordination of the work of other related units with Printer Inks SBU, but such problems can be easily overcome while the effectiveness can increase considerably.

This, in conclusion it is possible to say that the decision to make Printer Inks SBU the company’s current Strategic Business Unit is very important and can enhance the performance of the company.
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Saturday, July 28, 2012

Chronicle of a Death Foretold Research Paper

"Chronicle of a Death Foretold" Term Paper

Gabriel Garcia Marquez is by right considered the best Latin writer of twentieth century. Being a Nobel Prize winner at 1982, Marquez proves this high status by creating more and more genuine works. Writer and journalist, he is one of the founders of “magical realism”. Indeed, all works of Gabriel Garcia Marquez express an unusual mixture of real feelings, such as love, hatred, revenge, passion, loneliness, combined with supernatural and magical. One of the novels, “Chronicle of a Death Foretold”, is a demonstrative interpretation of human emotions. Let us look treatment of revenge at this work.


“Chronicle of a Death Foretold” tells the story in a form of journalistic investigation of a murder out of revenge. After the wedding night the bride Angela Vicario is found to not be a virgin. She names to her mother Santiago Nasar as her violator. Hence, two of Vicario brothers, Pablo and Pedro, decide to kill the evildoer. The whole town soon learns about this plan, however nobody attempts to either stop Vicario family or warn Nasar. It turns out that every person in town has a reason for not doing so. Therefore, the murder is finally committed – Vicario brothers kill Santiago.

Revenge is a central feeling that develops the plot of this novel. The members of Vicario family feel righteous anger to the Angela’s violator, and it is not difficult to understand them. The dignity of daughter, and the family in general, was affronted, and their revenge looks rather fair and natural - Vicario desire to avenge insult on the villain. From this standpoint the motive of revenge is understandable and fair (apart from its method – the planned murder).

On the other hand, the just incentive of Pablo and Pedro Vicario may be looked upon from another perspective. The author poses a question – whether it is really Santiago Nasar who took Angela’s virginity? There are multiple hints in the text implying that the situation is not that simple. Probably Angela named Santiago Nasar in order to hide the name of real initiator, whom she loved and tried to defend? In this case the honor defense transforms into blind anger, making the whole idea of revenge rather doubtful. Why did not Vicario family try to find the proofs, investigate, talk to Nasar normally? Such behavior shows another side of the medal – the real goal of their revenge was to punish someone only in order to commit punishment itself, rather than to find a real violator for solving the existing problem. Therefore, the righteous impulse of Vicario brothers turns to demonstration of power to their town, in order to show local inhabitants their strength and prove their so-called “family honor”.

Gabriel Garcia Marquez masterfully described different views on revenge in his novel “Chronicle of a Death Foretold”, again proving that human passions and emotions present a good material for investigation. That is why his books remain irreplaceable for millions of readers all over the world.

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Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Visual Art Essay Sample

Visual Art Essay Example

The vigorous blossoming forth of art and science with its genius poets, artists, philosophers, scientists, explorers and sailors was caused by many factors. The XV-XVI centuries were characterized with considerable changes in economical, political and cultural life. Rapid growth of cities, development of manufacture and world trade improved the situation in medieval Europe. This transitional period was characterized with changes in all spheres of life and deep crisis of medieval outlook. However new capitalistic system still wasn’t developed to its full extent. These factors influenced the formation of new esthetic thinking. All changes in social life were accompanied by a wide renovation of culture, natural and exact sciences, national literature and art in particular. This renovation was originated in Italy and later came to other European countries. Printing made it possible to distribute literary and scientific works. Later close connections between countries contributed into new artistic trends. The very term “Renaissance” explains the origin of this epoch. Medieval times were considered to be a period of ignorance in the cultural development. At first the term “Renaissance” meant the appearance of new art at the beginning of XVI century. Later this concept gained a wider meaning of the whole period of non-feudal culture. Many people consider Renaissance to be the most progressive turn ever known by humanity.

Humanism is one of the most important peculiarities of this epoch. According to this outlook humans are the highest value. Humanists proclaimed free and many-sided development of a personality. They believed that people can change their destinies and should be responsible for it. Different kinds of art emphasized the power of inner world. Human feelings, sorrows and joy, hopes and love, beauty and freedom took the major place in people’s ideology.

Great human values gained a considerable meaning and influenced all spheres of science and culture. The amazing variety of talented people brightly illustrates the idea of the harmonic personal development. Being an artist, an architect, a scientist and an engineer at the same time, Leonardo da Vinci, for example, managed to accomplish success in all these spheres. In such a way titans of the Renaissance greatly contributed into the world art and science with their numerous discoveries. Thus, apart from creating masterpieces of art, Leonardo da Vinci invented a range of mechanisms and was first to present the idea of parachute. One may give a great number of similar examples.

During this period there wasn’t such a strict border between science and art, life and culture. Authority of art didn’t interfere with the development of science and crafts. Nowadays people choose to be either serious scientists, or men of art. In the epoch of Renaissance, however, it was possible to combine these occupations. At those times people understood that different forms of human activity are equal in values and rights. Unlike modern art, Renaissance art was democratic and realistic, with people and nature in the centre of it. Although modern art was greatly influenced by the Renaissance, there are many differences, probably because nowadays there are two many trends in art and it’s hard to characterize it on the whole. I consider that both modern and ancient artists vividly depict main contemporary tendencies. They search for more effective ways to show various forms of real world. Renaissance art considered beauty, harmony and grace to be the characteristics of reality. Later many norms and understandings have changed. People turned to other sides of human existence, which brought a gap between art and science, beauty and profit, spiritual and physical life.

On the whole the epoch of Renaissance left a prominent positive trace the history of world culture. Renaissance art personified the ideal of harmony and freedom. Art became the major kind of spiritual activity. The main task of Renaissance art was to express the ideal of harmonic world and human place in it. Science and Art were closely related. It differentiates Renaissance outlook from modern one. Artists strived to depict natural forms on the basis of scientific knowledge. Characteristic features of Renaissance – universality, many-sidedness, creative talent – helped to develop new artistic styles, which defined the blossoming forth of modern culture.
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Monday, July 23, 2012

Research Paper on Pakistan

Research Essay on Pakistan History

Pakistan, which used to be a part of Indian colony under the British domination, got its independence in 1947, when India became independent from the Great Britain. Indian military did not interfere with the changes, which occurred in the political sphere of the country. When London changed its course and India became independent, the Indian army did not show any signs of discontent and obedience shifted to server new authorities. Relations between military and newly-formed nationalistic government of India were tensed in the beginning. Jawalharlal Nehru, the first prime-minister of independent India limited power of armed forces because he wanted to avoid an extreme militarization of the country. He turned to such a measure in order to escape a threat to newly created democratic state from the side of the military. 

The situation was different in Pakistan. The army of Pakistan became an active participant in the process of formation of new Pakistan state. In contrast to Indian counterpart, Pakistani soldiers did not became separated from the population of the country. “Because India is more populous and more powerful in military terms, the Pakistan Army easily assumed, a crucial role in defining and defending the nation and the state”.


Punjab, a centre of army recruitment, became the heart of Pakistan and army was called to defend national interests created from the side of so called “Hindu India”.

The Pakistani Army had very strong political positions and it was not regarded as something, which contradicts state power. Despite it had good political positions, the Pakistani army had not very good technical basis. “Muslims had been significantly underrepresented in the Indian officer corps, and when partition occurred, there was a severe shortage of personnel. To lead the planned army of 150,000 men, 4,000 officers were needed, but there were only 2,500, and many of those, especially in the technical services, were underqualified.” By the moment the great changes took place, the Palistani army had only one major general, two brigadiers and six colonels. The situation was also bad with middle officer ranks. Two main commanders of the Pakistani army were the British. This situation had not change until 1951, when first Pakistani chief commander, General Mohammad Ayub Khan, became the commander of the Pakistani army. In addition to the problems mentioned the Pakistani navy and air forces also had great problems. The Pakistani navy of those times had only nine regular officer and air forces, which consisted of sixty five pilots. Both, navy and air forces had been under the command of the British officers. This situation lasted till 1953 in the navy and till 1957 in the air forces. During the transitional period the British army sent 500 British officers to Pakistan in order to help the country to create and develop its own qualified army. Military trainings had become the task of primary importance for Pakistan because it needed qualified officers. Lack of the equipment and low quality of the existing one created additional problems. Most of the military production factories and plants were situated on the territory, which now belonged to India. Despite military materials should have been divided between India and Pakistan, India showed little initiative in keeping promises. Pakistan received only several ships and ten squadrons of Royal Indian Air Force. As states Fazl Muqeem Khan, a Pakistani historian: “It is no exaggeration to say that for its first few months the infant state of Pakistan was without an organized army.” Muslim units, situated on the territory, which became the part of India, had to look for the ways to get to Pakistan.

The conflict between India and Pakistan because of state of Jammu and Kashmir became the first challenge for the Pakistani army. The maharaja of Kashmir and Jammu had a precarious position on his territory so he had to do something to take the situation under his control. He singed an economic agreement with India and Pakistan, hoping to receive goods and people from both these dominions. The conflict in Kashmir broke out when Hindu ruler of Kashmir did not announce the allegiance of his state to one or another nation. At this time the North-West Frontier Province entered the territory of Kashmir and maharaja asked India for help. In response Muslims from Pakistan invaded the state in October, 1947. Many volunteers from the Pakistani army joined them. Muslims, who composed an extensive part of Kashmiri population, also joined them and all together they created such an immense force, which created a threat to Kashmir army forces. The price for the help of India was very high.

Kashmir had to accede to India but the ruler of Kashmir had no other way out and agreed on such conditions. The Pakistani government did not want to recognize this fact and decided to fight for this territory. It launched military and diplomatic actions in order to resolve this conflict. The Indian army entered Kashmir on October 27. The army quickly defeated Pakistani irregulars and moved further to take control over the entire state. “Pakistan committed regular military formations to combat in May 1948 to ensure its borders and stabilize the situation. Fighting continued until January 1, 1949, when a United Nations-sponsored cease-fire took effect. The cease-fire did not, however, settle the underlying conflict.” Both, the Indian and Pakistani armies remained on the same positions, as in the beginning of the conflict. During 1947-1948 of the last century the Pakistani army performed the series of successful manoeuvres.

After Pakistan got its independence in 1947 it had to deal with a number of complicated issues. Some problems were resolved shortly after the proclaiming of independence and others have had long-time effect. Islam created many problems for the young sate. Conflicts between Muslims and Islamists have sharpened all the history of the state. The question of division of power between central and local government has also became the reason of big conflicts. This conflict has even led to separation of East Bengal, which became a separate state called Bangladesh in 1971. The conflict of separation of power between local and central authorities was not resolved until the middle of the 1990s.

After the proclaiming of independence Pakistan was divided into two parts. These two parts were divided by the Indian territory. “The 1940 Lahore Resolution had called for independent “states” in the northwest and the northeast. This objective was changed, by a 1946 meeting of Muslim League legislators to a call for a single state” After the proclaiming of independence Pakistan was on the very low level of technical development. Newly created country lacked equipment, machinery and qualified personnel. The choice of capital has also become a subject of controversy. Lahore, the first choice was rejected because it was situated to close to the Indian border. Finally Karachi was chosen for capital despite it did not meet all the necessary requirements.

Separation from India brought bit damage to the Pakistani economy. Electricity was also delivered to Pakistan from India.

Violence and refugee problems also created serious threat to Pakistan state. After separation from India Muslims from India moved to Pakistan and Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan moved to India. Communal rioting and mass movements, which followed the announcement about independence, took lives of 250.000 people. The boundaries of India and Pakistan were not distinguished until the August 17, 1947, until the commission headed by the British judge distinguished these boundaries. Despite the governments of both countries were not satisfied with the boundaries distinguished they remained in the limit distinguished during certain time. After the flow of Sikhs and Hindus Pakistan felt economical misbalance because these people managed great part of commercial activity in West Pakistan. Muslims who emigrated from India replaced Sikhs and took jobs left by departed Hindu and Sikhs.

By the middle of 1951 immigrants composed more than half of the population of all big Pakistan cities. They got the name muhajirs, which was used to describe refugees from India and their children. “The aspirations for Pakistan that had been so important to Muslims in Muslim-minority provinces and the goals for the new state these urban refugees had fled to were not always compatible with those of the traditional rural people already inhabiting Pakistan, whose support for the concept of Pakistan came much later. Pakistani society was polarized from its inception."

The presence of a Congress government in the North-West Province was a constant source of problems.

Constant threat from the side of Afghanistan made Pakistan develop the course of actions on this field. Aiming to make Pakistan its part, Afghanistan appealed to the ethnic unity. It also appealed to Pakhtuns, who live along the border. Nevertheless, Pakistan supported the agreement signed between Britain and Afghanistan concerning the Durand Line. Relations between Pakistan and Afganistan became hostile, which finally resulted in Afganistan voting against Pakistan’s admission to the UN in 1947.

After the Independence Act proclaimed by India, provinces got the chance to accede Pakistan. Such states as Dir, Chitral, Amb and Hunza quickly used this opportunity and acceded to Pakistan under the conditions of substantial autonomy. Kalat declared its impendence in August 15, 1947 and signed a number of documents proclaiming special relations with Pakistan. A number of other states have also declared about their desire to become independent. Pakistan turned to military actions, which finally resulted in the accession of these states in 1948. Bahawalput, a Muslim state with Muslim ruler acceded to Pakistan after Khairpur. The ruler of Jammu and Kashmir could not decide on accession to any state. First of all maharaja of Kashmir has signed a number of deals with Indian and Pakistani authorities. These deals proclaimed economical cooperation.

It goes without saying that Pakistan and India faced a number of economic challenges too. Here can be give a simple example: West Pakistan always produced wheat and produced much more wheat than Pakistan required because one of its main task was to supply India with this product. With the split of two countries there was no need for this wheat. West Pakistan also had plantation of cotton, which then was spread in numerous Indian cities, especially in Bombay. After parting Pakistan had no markets more its goods. Pakistan immediately felt short in sugar, coal and some other products, because their most part came from India.

Both countries used to have one economy and infrastructure and sudden division ruined this stable economy and made countries’ position on the international trade market questionable.

Pakistan also experienced a great transport problem. It appeared to be that four major ports came to India and only Karachi belonged to Pakistan. It meant that there was no free and easy access to the international market. This logistic problem led to the additional economic problems.

Another kind of problems was tight relations between two parts of Pakistan and their little economic cooperation while Pakistan and India were one country.

Both India and Pakistan were in a difficult situation after the division, so they signed an agreement for one year for free movement of capital, people and products on the territory of both countries. Nevertheless, this agreement failed. “In November 1947, Pakistan levied export duties on jute; India retaliated with export duties of its own. The trade war reached a crisis in September 1949 when Britain devalued the pound, to which both the Pakistani rupee and the Indian rupee were pegged.” India accepted Britain’s policy, while Pakistan denied it and trade relation between two countries became more strained.

The way out from the possible economic crises for Pakistan became the Korean War in 1950-1953, when the prizes on cotton, wool, leather and jute increased because of the war. Pakistan used this opportunity and did its best to reconstruct jute and cotton mills on the territory of the country. It was the period for the formation of new trade relations and Pakistan used it.

In June 1947 the Viceroy’s Council announced its decision about the asserts of British India. According to it they were divided in the ration five for Pakistan and seventeen for India. Certainly, Pakistan was not satisfied with such division and only in 1948 a financial agreement was singed. It was only an official agreement, while disputes about this ration lasted till the 1960s.

The division of the Indian Police Service and the Indian Civil Service was even more difficult. Of all 1,157 Indian officers 101 were Muslims and of these 101 officers 95 served for Pakistan; “they were joined by one Christian, eleven Muslim military officers transferring to civilian service, and fifty Britons, for a total of 157. But only twenty of them had had more than fifteen years of service, and more than half had had fewer than ten years.” These officers formed the so-called Civil Service of Pakistan, which all in all led to the formation of one of the most elite bureaucracies in the world. The Civil Service controlled administrative, diplomatic and judicial branches of power. The members of the Civil Service ran the whole country during first twenty years of Pakistan’s independent existence and made it rather successfully. Their contribution to the economics and internal and external policy of the country during Mohammad Ayub Khan’s ruling is indisputable. The policy of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in the government reorganized and simplified the bureaucratic service and so changed the standards of the bureaucracy in Pakistan and, as a result, the status of the Civil Service. These changes have had a great impact on the further economic, political and social development of Pakistan and its position on the world arena.

In addition to the military conflict between Pakistan and India Asia decided to force in the Cold War between the USSR and the USA. America insisted on cooperation with Pakistan because its military resources and air force were very strong and so necessary for the USA. Pakistan became of the major American allies and provided the States with military and economic aids. The USA, in its turn, helped to increase the seize of the country, provided Pakistani officers with the necessary equipment and organized special military trainings for them.

The US influence on the economic and military policy of Pakistan grew; US government even participated in the assignment of positions in Pakistani administration and government. “What emerged in the 1950s was basically a double conversion of interests and subsequent acculturation of elites: within Pakistan and between Pakistan and the United States.”

Such military alliance between the USA and Pakistan became the basis for the “pro-state alliance”. Officers were on leading positions at that time but, nevertheless, military intervention in the economic and trade sphere was rather limited.

Pakistan became a republic in 1956 and the first president of that republic became Maj. Gen. Iskander Mirza. It was this time when military officers took key positions in administration and government. At that time increased tensions between two separated regions of the country – East and West. At early 70s the Western region gained most positions in administration and so monopolized economic and political spheres of the countries. In 1970 Awami League, leader of East Pakistan, organized a strong resistance to West Pakistan and so got the majority in the national assembly. East Pakistan also insisted on greater autonomy and it goes without saying that it could lead to the civil war inside the country. In 1971 there was proclaimed an independent state of Bangladesh. All in all, there was armed conflict between two regions. India decided to support Bangladesh and so entered the war in the last weeks. Pakistan could not resist the united forces and on the 16th of December in 1971, President Yahya Khan refused to be the president. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became the president and accepted Bangladesh as an independent state.

First civil Pakistan’s elections were in 1977 and on these elections Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party won a victory but there was announced that the elections were falsified. The tension in the country led to the armed conflict in the country, which was organized by Gen Mohammed Zia ul-Haq. Bhutto was caught and despite all protest he was executed in 1979. Mohammed Zia ul-Haq usurped power in the country and became the president in 1978. He ruled until the year 1985, when the government was restored. Daughter of Zulfikar Bhutto, Benazir Bhutto, won the election in 1988 and became the prime minister of Pakistan.

The 1990s were successful years for Pakistan – Benzir Bhutto was the prime minister of the country twice and Nawaz Sharif – three times. “The Pakistani public, familiar with military rule for 25 of the nation’s 52-year history, generally viewed the coup as a positive step and hoped it would bring a badly needed economic upswing.”

To sum up, Pakistan has a very disputable history. It got its independency only in 1947. Before this year Pakistan and India were one country, so they used to have one political system, one infrastructure, including economic and agricultural sectors. After departing it was a difficult period for both, Pakistan and India. On the one hand, two countries could not find a compromise in division of the territory of the former state. One of the greatest disputes was about the territory of Jammu and Kashmir after partition. This territory led to a number of army conflicts between India and Pakistan and even now this problem has not been resolved.

On the other hand, the economy of both countries was ruined after partition. West Pakistan, for example, produced what, cotton, jute and coal for both India and Pakistan and now Pakistan did not now what to do with these products. All in all, that was a difficult time for Pakistan. Only due to its powerful military it was able to overcome all the difficulties, start cooperation with the United States and find the way to the international market. Nowadays Pakistan is a young country with great possibilities, unlimited military forces and promising potential. Its position in the world depends only the government’s choice of the country’s policy, so it is extremely important to bend every effort on the harmonized national development and at the same time take a propitious position on the international market.
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Effective Leadership Behavior Research Paper

Nowadays, leadership plays a very significant part in the life of the modern society. The role of leaders in modern organizations can hardly be underestimated, especially in the formation of the organization as a solid structure which is currently getting to be increasingly more significant. In fact, it should be said that nowadays organization’s unity is one of the key issues of the general success of organizational functioning that affects practically all spheres of the organizational structure. In this respect, it is necessary to underline that the effective leadership is one of the major conditions of the effective functioning of an organization at large. At the same time, the development of a high organizational effectiveness is hardly possible without hard work on this issue of leaders of organizations. It is the leaders who actually establish the basic ‘rules of the game’. They are also supposed to demonstrate the highest level of culture that should be followed as an example by the rest of the organization’s staff.


On analyzing the current situation, it is possible to estimate that many organizations suffer from the lack of healthy organizational atmosphere though the understanding of its importance makes this problem one of the main targets in the development of an organization. Also, it should be said that the problem of the normal development of an organization is often associated with the problem of effective leadership and the reasons for such views are quite understandable. Obviously, nowadays, despite certain trends to democratization and liberalization of relations within organizations, the role of leaders and their position is still extremely important, especially in relation to the development of an effective organization (Yukl, 75).

Furthermore, it is practically impossible to imagine an effectively functioning organization if its leaders do not maintain the basic principles that correspond to the notion of democracy and lack charisma (Schmitt and Simonson, 1997). In other words, if leaders are characterized by arguable or even immoral ways of actions, or decisions than it is impossible to speak even about the possibility of the effective functioning of the organization they head. For instance, the example of Enron, one of the largest American companies, perfectly illustrates the extent to which the wrong actions and decisions, which are actually totally unacceptable and absolutely immoral, could be ruinous for an organization. Notably, it is impossible to develop effective leadership by elimination of the existing double standards. Also it is necessary to deprive the executives of their privileged position. Otherwise, it would be quite natural if the relations and interactions between the personnel of such an organization would be characterized by high level of conflicts and total lack of healthy organizational structure due to ineffective leadership suffering from double standards and privileges.

Unfortunately, nowadays, there are still a lot of examples of organizations, which suffer from the problem of ineffective leadership, but such a situation cannot last forever. In order to understand the ruinous character of the weak leadership or attempts of leaders to avoid responsibility for the development of their organization, it is necessary to point out that normal functioning of an organization needs proper and responsible leadership. Obviously, a variety of people working within organization cannot organize themselves and establish some basic principles and norms of functioning of the organization (Yukl, 201). At the same time, an organization’s leaders should encourage employees to accept basic principles and norms accepted within the organization from the moment they first enter this organization. This is the function of a leader to inform the employee about organization’s history, its traditions and culture before he/she agrees to employ a new person.

Naturally, the question concerning recommendations to leaders as for increasing effectiveness of the leadership arises. In fact, on answering this question, partially it is possible to refer to the role of leaders in the formation of effective organization mentioned just above. To put it more precisely, it is really possible to recommend to an organization’s leaders to become keepers of organizational culture and traditions. It means that they should be possibly as close to the organization’s ideal of a perfect employee as possible.

In actuality, it means that there actions, behavior, and attitude to other people, including employees should fully correspond to basic norms and standards accepted within the company. At the same time, in order to make the existing norms and rules acceptable, leaders should carefully select the personnel (Wilkins 406). In such a way, it would be possible to create a team of people who share the same moral values, views, ideas that would naturally minimize possible conflicts and create healthy ambiance within the organization. In this respect, leaders should be good psychologists to understand what kind of person they employ. On the other hand, they should also amply inform potential employees about their demands and norms that exist within the organization.

Obviously, such a careful selection of personnel that would share the basic values of an organization may be a very efficient means to improve the effectiveness of the organization’s functioning. Nonetheless, this measure is obviously insufficient since there remains room for frivolous interpretation of organizational norms by leaders themselves that would naturally undermine the normal development of the organization.

In such a situation, it is possible to recommend establishing clear rules and norms that would be understandable and acceptable for all the staff working within organization. For instance, it may be some ethical code developed by the organization in order to standardize behavior and work of the personnel, including leaders. At the same time, it is very important that this code, consisting of the set of basic rules and norms obligatory for all people working in the organization, was developed not only by leaders but by all employees that can be done by means of consultations or, else it is possible to stimulate employees propositions as for the future ethical code of the organization (Karakowsky, 268). Naturally, nobody can force people to act according to the demands of the code developed by leaders uniquely, while the contribution of every employee in the creation of such a code would make it more acceptable to every employee who would readily follow the rules he/she in person has suggested or agreed.

At first glance, it seems as if the role of leaders in this respect seems to be not very important but this is an erroneous view because it is the leaders who should initiate the improvement of the effectiveness of functioning of an organization and stimulate employees to contribute to the formation of a more effective organization. Moreover, it is leaders who should follow directly to the basic norms and rules developed in the ethical code or any other set of basic rules and principles of the organization. Anyway, it is very important that they remained democratic and were not in a privileged position compared to employees. Otherwise, no measures to make functioning of an organization would be efficient.

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that nowadays the role of leaders in the effective development of organizations can hardly be underestimated. This is why they should carefully work on the permanent improvement of functioning of organizations, their structure and principles of work, as the main conditions of the successful and effective leadership. At the same time, they should be democratic enough to hear the opinion of ordinary employees in order to avoid possible conflicts in the results of different views on the organization.

In other words, effective functioning of an organization may be achieved only by means of permanent communication between leaders and employees and only due to their close cooperation the organizational culture may acquire essential forms that would be acceptable for all people working within an organization that actually means effective leadership.
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Saturday, July 21, 2012

Advertising Plan Essay

Essay on Advertising Plan

The purpose of this report is to develop an advertising plan for a Virtual Travel tour online business, that would allow its customers to utilize a range of useful services while purchasing vacation packages. The plan provided below contains the information necessary to start up the business and ensure its successful operations for the first period.

A. Role of Advertising in the company
This strategic marketing plan hopes to introduce to new category users and favorable brand switchers that Red Bull can be consumed both night and day and in fact Virtual Travel can improve their vacation trends by offering wide range of unusual services and non routine packages. Therefore throughout the plan, the goal is for Virtual Travel to target university students using the various creative promotional strategies to spread the word of Virtual Travel’s benefits. The role of advertising is fundamental in this process, as it is not possible to compete in the tourist market without innovative and unique products widely promoted.

B. Advertising Objectives
The communication objectives for this campaign involves increasing brand awareness; developing positive brand attitude, creating brand purchase intention and increasing purchase facilitation. General marketing issues, advertising objectives and promotional objectives are also addressed to facilitate sales of Virtual Travel, communicate with target consumers and promote the product to our target audience.

C. Advertising Strategy
Virtual Travel’s aim is not to compromise and cannibalize Virtual Travel’s original beverage sales or brand image but merely to present consumers with a new way of using the company’s benefits. Consumers have not fully understood what Virtual Travel can do for them and so educating the target audience will help to reposition Virtual Travel as a unique offer for different types of tourists. Customers of Virtual Travel are brand loyal and favorable brand switchers as they will ensure high profitable returns for Virtual Travel. By highlighting the benefits of this service, in only a short time frame, the name Virtual Travel will become synonymous with unique vacation.

D. Target Audience
Having observed the product life cycle of Virtual Travel, it has been determined that the most profitable category of consumers are Favorable Brand Switchers. This is because FBS’ have low switching costs as they regularly try Red Bull and its competition and overall compared to the other categories are a very profitable group. The segmentation below describes two groups of favorable brand switchers, which the marketing strategy will focus on.

Consumer Profiles

  1. Young Adults: University Students (18-24 year olds) male and female.
  2. Adults: Night Owls (18-35 year olds) male and female.

  • Young Adults (18-24 year olds)
  • Demographics Age: 18-24 year olds
  • Adults (25- 39 year olds)
  • Demographics Age: 25-39
  • Sex: Male and Females

E. Communications media, selection of media to reach target market containing: Radio, TV, Newspapers, Magazines, Outdoor, Direct Mail, Interactive/Digital Media, public relations, supplemental media.

DIRECT MAIL Through research and years of advertising in this functional industry, Virtual Travel should decide to engage in direct marketing to connect with the target audience in an effective manner that personalizes the company’s relationship with the people that drives it. Virtual Travel’s direct mail will catch them with a captivating headline and drive them with a compelling offer. Virtual Travel’s creative mail pack will consist of 4 components: Letter of offer; Virtual Travel envelope; Promotional Brochure; Self addressed envelope.

Direct Mail Objectives

  • To receive a 65% response rate from the targeted audience within 4 weeks of mail outs.
  • To build 30% personalized relationships with target audience within six months.
  • To be able to identify which marketing technique succeeds and which fails within 1 year of using direct mail marketing.

MAGAZINES In addition to Virtual Travel’s direct mail campaign, Virtual Travel will also utilize print advertising in university publications and marketing collateral. It has been identified as an effective way to increase brand awareness from target audience. The more people hear of Virtual Travel through publications, the more associations students can establish between Virtual Travel and plausible vacation routes.

Print Advertising Objectives
To use various publications to leverage Virtual Travel brand with university and college life.

To reach 75% of the target audience at least 3.8 times per year.
To capture target audience via marketing collaterals that communicates an effective message of Red Bull and its usefulness with studying.

F. Advertising Message
The primary message conveyed is that Virtual Travel is offering unique opportunities in terms of vacation as well as different services to accompany such options for consumer convenience.

G. Advertising Budget
Taking into consideration the advertising mediums to be used for this plan, the initial advertising budget (for the first quarter of launching the campaign)is estimated at $ 150,000-200,000.
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Shahadat Meaning in Islam Essay

Shahadat in Islam Essay

Martyrdom in Islam forms an intrinsic component of the concept of jihad; hence, it does not lend itself to western definitions of suicide. According to Islamic teachings, intihar (suicide) designates despair and violent withdrawal from society, whereas shahadat (martyrdom) represents the ultimate form of giving for the well being of the community. Suicide is essentially a characteristic of individualist societies, mainly resulting ‘from lack of integration of the individual into society’ (Stern, 2003).

Contemporary Islamic thought tends to offer divergent interpretations on the meaning of jihad and its relevance to Muslims. The body of Islamic literature suggests that the theory of jihad has experienced deep alterations over more than 1400 years of history. The Qur’an contains seemingly contradictory teachings on military jihad which made it possible for the introduction of a variety of interpretations of jihad that transcend the classical notion.

Small philological observations can sometimes introduce one to larger historical problems. No one familiar with Christian martyrdom will be surprised to learn that the Arabic words which Muslims use for “martyr” and “witness” are identical. (Abedi, 1986) The terminology is unmistakably Christian. By the fourth century, the Greek martys (witness) had acquired a technical sense and had come to denote one whose suffering and death bore witness to the truth of Jesus’ passion and resurrection. Witnessing, suffering, death, and heavenly reward have since been intimately connected in Christian life and thought.

Given the parallel terminology, one might expect to find a similar understanding of martyrdom in Islam. At the level of reward, Muslim martyrs are not far from their Christian counterparts. Both are promised remission of sin and immediate life in Paradise; the souls of both reside at the highest level of Paradise, near the Throne of God; both are given the privilege of interceding with God on behalf of their coreligionists. Overall, the benefits accorded Muslim martyrs closely resemble those in Syriac Christianity. (Hatina, 2001)

Whatever the similarities, there is one major difference in conception between Muslim and Christian martyrdom: for Muslims, one earns the title of martyr (shahid) without any apparent act of witnessing. The martyr’s sacrifice does not generally attest to anything specific, nor does it symbolize much beyond the obvious sense of death in the service of God’s plan. (Stern, 2003) The Qur’an, the earliest Muslim testimony, does not know the term shahid in its technical sense, although the later exegetical tradition has sought to read “martyr” into a few passages where the word appears. (Palazzi, 2001)

This awkward fit between witnessing and martyrdom is further suggested by the strained attempts of some Muslim authorities to make sense of the word. People are told in one tradition, for example, that the martyr is called “witness” because his soul is alive and able to behold directly the Abode of Peace, while the souls of others see Paradise only on the Day of Resurrection. Elsewhere, it is learned that the martyr is a “witness” because his death is “witnessed” by the angels; or because God and the angels bear witness to his place in Paradise; or because he undertook to testify to the truth until his death; or because he will serve as a witness against the ancient communities who rejected God’s prophets; or because the Prophet will be a witness on the Day of Judgment for those of his followers slain in the way of God. (Abedi, 1986)

With respect to their burial, there are suggestions that one reason for not washing the bodies of martyrs is so that their wounds might continue to testify to their status in the afterlife. In short, the Muslim tradition had to invent for itself a connection between witnessing and martyrdom, since none was immediately apparent. All this is more than an isolated philological problem. It points up the distinctive attitude toward sacrifice and struggle among Muslims, an attitude forged by a political experience quite different from that of the early Christians. Martyrdom achieved its religious significance for Christians in the period before the faith had enjoyed any political success.

Asserting an ultimate, heavenly victory was at least in part a way for Christians to face down political failure, represented in the first instance by the career of Jesus himself. (Stern, 2003) Islam, by contrast, had more success from the beginning; it emerged not as a persecuted sect, but in the course of military conquest and political victory. While there had been persecutions in Mecca during Muhammad’s early career, and no shortage of martyrs created in the battles against the Meccan Quraysh and the conquests of the Near East, early Muslim martyrs, such as Sumayya and Hamza, did not enjoy any special cultic visibility in the later tradition. (Palazzi, 2001)

The religious value of suffering and death was never the obvious lesson to draw from the career of the Prophet or from the experience of the early Muslim community. What struck Muslims more naturally was the Prophet’s call for active struggle against injustice and idolatry. Even the dramatic accounts of Husayn’s martyrdom at Karbalā’, an event that would become central to Shiite sectarian identity, tend to emphasize righteous struggle against worldly injustice more than patient endurance of suffering and death. (Stern, 2003)

Where the early Christians mourned, the Muslims strove. As one historian put it almost forty years ago, Muslims sought not so much consolation as guidance from their faith. (Stern, 2003) The ideal was less to die for the faith than to struggle actively for it, and to enjoy the fruits of victory here on earth. However ambiguous its use of the term “witness,” the Qur’an is absolutely clear on the Muslim’s duty to struggle in the service of God, and on the rewards enjoyed by those slain in the course of that struggle (Jihad): “And those slain in the way of God, He will not send their works astray. He will guide them, and dispose their minds aright, and He will admit them to Paradise, that He has made known to them” (Stern, 2003). While the element of active struggle (or at least endurance) is certainly not absent on the Christian side, it is the martyr’s death rather than his fighting that carries ultimate religious significance. The opposite is true for Muslims. (Palazzi, 2001)

The Muslim ideal of active struggle was just that: an ideal, and one tempered for many by a pragmatic quietism which evolved throughout the ninth and tenth centuries. The end of the conquests, the disbanding of the Arab tribal armies, the rise of post-conquest urban societies, and the establishment of stable political authority all contributed to a decline in the attractiveness of battlefield martyrdom.

Dissenters could still look to the early activist ideal, but mainstream communities (both Sunni and sectarian) would necessarily develop a quietist orientation. It is this emergence of a quietist outlook that would shape the understanding of martyrdom by most Muslims.

The earliest Muslims knew who was destined for Heaven. Members of the community were by definition ahl al-janna, people of Paradise; all others were ahl al-nar, people of the Fire. While individual piety was not irrelevant, for most Muslims it was membership rather than piety that marked one out for Paradise. (Abedi, 1986) Those who fought “in the way of God” had a special status beyond the promise of Paradise: they are “mightier in rank with God”; their sins will be forgiven; whether slain or victorious they will receive a vast reward (Abedi, 1986). The Qur’an generally offers such rewards to all warriors, not simply to martyrs. The one reward unambiguously associated with martyrdom is immediate life in Paradise: “Do not say of those slain in God’s way that they are dead; they are living, only you do not perceive” (Stern, 2003). Beyond this, the Qur’an is not terribly concerned with battlefield martyrs as a group apart from other Muslims.

It is in the Hadith material that martyrs are clearly distinguished from ordinary Muslims. (Palazzi, 2001) They not only enter Paradise immediately, skipping both the punishment of the tomb and the final judgment, but they also ascend to the highest level, their souls alive and inhabiting the white (or green) birds in the lanterns hanging just beneath the Throne of God. They occupy, according to one report, a special place in Paradise reserved otherwise for prophets, righteous men, just Imams, and those who choose death over unbelief by refusing to renounce their faith under torture. (Hatina, 2001)

In another Hadith, the Prophet is made to reassure a grieving mother that her son is in the highest garden, the jannat al- firdaws. (Stern, 2003) Martyrs are also spared the pain of death, which to them is comparable to the pinch of a gnat. 16 God is even said to have spoken face-to-face with one of the martyrs of Uhud, the Prophet’s first major military defeat. () The Prophet in one report offers a useful list of the nine benefits enjoyed by the martyr. These include remission of sin at the moment his blood his shed; the privilege of immediately beholding his place in Paradise (i.e., there is no waiting until the Day of Judgment); avoidance of the punishment of the tomb; marriage to seventy houris; protection from the Great Terror; the wearing of the Crown of Dignity, each of whose jewels is better than the world and all it contains; and the right to intercede with God for seventy of his relatives. All this is doubtless why martyrs are so pleased with their situation that they want nothing more than to return to earth to be martyred a second time. (Stern, 2003)

The afterlife benefits accorded martyrs are thus straightforward. Less so is the issue of just who qualifies for them. Not all casualties of war will receive a martyr’s reward from God: most jurists require first of all that the war be fought against unbelievers (although for some, rebel Muslims suffice), and second, that the warrior himself be properly motivated. (Stern, 2003) Intention is central to the performance of all acts of piety in Islam; prayer or pilgrimage done without proper intention may be sufficient to qualify one as a Muslim in the social sense (they entitle one to marry and inherit from other Muslims and to be buried in a Muslim cemetery), but they do not fulfill the ritual requirement in God’s eyes and will not earn one afterlife benefits.

Martyrdom in Jihad works precisely the same way. As several Hadith remind us, those who fight hypocritically, or chiefly in search of earthly reward, or out of zeal for fighting itself, or simply to display their bravery, are not in the final scheme of things martyrs. Only those who fight “desiring the face of God,” or seeking to make the Word of God supreme, are martyrs in any ultimate sense. (Palazzi, 2001) And yet even the hypocritical warrior, should he die at the hands of the enemy, is to be buried as a martyr (i.e., his corpse remains unwashed, wrapped in its blood-stained clothing, and, according to some jurists, is not prayed over).

If death in battle is the only way to gain a martyr’s funeral, the heavenly rewards themselves are more widely distributed. The Hadith and jurisprudential literatures stretch the category of shahīd to encompass far more than battlefield martyrdom. According to one frequently cited report, the Prophet granted the title of shahīd to victims of drowning, pleurisy, and plague, as well as to the innocent victims of accidental building collapse. 23 We also read of other ways to acquire direct access to Paradise: death in defense of one’s property; death in childbirth; death by accident while engaged in Jihad. Drowning is often mentioned, as is falling off the top of a mountain or being eaten by lions. (Stern, 2003)

In some of these cases, particularly those involving violent, sudden, or exceptionally painful death, the special rewards accorded the victims might reflect the continuing survival of ancient folk beliefs and their power to shape the lettered tradition. These forms of death had long been felt to deserve recompense; now, God shows Muslims His special favor by considering such deaths atonement for sin and thus as entitling these people to special treatment in the afterlife. () The inclusion of plague in the Prophet’s list of martyrdoms is perhaps in part theologically inspired: God has sent plague as a mercy and martyrdom to the believers; those who die while remaining steadfast in their belief in God’s decree are classed with the battlefield martyrs. In at least one report, the plague victim’s boils are directly equated with the fallen warrior’s wounds. (Stern, 2003)

It might be understood as an attempt to make martyrdom available to more and more people in the post-conquest world. The Prophet himself would apparently agree: in reply to a companion’s claim that only those killed in war are properly considered martyrs, the Prophet is reported to have said “in that case the martyrs of my community would be few,” before going on to enumerate the other types of death that likewise earn one martyr status. (Hatina, 2001) What this represents is an expansion of the category of “martyr” without any fundamental change in its nature. It is still through death that one earns a martyr’s reward, even if battling unbelievers is no longer a central feature of the process. (Abedi, 1986)

But the religious scholars also go further and positively equate particular religious activities with martyrdom. Such a tendency is clear, for example, in the assurance that the soul of the pilgrim who dies on Hajj goes immediately to Paradise. The great scholar Shafi’i tells the story of the bedouin pilgrim kicked to death by his camel: the Prophet orders that he be buried as a battlefield martyr, as he died “while occupied with worship, and the traces of that worship should be left on him just as with the wounds of the warrior who is martyred in battle.” (Stern, 2003) Worship itself becomes a form of martyrdom, and the identity of ritual obligations and warfare “in the way of God” is elsewhere made absolutely explicit: “He who fasts and uses God’s verses in performing the ritual prayer obediently, until the warriors have returned, is equal to the zealous in God’s way,” as one Hadith has it. (Nusse, 1998)

It is thus not merely death while fulfilling religious duties that earns one martyrdom; the very fulfillment of such duties might in some circumstances bring one to that level. Interpreting one of his companion’s dreams, the Prophet explains why the believer who died in bed after two colleagues had died on Jihad was in fact given priority at the gates of Paradise: “No one is more virtuous in God’s eyes than the believer who lives long in Islam, and is able to go on praising and glorifying God, and making the profession of faith.” (Stern, 2003) A similar logic lies behind those Traditions in which, for example, the Qur’an reciter is promised a martyr’s reward, or the prayer caller is said to receive the reward of 40,000 martyrs. (Stern, 2003) More than simply an expansion of the category, this amounts to a change in the very conception of martyrdom.

In their revaluation of martyrdom, the legal scholars were driven chiefly by a quietist impulse. While there was often no love lost between the scholars and the rulers of the day, the former were no rebels. Despite the activist model of the Prophet, the scholars were as a whole distinctly uncomfortable with sedition and political upheaval, lest the moral life of the community be endangered. As the collective bearers of religious authority in the Muslim world, they were generally willing to tolerate far from ideal political arrangements, as long as these arrangements did not jeopardize the private, scholarly elaboration of religious law. Even dissenting movements, at least those which managed to survive beyond the first three centuries of Islam, came eventually to reconcile activist ideals with quietist necessity. (Palazzi, 2001) It was generally the idealistic dissenters, those who insisted on actively resisting the ruler’s armies at the cost of their lives, that Sunni and sectarian religious scholars had in mind when seeking to demilitarize martyrdom.

Battlefield martyrdom was a powerful tool for cementing loyalty within dissenting groups. Perhaps the single most important martyrdom in this sense was that of Husayn ibn ‘Ali, whose death at Karbal’’ in 680 helped create a deep emotional loyalty to the ‘Alid house, and to this day has helped Shi’ites sustain what is the chief sectarian divide within Islam. Other dissenters also made much of their martyrs. (Hatina, 2001) Those rebels known as Kharijites (“seceders”) also called themselves Shurat (“vendors”); that is, those who sell their lives in exchange for Paradise, with apparent reference to Qur’an 4:74 and 9:112. (Hatina, 2001) It is easy to see a notion of martyrdom behind this designation.

It is in Kharijite circles that people see most clearly the cluster of practices against which the religious scholars would aim their fire: activism, asceticism, and the deliberate seeking of martyrdom in battle. The first is represented by the Kharijite practice of hijra, exodus from the society of unbelievers to one of the group’s own camps. (Abedi, 1986) It was, in the first Islamic century, through hijra to the garrison towns that one generally acquired a place in Muslim society; Kharijite encampments would similarly serve as hijra sites, from which active resistance to state power could be launched. For Khārijites, as for other Muslims, it was through hijra that one became a member of the community, that one joined the People of Paradise. Hijra and jihād are closely linked in the Qur’an, in Khārijite teaching, and in anti-Khārijite polemic. It is the Khārijites, in fact, who are most commonly associated in our sources with talab alshāhada, the deliberate seeking of martyrdom on the battlefield. (Stern, 2003)

The connection between hijra and Jihad was only deepened by the prevailing ascetic culture of the camps. The early Kharijites are described as pious ascetics both by their opponents and by authors of a moderate Kharijite persuasion; in an Ibaḍī work of the twelfth century, for example, a group of early Kharijite martyrs are said to have had “foreheads and knees as thick as camels from the intensity of their devotions.” () Some Kharijites in the seventh and eighth centuries were called “Yellows” (Sufriyya), a comment not on the depth of their bravery but on their ascetic piety: the color yellow is sometimes associated with renunciatory practices in early Islam. (Stern, 2003) The late seventh-century Sufrite rebel and martyr in Mesopotamia, Salih ibn Musarrih, is said to have gone yellow in the face as a consequence of his extreme devotion. (Palazzi, 2001) The practice of asceticism is relevant here not only because it helped cement the collective identity of these groups but also because of its connection to hijra, Jihad, and the deliberate seeking of martyrdom.
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Friday, July 20, 2012

Finance Term Paper

Finance Research Paper Sample

Yahoo Inc. and Whole Foods Market are the two companies that occupy the leading positions in their markets. It should be pointed out that basically companies belong to different industries but this fact does not prevent them from effective functioning. To put it more precisely, Yahoo Inc. is one of the largest companies operating in the field of IT. It should be said that it’s probably the largest success of this company was the creation of an effective and extremely popular search engine It is necessary to point out that this product has rapidly gained the world acclaim and customers uses this tool very often to the extent that this search engine occupies the leading position in the EU market compared with its major competitors. As for Whole Foods Market, it should be said that the company occupies the leading position in the food retail industry. The company basically focuses on the sales of its products to mass customers. Nowadays, the company offers a variety of food products available to different categories of customers and it is really important to underline that this company is quite popular among the customers. Also, it is worthy of mention that both companies may be viewed as multinational corporations since, at the present moment they operate worldwide and, if in the case of Whole Foods Market it is possible to speak about certain geographical boundaries, than in the case of Yahoo Inc. it is possible to speak about the company that operates in the virtual world the access to which is limited only by technologies available to customers worldwide.


Speaking about the line of business of both companies, it is primarily necessary to point out that Yahoo Inc. basically targets at the permanent implementation of innovations and the introduction of new IT and IS as well as offering new services to customers is one of the major strategies of the company. At the same time, the business line of Whole Foods Market is mainly focused on the international expansion and entering new markets along with the diversification of the products offered to customer, i.e. increasing the variety of products sold. It should be said that company pays a particular attention to high standards of services and work with customers worldwide that is accompanied by the specification to a particular regional market the company operates in.

In spite the fact that both companies occupy the leading positions in their industries, it is necessary to underline that neither has a totally dominant position in the market. In other words, neither of the two companies mentioned above has a monopolistic position in the industry it operates in. in this respect, it should be pointed out that the share of Yahoo Inc in its market approaches 30% varying depending on the region of the world. As for Whole Foods Market, its share is even a bit larger and constitutes about 35%. Nevertheless, the position of both companies is extremely strong and they have ample perspectives for the further growth, regardless the opposition of their major competitors. Among the latter may be named Google as the company that operates in the same segment of the market and is not less, if not to say even more popular in the world compared with Yahoo Inc. Whole Foods Market also faces an opposition of its major competitors among which basically dominate companies which have been operating in the food market for many years and decades, such as Nestle.

Furthermore, it should be pointed out that Yahoo Inc. basically uses liberal approach in its management since the specificity of the company implies the necessity to provide its employees with certain independence and freedom in order to adapt innovations more effectively. As for Whole Foods Market, it should be said that the company’s management style is more conservative and is basically focused on the development of a standard models and methods of management that could be easily but effectively applied in different parts of the world.

Regardless the seemingly stable and leading positions of both companies, it is necessary to point out that Yahoo Inc faced certain problems in the acceptation of its innovations by the mass customers because the new technologies and ideas often surpassed their epoch and were not always technologically applicable for the large number of customers. This problem, along with the growing competition and threats to company’s and its customers security of information remain among the most serious problems it will face in the future. As for Whole Foods Market, its problems do not relate to the security of its information but the growing competition is also a serious threat for the company similarly to Yahoo Inc. while its major problem of difficulties in entering foreign markets, which used to be a serious obstacle for the company’s expansion in the past, will hardly be a problem in the future global market economy.

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Research Paper on African Americans

Relations between Minority of African Americans and White Americans

In this paper I will study African Americans as a minority group and their attitudes to the majority group, presented by white Americans. The United States of America consist of people of different nationalities, that is why it is called “a melting pot”. Ethnocentrism is still present in the American society despite multinational origin of the USA. The term “ethnocentrism” has a lot of interpretations, but they can be reduced to one meaning and it means to look down at people, who are different from you, and put your ethnic group in the center of the universe. Ethnocentrism leads to miscommunication, appearance of stereotypes and these factors have a serious damage on the cross-cultural communication.


In general, there is nothing bad in patriotism and good attitude to your motherland and people who inhabit it. These feelings are even laudable. Problems appear when this love to your country, people or social group is expressed by the prejudice of the others. Unfortunately, distinction between true patriotism and ethnocentrism is very subtle and we can see poor consequences of the substitution of these notions on the example of Nazi terror. Ethnocentrism is a wrong way of thinking, as it creates false assumptions about the superiority of one group above all the others.

History of African American Minority Group
Colonization of America started in the 17th century. A lot of people came here to find shelter and start a new life. Immigrants and slaves from different countries and various social backgrounds came to the land, which late got the name of the United States of America.

Despite the fact that the United States of America was initially proclaimed as a country of liberty and equal opportunities from its very beginning, such shameful things as slavery and segregation were accepted in this country. America is a rather young country. Its written history is only a few hundred years old. It is still often called “The New World”. America is known as the land of great opportunities and high level of development. America claims to fight for the democracy all over the world, though its history was the hotbed for the slavery. In this way, America has become one of few countries of the world, which made a great leap from slavery to democracy.

However, in spite of democratic ideals, which made the basement of the American country, it turned to slavery. Slaves, brought from African continent, served as a cheap labor force in the newly created country. The physical labor of slaves was used by the most Southerners. That is why it was impossible to abandon slavery right at once. The changes of behavior of the slave owners did not happen until the end of the civil war. Founding Brothers had to make a difficult choice when they decided not to mention slavery issue in the Constitution. The issue of slavery became that compromise that gave Northern and Southern states an opportunity to agree on a federal government. Southern states agreed to ratify the constitution under condition that the slavery issue would not be mentioned during next twenty years (Thompson 69). The price was too high, but the foundation of the new state could not go smoothly and needed sacrifices.

The year 1776 is the year of American Revolution and American Independence, The Revolutionary War is sometimes called “The Tobacco war”. “Newly arrived immigrants had found themselves perpetually in debt to British merchants; by 1776, growers owed the mercantile houses millions of pounds. British tobacco taxes were a further grievance” (Henretta 69). American citizens proved their right for economical and political freedom and put much effort to defend it. As a result of the impositions of the British, America showed that it was ready to fight for their independence and their freedom.

Several years later the petition of Quakers had broken the silence when they addressed it to the new Congress. Quakers had raised the question of human liberty and equal rights and demanded the abolishment of the slavery institution. In 1866 Johnson, who supported the Southern leaders and the Congress which supported the interest of the African-Americans, withstood for the control of Reconstruction process. Northern voters gave a smashing victory to the Radical Republicans in the Congress that gave the Congress a possibility to control the reconstruction. The Reconstruction Act was passed in 1867 that divided the states into five military districts. Each district was obliged to accept the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution. These amendments guaranteed freedoms to the African-Americans and also it provided the equal attitude to the black and white citizens of the country. Fragile balance reached in the creation of the young American country was a unique combination of different visions and values of its founding fathers.

Abolishment of slavery did not resolve the problem of racism and discrimination. Intolerance of the people toward other people and feeling of superiority, where some believed that some definite group of people can be regarded as chosen and superior by birth, did no disappear in the United States after the abolishment of slavery.

Race still created a big abyss in the relations between the black and white population of the country. The slavery was cancelled but a new social model has not been built yet and African-Americans had to find their way to survive and their place in the social ladder. A lot of them had to do the same work as being slaves. The 1860s are noticeable for the rise of the Civil Right Movement which had a lot of consequences. The period of Reconstruction included global changes in the political, social and economical structure of the society and the way the African-Americans fitted there now. After 1877 the liberties of Black were restricted again. White Southern Democrats took control from Republicans and the achievements of the Reconstruction were deprived. The Supreme Court was also involved into this process. A black man was imprisoned in Louisiana in 1892 just for sitting in the white section of the train car. Later, in 1896 Jim Crow’s laws were legalized by the famous Plessy v. Ferguson case (Fredrickson 23).

Jim Crow is a name of the system of laws that fixed the racial discrimination and supreme attitude to the African-Americans. But it has become more than a system of laws. It has become a way of life. Jim Crow laws represented the legitimization of anti-Black racism and covered the period between 1877 and the mid-1960s. The Jim Crow system stated that the white race was superior to the black race, sexual relations between Blacks and Whites would produce a mongrel race which would destroy America. This system also demanded to keep the blacks on the bottom of the social stratification by any means and to use forth if necessary to keep this separation. Jim Crow signs (such as “exit\sets\facilities for white only”) was put everywhere. Prisons, hospitals, schools, churches, cemeteries were separated.

The Features of African American Identity
We definitely take notice of the fact that “constraints of cultural domination and a consequent power deficit have posed serious problems for African American leadership. This reality has affected the character and dynamics of leadership options, ideas, strategies, and resource mobilization” (Hall 110). Because of a long adaptation, process to the conditions of the American society African American community may be characterized as stable, flexible and independent. “These are matters of growing importance in the emerging post-modern/post-industrial managerial age of complexity, uncertainty, cynicism, and interdependence.” (Hall 110) All these features peculiar to African American community form identities of its members.

Leadership can be the main characteristic of the African American identity. This feature of the African American identity became dominant due to centuries of segregation and discrimination. African Americans had to prove their rights for their white contemporaries and leadership and passion for equality and independence had helped them a lot. These very features have given the African Americans a possibility to gain a great number of privileges in the contemporary American society. The main aim was to reach the following conditions: political rights and freedom of speech, quality of education, personal worth, economical independence and self-sufficiency, cultural integrity and many others. It is obvious that most of these positions were reached and now African American policy is moving in this direction. Such progress can be explained by African Americans’ persistence, diligence, hard work and will for freedom. These are the most characteristic features of these people and they help to simplify the process of integration.

Stereotypes Connected with African American Minority Group
There are several stereotypes concerning African Americans in the modern American society. There is so-called “blackface archetype of minstrel shows”. According to this stereotype African Americans are lazy, ignorant, joyous, superstitious and musical. It is worth speaking about “Sambo” stereotype, which was created by Helen Bannerman in her book “The Story of Little black Sambo”. It is considered to be the racial derogation in America. “Mammy archetype” is a term usually used towards black women. It comes from the past when this term was generally used for back female servants and slaves. Nowadays it is very insulting for African American women. Another archetype is “Magic Negro”. It was applied by Spike Lee and it means “super-duper magical negro” (Kempley, p.67) According to this stereotypes African Americans can possess some magical abilities, such as Voodoo magic and so on.

Despite slavery and segregation are left in the past, there are a lot of cases of discrimination and racism in contemporary American society. Even modern mass media depicts African Americans as less intellectual as white Americans. A lot of famous people show their scornful attitude towards black people. Spike Lee, a famous film director, comments this situation in a such way: “In my neighborhood, we looked up to athletes, guys who got the ladies, and intelligent people,” said Lee. “If you’re intelligent, you’re called a white guy or girl.” (Kempley 69).Robert M. Entman and Andrew Rojecki in their book The Black Image in the White Mind state that negative images of black Americans in mass media have a great influence of their perception in the society.

Among African American population exists a stereotype that every second white person either despises or undervalues African Americans. There is also a stereotype that White-Americans are too self-confident and ambitious and so do not accept black Americans as equal citizens.

Stereotypes neither about African Americans nor about White Americans can be justified. They are generally based on controversial and problematic past. The ground is usually subjective evaluation of these or those people without any obvious evidence.

Strategies for Integration Used by African American Minority Group
Specialists (Hall, Marvin) distinguish three main integrative strategies that are used by the African Americans while adopting white culture. They include multicultural strategy, separation and assimilation (acculturation). Multicultural strategy presupposes fusion or integration and alteration. This strategy is aimed to reserve ethnic identity but at the same time join American society. This strategy means peaceful co-existence of numerous nations without cultural confusion.

One of the most radical strategies of integration into the American society can be the organization of separate African American schools, communities, businesses, housing and so on. Supporters of this concept state that it will end racial discrimination (Hall, Hoges, Welch). Nevertheless, most scientists suppose that this policy is more segregation than integration and that it will just complicate relations between black and white Americans. Separate schools, hospitals and other institutions created additional barriers between African Americans and white population. They state that it will be degradation in black-white relations. This strategy implementation helps African Americans to save their ethnic identity but it does not guarantee normal relations in the whole American society.

Assimilation or so-called acculturation strategy assumes solution of African culture in American one without preserving of its peculiarities. A lot of scientist state that it is the easiest way for the African American population but at the same time not the best one because ethnic identity is characteristic for every ethnic community and community loses its sense without it.

Education has become an important social mechanism, which is used for both – getting rid of unbalance between two groups and making this unbalance stronger. This approach is not widely used recently. Welch and Hoges developed their own methods, which help to construct academic identity among African Americans. They believe that “Academic identity is one of the important factors that facilitates or impedes students’ academic achievement in school and their eventual admission into college.” (Hoges, Welch 12) They believe that academic identity has a great influence on the achievement of students from minority groups in general and African-American students in particular. Developing this kind of identity can finally end unequal opportunities in schools and cultural deprivations.

Consequences of Status of African Americans
Worse status presupposes worse conditions of life, worse conditions of life, in their turn, guarantee population’s dissatisfaction.

The official statistics show that white people predominate in housing, economics, healthcare and education in American society. “If African Americans were considered three-fifths (60%) of population in 1788, when the framers of the Constitution counted slaves for tax purposes, then their economic value in 2004 amounts to less than three-fourths (73%) when compared to their white counterparts” (Thompson, Hickey, p. 152). These means that black people earn almost 73% less than white people (Thompson, Hickey 152). In such spheres as housing, economics, health, civic engagement, education and social justice African Americans prevail only in the civic engagement. Of course, such status has both personal and group consequences for African Americans. Due to such status only 50% of African American families have their own homes and their homes can be valued at 42,000 dollars less than those of white Americans. The recent reports show that 54% of black Americans are not satisfied with their life conditions and states that it will be even worse in the future, 51% states that Asian Americans and Latinos are provided with better conditions (Thompson, Hickey 2005).

Relative Success of Strategies Used by African American Minority Group
For more than 30 years African-Americans have been fighting for their equal rights and, of course, some prominent achievements have been made. The percentage of Afro-American managers has increased but at the same time powerful decision-making jobs are not still widely available for them. As we can see, race discrimination in organizations still exists. Nowadays, “despite gains in entry, African-Americans clearly stagnate their climb up the managerial hierarchy, thereby failing to make inroads into key decision-making positions and in the racial redistribution of power” (Collins 97). Inequality in job allocation is obvious now despite all the official reports and speeches of governors, which claim that business of the USA can be called “multicultural”.

Beginning from the 1960s national minorities staged a number of walkouts demanding equal civil rights. So called Affirmative Actions have been implemented by the government in order to guarantee equal rights and liberties for African Americans and white Americans. The government had nothing to do but to guarantee equal opportunities. White companies, being afraid of governmental sanctions, beginning from the year 1960 had to provide Afro-Americans with working places. The 1960s are characterized by the enlargement of educational possibilities for national minorities and the occupation of Afro-Americans in management is easily explained in such a way. During the 1960s and 1970s college-educated Afro-Americans got business-related professions and managerial jobs. (Farley, Freeman). Black people were most employed in labor markets. Freeman (Freeman) gives such a statistics: in the 1960s only 7 percent of black college graduates could become managers in comparison to 18 percent of white students, who got same positions. The next decade was more progressive: the percentage of black managers increased to 12 percent (Freeman). During the 1970s and 1980s the number of Afro-Americans who occupied managerial, executive and administrative jobs, increased at twice the rate of white graduates (Farley 1987). Later, the process of deindustrialization took place and the level of welfare decreased dramatically and “a significant class polarization occurred among Black people between 1974 and 1994, with an increase in the percentage earning less than $15,000 and of those earning more than $75,000” (Hurst 198).

Organizations try to provide jobs to people of different ages, genders, physical abilities, ethnic backgrounds and levels of education. Gender and racial factors can not be left without attention and ignored, because solving of this problem will give a possibility to uphold the success and welfare of organizations.

People think that they are moving in the progressive direction and not many people know that in the 1960s and 1970s highly educated African-Americans had more chances to get a higher-paying job. Moreover, few people know about their careers and achievements.

Beginning from the year 2000 the situation has changed. American organizations can be called work-balanced, because only 58 percent of work places are occupied by white Americans (Jones, p.79). The term “cross-national teams” appears. It supposes that people of different nationalities work together without any difference. The process of globalization of business takes place nowadays and so requires numerous workers. Economic necessity and lack of work force makes employers turn to people of other nationalities and use them as a work force.

In her book “Black Picket Fences Privilege and Peril among the Black Middle Class”, Pattillo-McCoy challenges the opinion of the society that the racism problem is overcome and no racial discrimination and segregation can be found in modern American society. In her autobiographical and research documentary work Pattillo-McCoy dispels the opinion that middle black class has moved to the white neighborhood and naturally joined this society class. As she states, the middle and lower black class stay together to get more chances to survive in a hostile for them society. That put the middle class under the influence of criminal elements, bands and gangsters. When black family moves to the new surrounding white neighbors move in some time and later less well-off peers from the black community appear.

Pattillo-McCoy challenges the thought that suburbs are left by the members of black communities and they coexist happily together with the white members of the society.

Racial segregation, changing economic structures, and disproportionate black poverty still affect the residential experience of black middle-class families, and especially the youth (Pattillo-McCoy, 2000). Children of the black middle class have to attend same schools and colleges as their criminally inclined peers.

All the policies are directed in order to make people forget that the problem exists. The situation has changed since the time when Jim Crow’s laws were legal but visible success of the black representatives of the middle class and their successful promotions can make the wrong impression that all the classes of black people are treated as equals and no segregation exists and the question of race division is still open. And even when people face the problem they try to limit it to the problem with the lower class of black people – poor people. When it comes to the middle class nobody wants to see the problem and the means to resolve it are not even discussed. There are very few people who can admit that segregation in the middle class still exists. At the present moment, American society dominated by white Americans, tries to close its eye to this problem and to any kind of a division. “Racial segregation means that racial inequalities in employment, education, income, and wealth are inscribed in space. Predominantly white neighborhoods benefit from the historically determined and contemporarily sustained edge that whites enjoy” (Pattillo-McCoy 154). Real estate agents would use different means to avoid the appearance of black neighbors in the white surroundings.

Sometimes, the prices for the houses are intentionally uprated and sometimes the empty houses are told to be rented just to avoid undesirable black neighbors. Middle class composed of black people differs from what usually stands behind the notion of the white middle class. The black middle class is generally characterized by the more poverty, higher crime, worse schools, and fewer services than white middle-class neighborhoods. Black communities surround the white arias place in center like the “black belt”. The representatives of the middle class did not assimilate other citizens and state separately from poor black class and separately from the middle white class representatives and stays as a buffer between them. Middle class blacks face same segregation level as their poor representatives and can not be the members of the society of the same kind as their white peers are. African Americans are the most segregated ethnic group of the country despite its impressive quantity.

Comparison of African American minority group with Vietnamese Minority Group
Very often the attitude to minority groups reflects political and social system of the country. From the way different representatives of minority groups are treated in the country we can judge about the humane values accepted hare. Attitude towards minority groups accepted by the government of the country very often reflects the attitude of all citizens of the country towards strangers and foreigners. It is not surprising that in democratic countries the government reflects the will and sympathy for its population. American attitude to minority groups can be defined as liberal and pluralist. Under liberal we understand “favoring proposals for reform, open to new ideas for progress, and tolerant of the ideas and behavior of others; broad-minded” and pluralist we defined as “a condition in which numerous distinct ethnic, religious, or cultural groups are present and tolerated within a society” (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language). The United States of America was founded as a multicultural country, which has become the motherland for many immigrants and refugees.

Federal system of the US, stable party system and pluralist approach to social and political issues made American approach to minority group more fragmented. “The Jacobean ideal of equality before the law held by many French citizens and the liberal ideal of equality of opportunity at the heart of recent American political development explain the openness and attraction of the 2 countries for foreigners” (Revue Europeenne des migration International 1990).

Despite the Vietnamese minority group is not as numerous and widespread as the African Americans, it still makes an integral part of the American society. In the 1960s and 1970s large numbers of Vietnamese refugees were admitted to the country under special laws. The law of 1965 removed the severe restriction for Asian immigration but in the 1990s the situation changed a bit (Isaacs).

There are several considerable differences in the strategies Vietnamese choose when trying to integrate American society. A number of reasons can be given in order to explain this difference. More than 80 percent of modern Vietnamese Americans were not born on the territory of the United States and it explains why Vietnamese culture is still very important in Vietnamese communities. Practically all the traditions have been preserved. Such strong cultural ties with motherland distinguish Vietnamese Diaspora from other minor groups such as Italians, English and Irish.

Close connection with Vietnam encouraged most Vietnamese Americans to take jobs that were similar to those they had in their native country. Mostly it was fishing and it caused tolerant attitude of the native population and other immigrants at first but soon the Vietnamese began to succeed in their fishing business and to compete with native population. Attitude suddenly changed and a lot of cases of racial violent towards Vietnamese Americans took place. “Boston had 339 civil rights crimes reported in 1980 with many of them targeting Vietnamese immigrants.”(Hamilton-Merritt, p.198)

The history of the Vietnamese Diaspora in the USA is rather short and numbers only 25 years but still its history is rather progressive and dynamic. In the early 1990s the Vietnamese community of Southern Californian was created and was the push for further steps. This community gives a possibility for the development of the Vietnamese immigrant, youth hand employment programs and united more than 300 other Vietnamese organizations (Rutledge). A lot local Vietnamese organizations and institutions such as Vietnamese radios and temples were created.

“One 1977 survey found that more than six in ten of those immigrants who had held white-collar jobs in Vietnam held blue-collar jobs at the time of the study…less than one in five of those who were employed as professionals in Vietnam had been able to find similar work in the United States” (Rutledge124). In the early 90s almost one fourth of Vietnamese immigrants were living in poverty and even starvation. The median family income for the Vietnamese in America was about $30,000 while for the Europeans it was more than $37,000. It can be explained by racism towards Vietnamese immigrants, low English vocabulary and lack of connections in the professional sphere (Rutledge).

The existence of unique Vietnamese culture in Diaspora in the USA does not mean that American culture was not adapted to the Vietnamese. Most Vietnamese Americans wear American clothes, listen to modern American music and eat American food. At the same time Vietnamese people have strong ties with their families and communities. It gives simple explanation to the existence of such communities as Orange Country in California, where Vietnamese and Asian population prevails.

There is even a special term for the Vietnamese who lives outside Vietnam in a Diaspora; he is called “Overseas Vietnamese”. This term is usually used for Vietnamese Americans or Vietnamese Europeans who were born outside Vietnam or migrated there after the unification of their native country in 1975. The term was used even before the year 1975 and we can often hear that in such a way are called members of the Vietnamese Diaspora who come for visits or business. Present-day Vietnamese Diaspora numbers about 3 million Vietnamese people all over the world. More than 300,000 have left their motherland for America, Germany, France and other countries before the year 1975 (Cargill).

The United States is the second motherland for most Vietnamese immigrants as there live 1,223,000 Vietnamese and it is more than one third of all Overseas Vietnamese.

Vietnamese minority group often turns to the policy of segregation making an attempt to enter American culture. This can be explained by the comparatively short period of the existence of this minority group. They assimilate its culture and social norms but try to save their own identity.

The question about the status of minority groups of African Americans is a subject of loud debates in modern society. African Americans are the most discussed group in America. Despite immense effort of American government African Americans still feel imbalance in social, political and economic spheres of life in comparison with white Americans as representatives of majority group. A number of steps should be performed by the government and society in order to reduce imbalances between majority and minority groups and provide them equal rights and freedoms. There are many fields, which cause concerns of African Americans as a minority groups. The scope of this issues rangers from complicated political matters to minor social issues. Race discrimination is not as much spread as it was in the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th, but all in all we can meet this problem even today. It is very difficult to get rid of the thing that used to be common for centuries and we need time to achieve the new level of development of our society.

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