Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Research Paper on Richard Nixon

Research Paper on Richard Nixon

Richard Nixon and his Domestic Policy
Richard Nixon becomes 37th President of the U.S., 1969. He tend to focus on his achievements on the foreign policies, however, his domestic records was one of the paradox. He continued the legislations of previous presidents relating to housing, education etc. He had showed a similar creativity, particularly on his early plan for welfare reform and his willingness to scrap his conservative economic approach in favor of wage and price control. Also, he involved in the education and Burger court.

Perhaps the most spectacular was the landing on the moon on July 21,1969 by astronuts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin. Amendment 26 Ratified of 1971 was brought up by Nixon which allowed all U.S. citizens 18 years old and above to vote

Richard Nixon has tried to slow down the pace of the intergration of blacks students into the white schools. In the South, the Whites and the Blacks were studied in separate schools and the Blacks were never treated equal and in 1957 the Supreme Court declared that the practice was illegal. However, Nixon did not aggressively prosecute the segregated school districts and at the same time Nixon apposed the use of public buses to transport students to integrated schools.



During Nixon's presidency inflation and highly unemployment were the main problems faced by Nixon. By early 1971, United States was suffering from a 5.3 percent inflation rate and a 6 percent umemployment rate and US also suffered a trade defict importing more goods than it exported. Thus, this had caused hardship for many people. The word stagflation soon would be coined to describe this coexistence of economics recession and inflation. Nixon had done many things to solved these problems. Nixon had tried to slow inflation by raising interest rates. By adding this, he taught he would reduce the amount of money, however, this strategy failed. Then in August 1971, Nixon began to control wages and prices. At the same time, he promoted U.S export and discourage import and also, he devalued the dollar. Thus, this lowered the cost of U.S goods in other countries. Throughout 1972 signs of economic recovery multiplied. He blamed that the inflation on Congress, and he vetoed bills that over his budgetary recommendation. During 1973 and 1974, the Mid-east oil-producing countries sharply increased their oil prices. With the pressure of inflation and the unemployment rate that increased in the United States, Nixon advocated greater exploitation of U.S energy reserves. Nixon's economic programs were in fact a surprise for those who expected him to follow a traditional Republican approach.

During his presidency in 1972, the Congress created an act known as the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) which is to protect and improve the environment, initially Nixon wasn't willing to agree to EPA but he did reluctantly. In the wake of Earth Day, Nixon approved the Clean Air Act of 1970 establishing a billion dollar air pollution control program and imposed emission standards on automobiles. He also undertook Occuypational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) measures on the job front. In the same year, he signed the Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970 imposing penalties for pollution of ocean and inland waters following the oil spill of Santa Barbara. After some years, congress also created the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC). After twoyears, the Clean Air Act (1970), Clean Water Act (1972), and Pesticide Control Act (1972). These agencies had made American's life easier.

Burger Court Policy
Nixon played to be more conservative in part to win the supports from the south, where most of the voters favor this policy. When the senate rejected two southern nominees to the Supreme Court, Nixon failed to gain the supports. After that, he appointed the judge Warren E. Burger to be the Supreme Court in 1969; federal judge Harry A. Blackmun from Minnesota in 1970; and Virginia lawyer Lewis F. Powell and Assistant Attorney General William H. Rehnquist of Arizona in 1971. Together they shifted the Supreme Court to a more conservative position.

Welfare Program
The efforts by Nixon to reform the nation's welfare system met resistance in Congress, but in 1972 he won approval of a program to share federal revenues with the states. As a result, Nixon had proposed a welfare program of Daniel Moynihan to provide $1,600 minimum for a poor family.

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Essay on The Rockinghorse Winner

The Rockinghorse Winner Essay

The infatuation of the accumulation of money and wealth of an indulgent and self-righteous society is evident between the years of 1900 and 1945. This was the era of the Modern Dramatists, which David Herbert Lawrence belonged to. The values of the middle class society in this time were to emulate the upper class, gaining social status and superficial recognition.

Lawrence despised these values, which society held, being exposed to them as a child witnessing the disparity of his parents trying to achieve this type of social status, and he shows in the Rocking-Horse Winner, his disgust for these values. Lawrence demonstrates that in a patriarchal society, minds are misguided, obsessed with the accumulation of wealth, and as a result of this, the value of family is discarded which will only lead to self-destruction. The opening of the story gives a fairytale like description of a mother who “could not feel love, no, not for anybody” including for her children.

Determined to please his mother, Paul goes on a “mad little journey” to prove his luck and to attain the unattainable, the love of his mother. Elisa from The Wild Swans is also on a quest to achieve the near unattainable, of saving her brothers, demonstrating a strong family value, from the spell cast upon them by their evil stepmother. The Wild Swans was written during the Victorian Era, which was the time when Britain was the richest colonial empire. Like Lawrence, Hans Christian Anderson despised the value of money and wealth, having been brought up in poverty himself, and also found revulsion in the patriarchal system of the church. During the Victorian Era new scientific theories challenged many religious beliefs, which made society reassess their values and lose faith in traditional religious beliefs. Anderson demonstrates, through The Wild Swans, his own Christian ideals that perseverance and a faith in God, with out the interference of the Church, will bring reward.

Family values are shown in both of the texts, but this portrayal is structured in binary opposing ways in each. Anderson’s appreciation for the value of family is shown through Elisa’s quest to find her long lost brothers. Elisa knows that she will find her brothers and “trusted that God would not leave her.” Elisa’s perseverance is a true depiction of Anderson’s value that dedication and a ‘one on one’ relationship with God will bring reward. Anderson portrays through the use of similes that Elisa is never alone, as she will always have nature and God on her side. Even the smallest of creatures, like the glow-worms, “falling to the ground like shooting stars” want to help Elisa on her quest, by lighting up the dark and silent night for her. God lets Elisa know that He is watching over her from above when the “branches above her seemed to be drawn aside like a curtain” to allow her to see “God looking down at her, with angels peeping over His shoulders and out from under His arms.” Elisa shows the qualities of courage and endurance, when she takes on the task of knitting eleven shirts from the flax of nettles. Anderson uses emotive language as “wept bitterly” and “hopelessly sad” to evoke sympathy for Elisa as she accepts an enormous task. Elisa tortures herself with the blistering and burning of her hands and feet from the nettles she must weave as she feels that she “must attempt it and God will help” her, in order to save her family. A diminished value of family connections is portrayed in the story the Rocking-Horse Winner as opposed to the important role that love between family members has in the Wild Swans. Paul’s mother, Hester, feels empty inside because of the lack of wealth and money in her life, and with no wealth, she feels like she has no identity. This emptiness inside is the reason why she cannot love her children with the love, which should be present in every mother, and this is why she lavishes Paul and his sisters with gifts like the “shining modern rocking horse” and a “smart doll’s houses”, as compensation for her lack of lovingness towards them. The hollow toys are symbolic of what is felt inside by the mother and the children; emptiness. Lawrence has written about the family’s state at the beginning of the story with many metaphorical mentions about Hester’s and her children’s eyes and hearts as they are considered to be the location of a persons soul, which straight away informs that the souls of the characters are cold lonely and empty. Paul takes onboard a mission to “compel her attention”, prove to her that he is lucky and with that luck he will satisfy her need for wealth which inturn, will satisfy his need for love from his mother. However this dedication to satisfy his mother’s needs jeopardises his relationship with his sisters as they become afraid of him.

Therefore Paul becomes more and more isolated from the family as he is trying to save it, which shows Lawrence’s belief that an obsession of money and wealth, misleads people into forgetting the true value of family.

Elisa has a pure belief that God will be with her always, no matter what time or where she is. This is a reflection of Anderson’s belief that one doesn’t have to go through the church to be close to God. The bitter character of the Archbishop in the story is a negative reflection of the church in Victorian times. During these times the church was a patriarchal system, with members of the church being looked upon as a majestic figure, treated like royalty, not a person following God’s calling to serve the people, but for self benefit. Elisa is young innocent child who is a good Christian and says her prayers regularly. Anderson used Elisa’s undressing and bathing in a clear pool of water to symbolise the Christian way of baptising, reinforcing Elisa’s noble and everlasting relationship with God, while she was miserable and missing her brothers. It was only when the Archbishop came into Elisa’s life when things started to go wrong for her. The Archbishop’s oppressive nature was able to turn the King, who had fallen in love with Elisa, and the people of the public, who had earlier rejoiced their new queen, against Elisa. This is a reflection of the way in which the members of the church were making the people turn their backs on their belief of God by what the members were preaching. This is an example of the sort of patriarchal system, which Anderson despises. Paul believes that his rocking horse will take him to where he wants to go; to “where the luck is”. Paul’s faith in his rocking horse is as strong as Elisa’s faith in God. Paul’s “mad little journeys” are symbolic of the spiritual path, which he must take to find fulfilment. Both Paul and his partner Basset take their horse races “serious as church” and often talk about them in a “secret, religious voice”.

Paul’s obsession with the winning races is overwhelming and consumes his soul. Whenever Paul begins his “mechanical gallops” his eyes “blaze with a sort of madness” and with an “uncanny cold fire in them”. His eyes are mirroring his soul, consumed with the cold and desire to accumulate wealth in order for his mother to live the life which she wants; conforming to the expectations of the patriarchal society in which they live in. Hester, the mother of Paul, was passionately concerned about the image she portrayed to her friends. She always appeared to be “such a good mother” who “adores her children" and was obsessed with materialistic commodities to prove that she is an important member of society and worthy of the “social position, which they had to keep up.” The misguided value put onto wealth by Hester reflects the materialistic concerns of the twentieth century society, which Lawrence is aware of and feels uneasy about. Behind the front, put up by Hester, the house in which they lived “became haunted by the unspoken phrase There must be more money!” Lawrence uses personification in a curious way to demonstrate how prominent the need for money was if “The big doll, sitting so pink and smirking in her new pram, could hear it quite plainly, and seemed to be smirking all the more self-consciously because of it” To stop the whispering in the house and to satisfy his craving for love from his mother, Paul tries to fill the financial void in her life. After secretly giving his mother money to pay off all debts, he is disappointed that his mother only thought his gift was “quite moderately nice” and the voices in the house “trilled and screamed in a sort of ecstasy.” After this the recurrent description of Paul’s “mad journeys” intensify, giving more and more insight as the story progresses. These descriptions makes the reader aware of things heard and felt, and the mechanisms of the rocking horse become audible and Paul’s rides can be imagined which makes his madness and isolation from the family evident. “It was a soundless noise, yet rushing and powerful. Something huge, in violent hushed motion.” The patriarchal society which That’s mother wanted to belong to kill her son with the sacrilegious effort he put out to satisfy her insatiable greed.

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Monday, November 29, 2010

Quality Research Papers for Sale

Quality Research Papers for Sale!

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Essay on Roe V. Wade

Essay on Roe V. Wade

Roe V. Wade, is a great case which shows evidence that human rights is an important issue even in this trying time when the world has gone completely crazy. The issue at hand is the right of women to choose whether or not to use their bodies as vessels for new life. What if your mother, sister, or wife happen to fall prey to some sort of predator: what do you do in this case.

Do you have a child of a Bastard in your family or not that is the question at hand. If your a red blooded American like myself than you don't stand for that sort of bullshit at all. The first thing you do is go out and buy the biggest load of weapons that you can, then you golooking for the bastards that got your loved ones. Once you find the good for nothing Bastards you get them in your sights and just star squeezing the trigger as quick as you possibly can. Once all the smoke clears than you can start checking all the dead carcuses to see if there is any life left in the lungs of the enemy. If this does't work keep trying until it does.

On the other hand you may just try talking your way out of this type of stickey situation. This might prove to be more problems than it's really worth to you so just be careful of what you wish for. Just remember that this sort of drama in your life can lead to more drama later and thats not what you probably want to do so just be extra careful of what sort of choices you make from here on out okay, great.

In conclusion, it has been great practicing my typing abilities and I sincerely hope that this essay paper is of some good use in the on going battle between faculties and studentsaround the world. On a totally seperate issue I think girls are just great the have great features that men just couldn't handle if left to do so, it is no wonder just about everybody thinks that the females body is just so beatiful and oh so full of curves. Well I guess I'm just rambling on now so so long and may your individual journey for wisdom be greatly rewarded.

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Sunday, November 28, 2010

Research Paper on Fahrenheit 451

Research Paper on Fahrenheit 451

When Ray Bradbury sat down and decided to write Fahrenheit 451, he knew that our country was headed in the wrong direction. He saw our society taking a turn for the worst. I do not believe that our country will ever reach the extremities that Fahrenheit 451 reached, but I do believe that our society resembles some aspects of the society in the book. Our culture in the United States is already banning books, starting to lack interest in reading, and trying so hard to equalize everyone.

One aspect our society has that is expressed throughout that book is the hostility our citizens have towards books. Today it is very hard for schools to make a reading list for students. They can not put a lot of classics on the list because the minorities in our society cry discrimination and prejudice at the drop of a hat.

They become too sensitive when it comes to the decades when their ancestors where slaves. A lot of the classic novels are set in that time period. The authors are not trying to hurt feelings, but to give people today a historically accurate book. Some books that have been banned from such lists include To Kill A Mockingbird and Huckleberry Finn.


These books are being banned because minority groups can not read passed a couple of words or phrases to actually find the real messages that the authors are trying to get across.

Another aspect that is used in the book from our society is that no one is interested in reading anymore. People in our society are turning away from reading and instead spending time in the world of media. The average amount of time that kids ages two through eighteen spend using media a day is five-and-a-half hours. As reported in 1999, an average American child grows up in a home with three TV sets, three tape players, three radios, two CD players, two VCRs, one video game console, and one computer. Also in 1999, the average amount that kids spent watching TV per day was two hours and forty-six minutes. That is a lot of TV watching compared to the forty-four minutes that is averaged for how long a kid spends reading for fun a day. The lack of reading shows in statistics taken from everyone in our society.

While six million videos are rented daily, only three million public library items are checked out daily. It is not only children that our consumed in all the media, but also students attending high school. Scores from College Board verbal exams have dropped dramatically between 1972 and 1990.

Decreasing from one hundred twelve thousand to seventy-two thousand students scoring between a six hundred and eight hundred on the verbal section of the SAT. Analysts believe that the dropped scores are due to students replacing extensive reading with TV viewing. Also the huge mass of published material can be so overwhelming that students no longer read the full version of novels. Students are starting to read condensed books known as “Cliff Notes”. Since media and technology has become part of everyday life, we are starting to stop doing everyday tasks and letting our technological machines do it for us. In the book this occurs as well, because when books were taken out of their society, people no longer had the knowledge to do simple tasks. Instead machines did it for them.

The biggest issue in the society of the book is everyone has to be equal. They took away the books to make everything more equalized. As a result to all this, the characters in the book became non-threatening and non-interesting humans. Our society has been pushing since the equal rights movement started to be treated equal. Now there are no pre-set requirements when entering the honors program when you are in Elementary school. Kids who are not qualified for these programs can get put into them because our nation wants everyone to be treated equally and be given a fair chance. Previous performance in class and on tests no longer matters. Also one reason why we have standardized dress now is to make everyone equal. The administration feels that if we have tags on our clothes, individuals will target out other students who do not have the same clothing and discriminate against them.

Also our government is trying to make us more equal in the way we pay our taxes. The more money you make and spend, the more taxes you have to pay. That way the rich people are losing more money per year and the poor people are not paying as much. This provides everyone to start getting closer in the money they make. Every year the United States seems to take one step further in becoming equal.

Again, I do not think that our society is or ever will reach the extremities that Fahrenheit 451 does. But our society does suggest a lot of comparisons. Our reading levels are dropping and our time spent with media is growing. I am trapped in this situation right now as well. I would rather be watching my favorite TV show than reading. I wait until the last possible second to do homework and end up using condensed books rather than reading the full novel. If our society’s reading time does not start to pick up, our turn for the worst will become even a sharper turn.

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Research Paper on Caffeine

Research Paper on Caffeine

Most of us don’t know, but caffeine is present in almost every drink sold in supermarkets. Most people consume caffeine because of the positive effects it has, however, most of us would be shocked at the negative effects it imposes. Caffeine, for years, has been regarded as a mild stimulant whose usage throughout the world has increased greatly because of the effects it has on the central nervous system. However, if you knew that caffeine causes physical and psychological dependence just after 1-3 cups, would you take it?

Among teens and adults, caffeine is considered an important aspect of life probably because it greatly improves mood, mental performance, and physical performance. The affects of caffeine on mood are indescribable because it increases one’s confidence and makes one more energetic. Psychologically, caffeine combats mental fatigue and lethargic behavior. In studies, it was shown that caffeine helps people pay attention to a repeating series of noises and images. It is clear that caffeine can help you focus during prolonged activities and help one improve complex mental skills. In addition, caffeine gives one the energy and strength to complete difficult physical tasks by fighting muscular fatigue. For these reasons, caffeine is taken consistently by adults and teens, and that is why it is considered very important in daily life.



Although caffeine has many positive effects, it also poses many negative effects. After about 3 cups of coffee, your body becomes dependent on caffeine. To demonstrate this, a study was done on a group of volunteers who drank 1-3 cups of coffee who soon developed the main symptom of caffeine withdrawal or headaches. Depression, anxiousness, feelings of fatigue, and even flu like symptoms were present in ten percent of the volunteers. Not only does caffeine cause trembling hands and insomnia, but too much can lead to diarrhea and excessive urination.

Caffeine, above all, should not be mixed with other drugs because caffeine can increase the stimulant effects of other drugs such as appetite suppressants and tranquilizers. Interaction of caffeine with birth control pills or Verapamil can limit the body’s ability to eliminate caffeine causing insomnia and palpitations or rapid heart beats. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, can be another dangerous effect caused by caffeine when consumed at great amounts. Caffeine can also pose a risk to women because it decreases their chances of getting pregnant and increases the chance of miscarriage. Increased amounts of caffeine consumption can over stimulate the fetus causing abnormal heart beats before and after birth. Caffeine, in as little as 2 cups of coffee in postmenopausal women, can cause a great amount of bone loss. Ulcers are also a side effect of caffeine intake because caffeine stimulates secretion of gastric acid causing irritated stomach ulcers and heartburn. Because of the harmful effects of caffeine, it is essential that it be taken in moderation.

It is clear from the information above that caffeine taken consistently can have very dangerous effects. So why is caffeine taken so often? For one, food and drug manufacturers aren’t required to list the amounts of caffeine on their products, so parents nor adults know what they’re consuming. Caffeine is present in many medications such as cold combinations, analgesics, and stimulants. Kolephrin, a type of cold combination, has twice the amount of caffeine and is almost equal to the amount of caffeine in instant coffee. In beverages, large amounts of caffeine are present in Black tea, Green tea, Mountain dew, Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Java Water, etc. It is important to note, that some of the caffeine from the drinks above is natural such as that from Coca-Cola. However, some beverage companies such as Mountain Dew add caffeine so that it becomes slightly addictive. Children who consume soda on a daily basis often suffer from withdrawal effects because of the lack of caffeine. For these reasons, it is essential the food and drug manufacturers list the amounts of caffeine in their products.

As one can see, the negative effects of caffeine greatly outweigh the positive effects. So why is caffeine so appealing to people? Nutritionists believe that caffeine does not pose a risk to kids and teens when taken in moderation. Adults desire the caffeine because it improves mood, mental performance, and physical performance. However, if caffeine is consumed in great amounts over short periods of time, it can cause withdrawal effects such as headaches and lead to caffeine dependency, hypertension, ulcers, etc. Because of this, it is necessary for food and drug companies to label the amounts of caffeine. One can conclude that caffeine when taken in moderation can have pleasing effects on the central nervous system which most people clearly desire.

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Saturday, November 27, 2010

Essay on Mountain Biking

Essay on Mountain Biking

Have you ever wondered, what it would be like to mountain bike in Hawaii? Where priests (kahuna) and royalty (ali`i) roamed. Also, where human sacrifices ordained in the cases of grave illnesses, for the birth of a first born son, success in war, and to prevent natural disasters.

With all the treacherous hills and tranquilizing sounds of the wind, inspiring views of the mountains and waterfalls; the adventure is exhausting, extraordinary, extreme torture, and astonishing. A trail that I favor the most out of other popular trails in Hawaii: The Aiea Loop Trail. The Trail being so breathtaking, that it became a weekend ritual that my friends and I had to challenge its dangerous route. Mountain biking is a sport to some people; is a way to relax, and get a good exercise to other people. Mountain Biking is a challenge for me; a challenge to over come all the fears that I have deep inside that need to escape. Let me take you the long ten-mile journey through the Aiea Loop Trail.

A devastating and long waited journey started at about six thirty in the morning, by charging up my weakened body with ice-cold refreshing water and some delicious energy bars. Each of us is in our own world when we ride, observing what we are leaving behind: Houses, cars, shopping centers, baseball parks, and gravel roads.



Knowingly, the journey ahead of us is a way to escape our fears and the things we do on a daily basis; and if there is anything that we do not know how to accomplish effectively; we will accomplish this rideѕwith bloody shins, bruised buttocks, and a feeling with happiness and enjoyment that we had beat the Aiea Loop trailѕand start a new week and wait anxiously for the next weekend.

As I strapped my helmet securely to my head, and appeased my shades on, I jumped onto my bike like I was a cowboy jumping onto his horse, I rode off into the mountains as if I were running away from the world. The start of the trail was bumpy and very muddy, because of the tropical environment. My skills helped me overcome those unsophisticated obstacles. By mastering the braking system that was equipped with my bike, I could easily get through the muddy trails. With the help of the dual suspension on the bike I glided like the wind though the bumpy dark trail. Speeding down the trail, my eyes became watery from the wind blowing into my face, though my shades are on to keep the glare from disrupting my view, the wind crept in from the sides. The trail is not like a normal trail that you would hike on, there are steep hills and steep drops that are at times have sixty-degree angles and four to seven foot drops. The skill involved climbing the hills is in a sense changing a stick shift in a car, but the process in getting to the top is not as easy as driving a car.

Finally, arriving at the bottom of the trail was an easy challenge, I had to tackle devils cliff, which are cliffs going down, the degree of the angles are about eighty degrees. In which I successfully accomplished by bunny hopping off the cliff, then bunny hopping off the next cliff. Coming to a stop to the last cliff, I calculated and memorized the deadly path that was ahead of me. I gripped my sweaty hands on the handlebars, gently touching the brake levers, adjusted my butt behind my seat so that most of my weight is on the back tire. I peacefully pedaled off the cliff, dodging tree logs, braches and rocks. Reaching the end of the cliff, I couldn’t stop, I needed speed.

With many obstacles that I encountered on my ride, the rest of the trail ahead of me, had a major, wet and disgusting obstacle in its path: Aiea Stream. Its length is twenty feet wide, and the only thing that I could have done to avoid the stream, was to jump the stream. There is a man-made dirt mound five feet from the stream that I used to jump the stream. While viewing my speedometer, I cleared the jump at about forty-five miles an hour in the airѕachieving an outstanding table topѕbut I did not land as clean as I hoped. My body landed ten feet from my bike and my face landed clean on the ground. The taste of blood and dirt in my mouthѕa combination of warm salty bitterness and dry grainy grit—was not surpassingly tasty. With the surprising and avoidable accident, it was time to lay back, relax, and enjoy the stunning view of the mountains and light blue skies. Enjoying an afternoon in the tropical forest is very remarkable. The taste of fresh cold water from the mountains was cleansing and soothing feeling for my painful mouth, not like tap water from your house. The scent of fresh passion-orange guava fruit and the relaxing sound of Aiea stream, hypnotized my thoughts as well as my presence; that day was a good day to crash and burn.

While Filling up my camel-pack with water from Aiea Stream, I started out on the rest my journey. Two miles left, I felt the evil presence of Dead Mans Hill. Dead Mans Hill is what is feared by all of the Aiea Loop Trail. The hill is at a hideous sixty-degree angle, with scary three feet wide path and is two miles long. This hill is exhaustingly and deadly, which requires extreme skillful tactics. While pedaling in the lowest gear possible, balancing myself on the narrow three foot wide trail and observing the seventy foot drop below, I was forced to concentrate, and skillfully use my gears accordingly. The last quarter mile of the trail is what I have always looked forward to. When you can overlook the gulch and view the gamble you had taken, that you had successfully crossed and still alive with minor bruises. And I calmly, expressively patted myself on the back and said “It was a good day to ride”

Mountain Biking in Hawaii is wonderful and a great experience to share with your family and friends. With all the trails designated for mountain biking in Hawaii, the Aiea Trail is highly recommended and is only recommended for advanced riders. You will experience the ride of your life with wonderful views, painful spills, and a memorable time in the mountains of Hawaii.

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Essay on Car Robbery

Essay on Car Robbery

Now a days cities and towns are getting more crowded. In California, people have more cars per one family. As a link to that, people have less space to make parking lots. Most houses have parking lots in the basement of their apartments. Some of the houses have parking by the side of the streets. That way it gets more crowded.

Sometimes people, who live in apartments and park by the street, usually don’t get a parking space if they don’t get there early. Therefore, they have to park their cars far from their apartments. There are more chances of getting car stolen when people park their cars far away from their houses and in an isolated area.

People could get car robbed by making some easy mistakes. Such as leaving the keys in the ignitions, leaving the door unlock while putting or taking things out of the trunk, and sometimes reselling it.

You can solve the problem of car robbery by working on some of your habits. One of those habits is leaving the key inside of the car. In some cases, people, if they want to go to pick up somebody, they just leave the keys in the ignitions. They think they will come back in a minute. But in that minute anybody who only does the business of stealing, has a good chance of taking off with the car. It happens more in the residential area than at the stores. If they can‘t remember to take out the keys then they should have some kind of beeper system. So if they leave the key inside the car than the beeper beeps and then they don’t have a problem of getting their car stolen.



Another mistake people do is they leave the door unlock. You can solve that by having a beeper system. Another, having an alarm system. That goes on when you leave the door open. Also, you should check all doors twice before you off to any place you want to go. Most of the time people are in so much hurry that they forget to lock the door. Sometimes they lock all the doors by using the manual lock. It may not always work. Most of the time it works, but you never know when something will happen if the door you think is locked, and it’s not. So it’s better to use a key to lock the door than using a manual lock.

The next thing people do is, they do not use a key to open the trunk. They use a remote, or they open the trunk from inside of the car. That way they forget to lock the door and just go to put things or take out things from the trunk. Sometimes someone can come and drive away with the car. Once in the news they showed how someone drove away a car with child in it.

Cars even get stolen while reselling them. Sometimes when people want to resell the car, they let the customer try it who sometimes drive off and never come back. It was in the news one day, “be careful while reselling the car.” If you want to resell the car, and the other person wants to try it, then you should go with that person. Another, you can get all the registration papers and other important document from the car, so that person can not sell it again. Next, you can get that person’s address, phone number, and other information before showing the car, and letting them try it.

It’s a big risk if you forget the key inside, or leave the door open even by mistake. It costs people much more than their money and time. Usually people do such kind of mistake in hurry. Also, you can not know by looking at a person that if that person is a robber or not. Therefore, I think there are many ways to remind your self that someone could take a chance of your forgetful memory. Finally, these were some of the solution for prevent your cars stolen.

Warning!!! All free online essays, sample essays and essay examples on Car Robbery are plagiarized and cannot be completely used in your school, college or university education.

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Research Paper on Woodstock

Research Paper on Woodstock

When it comes to music, since its contraception, each generation has had something to celebrate. In 1969, because of the need to celebrate, a three day, muddy, drug induced haze in Sullivan County, New York that became known as Woodstock was born. The Woodstock ’69 festival has evolved from a national concert to promote peace, love and social prosperity to the Woodstock ’99 show which was a world wide music event that was focused around commercialism, greed, selfishness, and the attempt to re-create a time of music and peace that happened to turn into one of the greatest musical concerts in the history of music.

In a viable effort to re-create the original Woodstock for a new generation in 1999, there were some similarities that attempted to stay true to its historical roots ,while there were many differences making the thought of Woodstock ’99 into something totally different for today’s generation.

Through much controversy and many differences, there were some similarities that shined through without question. The tribute factor of both shows is evident. The 1969 show was a tribute to peace, love, and social prosperity; and it was conceived by many as a tribute to the generation. Though the war was in full effect at that time, the people had it in their heads that it was still a good time to celebrate and come together to as one to spread love and peace everywhere.

The 1969 show was considered to be the end of the hippie era and the beginning of something new after the war. Many of the performers were dedicated to the anti-war campaign and over whelming patriotism.


The show began at 5:07pm Eastern Daylight Savings time on August 15, 1969. After some rearranging of the lineup, it came to be that Richie Havnes opened the show, followed by such artists as Country Joe McDonald, Tim Hardin, Ravi Shankar, Joan Baez, and Sly and the Family Stone. The set was to end at 3:00am with The Who. Havnes had to play for almost three hours because other acts had not arrived. While he was playing his last song, “Freedom”, a US Army Helicopter arrived with the other acts. Saturday’s lineup included some of music’s greatest. The Grateful Dead, Credence Clear Water Revival, Janis Joplin, Santana, and Jefferson Airplane were among the many that took part.

One of the most memorable performances of the entire show was The Great Jimi Hendrix playing “The Star Spangled Banner” on his electric guitar at 9:00 Monday morning. The anti- war aura that was already present at the festival was now even more because of that.

The ’99 show started in a very similar manner with Kid Rock playing Jimi Hendrix’s “Star Spangled Banner” at the opening of his set. That, too many, was an impressive attempt to give respect to the late and great. Hendrix was remembered by many artists and bands at the show. The Red Hot Chili Peppers covered his song “Fire”. Tammy Rae gave tribute to the late Janis Joplin by performing her song “Mercedes Benz” that seemed to be a crowd favorite. The organizers, in hopes to re-create some of the nostalgia of the first show, brought some artists that were around during the first show and that era, such as Santana (who has performed at all three Woodstock shows), James Brown, George Clinton, and Aerosmith, who did not perform at the ’69 show but attended, and ended up playing at both the ’94 and the ’99 shows.

As time went on after the ’69 show, people tried to create shows that would be bigger and better than Woodstock. In 1970, The Rolling Stones organized a show they dubbed “Woodstock of the west” in Altamont, California. However. Unlike the peaceful atmosphere at Woodstock, the Altamont show turned deadly when the Hells Angels biker gang was hired as security and beat a black man to death in the crowd. This was not the only show to try to re-create or live up to the original Woodstock.

In 1994, they tried again making another Woodstock, however this show wasn’t all it was cracked up to be. A few months after Woodstock ’94 had wrapped up; another show was organized in hopes to beat the success of the ’94 show. This show was called “Lollapalooza”. It was a weak effort to surpass the ’94 show and was certainly not even close to the ’69 show.

After the ’99 show, the large, outdoor concert atmosphere with numerous bands and performers seemed to take on a large following and became very popular among then new generation. After noticing this, a 40 city tour, sponsored by Vans Shoes was put together involving 30-35 bands that became the Warped Tour. This tour is still happening today and is extremely popular among teens and young people of today’s generation.

After the “rival” shows came to be, it became apparent that like in 1969, the new generation was accepting variety and liking it.

After looking at the comparisons of these two shows, there are many differences as well. One major difference was the celebration fact. In 1969, the generation was celebrating love, peace and the end of the hippie era. In 1999, there was nothing to celebrate. They used the ending of the millennium and the beginning of a new one to be their reason to celebrate. In 1969, it was a time where they were coming off the era of the “British Invasion”, one of the greatest eras in music history. In 1999, yes, we were coming off what some would call the “second greatest rock era” being the grunge/alternative wave. However, the most popular genre of music at that time was the newly born rap/rock, introducing new artists such as Limp Bizkit and Insane Clown Posse, and the fathers of rap/rock, Rage Against the Machine. After two years though, the rap/rock genre wasn’t totally out of the mainstream, but it was definitely not the most popular.

Another huge difference was the crowds at both shows. At the ’69 show the crowd was mellow, laid back, and kind of doing their own thing, where as at the ’99 show, the crowd became violent and destructive causing mass chaos.

The ’69 show was very laid back, peaceful, and happy. This was a reflection of the people of that generation and the culture of that time. Things were taken in stride and put to rest the easiest, painless way possible. They were already against the war, so instead of mirroring the war back at home, they decided that peace and love were the answers.

However, in today’s society, that is not the same theory. At the ’99 show, after days of being in the sweltering heat and blistering sun, and having bands like Sugar Ray cancel on the day they were supposed to play, things got out of control. The security was useless trying to stop a powder keg of rage ready to blow. Fires were started, cars were flipped, fences were torn down, and everything was vandalized. This was not the ideal celebration of love, happiness, and music the original Woodstock ’69 organizers had envisioned. This was out of control chaos that left 8 women with miscarriages, numerous rapes, burns, and many broken bones.

If the people of the earlier generation were about promoting peace and love, because that’s how the culture was at that time, does that mean that the people of our generation are violent, selfish, greedy, and destructive? The ’99 show had an impact on many who either attended or watched on pay-per-view (for $89.99 for the full 3 days live). For the ones who were there, they thought it was a good time, because the biggest acts of that time were there and everyone seemed to enjoy themselves. When the madness started, they were just glad to be out alive. The people who watched the show from their homes had different views on the subject. After speaking with some people who attended the first Woodstock in 1969, some who attended in 1994 and some who attended in 1999, and some who watched it from home, it seemed that those who were in attendance at the ’69 show and the ones who watched it at home had the same thoughts, “They shouldn’t have tried to re-create something so wonderful. Like the saying goes.” If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.”

After doing research on this topic, I have learned a lot about both shows and the similarities and differences they had, and I now feel more educated about on of the greatest events in history, and the attempt to re-create that.

Warning!!! All free online research papers, research paper samples and example research papers on any writing topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education.

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Friday, November 26, 2010

Pay for Essay Papers

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Research Paper on Sex Offenders

Research Paper on Sex Offenders

The law is a reflection of the values of society, and therefore needs reform as the needs and values of society change. Conditions that may lead to law reform include failure of existing laws, international law reform, and the impact of new technology. Each of these conditions impact upon societal needs and values and consequentially often give way to reform of the legal system.

Whilst reflecting the values of society, the law also has the responsibility to protect the rights of both the victim and the accused. Thus, when changes in the law occur, a balance between maintaining the rights of the accused and not abusing the rights of the victim must be sustained. At times this creates conflict, particularly when it is perceived that the rights of the accused are too extensive. Such conflict has occurred within Australia with regards to sex offender registers and how effective these registers really are in balancing the rights of the victim, the accused and the community.

In June 1999, there became increasing calls for sex offender legislation, similar to that of America’s “Megan’s law” legislation, to be implemented in Australia. This came with the release of convicted sex offender and murderer John Lewthwaite, which caused much hype from the media and a general public outcry to condemn sex offenders further. This case was to be the trigger of a long string of amended legislation which kept being amended the Sexual Offences (protection of children) Bill was finally implemented in 2002. In a statement by Bob Carr, NSW Premier, he claimed that there was a great need for a national paedophile register, stating that “paedophiles do not respect boundaries”.


The Bill created an official register of convicted sex offenders. It would mean that convicted paedophiles must let police know of any change to their address, place of employment, travel details or vehicle registration. The penalty for not doing so is an $11 000 fine or two years imprisonment. Based upon the foundations of “Megan’s law”, this new legislation would provide “notification procedure to alert law enforcement, schools, community organisations and neighbours to the presence of a sex offender who the authorities believe may pose a risk to the community.”

Many perceive that it is the public’s right to know of sex offenders living in their area, as such information and knowledge will assist them in protecting their children. However, in the process of upholding the rights of children and the community as a whole, the rights of the accused have been significantly violated. There has been much debate over whether the civil liberties and privacy rights of not only the accused but also their families and associates, should be taken into consideration. Or if the rights of the victim and community override any rights the accused may be entitled to.

The case of R v Ferguson in Queensland has recently raised such conflict over sex offender registration in a similar way that Lewthwaite’s case did in 1999. Ferguson was released from prison on 9 January 2003, after serving 15 years for sexually abusing three children in a Brisbane hotel room in 1987. Supreme Court Justice Ken Mackenzie has ruled that Ferguson report his details to the police for the next fifteen years. The ruling has raised a number of concerns over the effectiveness of the law and whether the rights of the accused have been adequately balanced with the rights of the victim and community.

Ferguson was released under section 13a of the Sentencing Act 1989 (NSW), which provides for the potential conditional release of life sentence prisoners. Clearly the judge felt that the release of Ferguson was appropriate and that he had adequately served his time. However he was then placed on a Sex Offender register. Such a registration program is inconsistent with the goals of society committed to protecting individual liberties and are a violation of offenders rights. Released sex offenders have paid their debt to society and should not be subjected to further punishment. Therefore, registration, in effect, imposes a double punishment on the offender, which does not apply to other categories of offender.

Once any sentence imposed has been completed, our justice system says that a person should have the opportunity to reintegrate back into the community. However with the wide availability of information about convicted offenders, this becomes difficult to accomplish. He has paid his debt to society yet many public citizens cannot see this and registers often entail a vigilante mentality towards offenders. In Ferguson’s case, merely days after his release he became subject to persecution, victimisation and violence, with members of the community becoming so violent he called for police assistance on a number of occasions. Media reports have stated that… clearly Ferguson’s rights have been quite severely breached.

However, the accused’s rights must also be balanced with those rights of the victim. Because of a child’s vulnerability they have specific rights that don’t necessarily apply to other members of the community. Specific children’s rights are considered necessary to protect their integrity and dignity, and to assist the child’s development. These rights are outlined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which Australia ratified on 17 December 1990 (give an exapmle!) to ensure the protection of children takes paramount concern. Although it must also be taken into account that in cases of intra-familial sex offences, the identity of victims may inadvertently be disclosed through family name. In this sense registers would also be violating the victim’s rights and may cause extra, unnecessary trauma to the victim.

It is considered the community’s right to know, and in many ways sex offender registers do calm the sense of helplessness and fear in the community. And although the information from registers perhaps should be disclosed in certain circumstances, such as where an individual is seeking a position that would place them in the care or supervision of minors. Misuse of such information could have serious implications on the offenders and so should be used and disclosed in ways that are proportionate to the need. The current level of disclosure violates the accused person’s rights and needs to be re-assessed to balance the rights of the accused, the victim and the community more effectively.

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Thursday, November 25, 2010

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Research Paper on Rome

Research Paper on Rome

The destruction of Carthage was a result of fear, hatred and a chance to settle old scores and gain revenge for past rifts and battles. The influence of Cato in stimulating the sheer hatred of Carthage within the senate was necessary to gain the economic benefits, which would be derived only from the complete obliteration and abolition of Carthage. The sheer driving power of Scipio Aemilianus and his role as consul in Africa provoked warfare and ensured that the fate of Carthage was one of ruin. Adopting a new hard-line foreign policy, Rome began to treat their enemies more harshly, and introduced a hardening attitude towards those states that broke treaties and involved Rome in long and costly wars. Able to combine the intellect of both Cato and Scipio together with Rome’s new hard foreign policy, the total destruction of Carthage was inevitable and unavoidable.

The Provocation and frustration aroused by Masinissa’s quest for the establishment of Africa as an empire initiated the third Punic War. The peace treaty of 201 prevented the Carthaginians declaring war without Rome’s permission and therefore enabled Masinissa to act without fear of a counter attack or through an underlying search for revenge. Rome’s reaction to Masinissa’s search for Africa as an empire can be seen in the commission sent to Africa by Rome in 172. Livy records that Carthage asked the senate to decide if the territorial claims of Masinissa were fair, or to enable them to declare war on him. Masinissa’s son, Gulussa implored the senate “Not to believe their common enemies”. Livy records that “The Carthaginians protested that…more than seventy towns and fortified places on Carthaginian territory had been taken over by Masinissa”… However, with the restricting peace treaty in place, Carthage could not directly attack Africa or declare any act of aggression without Rome’s permission. Being a strategist and a man drive and coercion, Masinissa reinforced his loyalty to the Romans by sending corn and elephants and kept the fear of a Punic uprising at the forefront of Roman thoughts. Cato added to this fear and promoted the total destruction of Carthage in the Roman senate.


Cato played an influential role stimulating hatred of the Carthaginians and promoted the total destruction of Carthage within the Roman senate. Cato believed that the economic benefits by Rome completely destroying Carthage were in abundance and Cary and Scullard claim Cato’s motive “Was honest, however it misguided fear”. After the initial outbreak of war the senate followed Cato’s line to destroy Carthage totally as he claimed they had broken the 201 peace treaty. Cato understood the power of persuasion and rhetoric and gained influence within the senate by including the phrase “Carthage must be destroyed” in order to continually drive the Romans to his cause. As noted by Cary and Scullard, the Carthaginians reacted by turning from “Object submission to frenzied defiance” as they worked on the defence of the city and the replenishment of military and naval arsenals.

The sheer driving power of Scipio Aemilianus and his role as consul in Africa provoked the total destruction of Carthage. Elected as consul in 147, Scipio had the support of Cato and the Roman senate thus guaranteeing his campaign for Carthage to surface. Scipio bought a single aim to the campaign, the destruction of Carthage by close investment and assault, such as a double line of earth works, which prevented supplies reaching Carthage by land, and the building of a mole to close off the opening of the Carthaginian harbour mouth. Scipio was able to surround Carthage by positing his battering rams and other siege engines against the wall surrounding Carthage to ensure the total defeat and elimination of the Carthaginians. Scipio’s imaginative foresight is evident as he cuts Carthage off from both sea and land taking possession of the new harbour entrance. Able to gain a firm hold upon the city wall and penetrate dockyard buildings, Hasdrubal ordered the whole area to beset alright, however Scipio bought in a fresh legion. Appian’s account of the final destruction of Carthage describes the Carthaginians shooting missiles from houses aimed at the Romans in the streets, however the Romans would not be deterred and entered the buildings quickly defeating the Carthaginians. Appian recalls, “Scipio ordered all the sector to be fired and the ruins cleared away to give a better passage to his troops”. Scipio’s coerce and power and role as consul ensured his aim for the destruction of Carthage was put into effect.

Rome introduced a new hard line foreign policy after the destruction of Carthage in the third Punic war. Carthaginian envoys offered to surrender and over 50 000 men, women and children were sold into slavery. Rome ensured the continuance of their future alliances and rewarded Phoenician cities with freedom and territory for their desertion of Carthage. Treating their enemies more harshly, Rome introduced a hardening attitude towards those states that broke treaties and involved Rome in long and costly wars. Tarnished by “The Callous and calculating ways in which the order (to destroy Carthage) was enforced…” (Cary and Scullard) Rome’s shift in foreign policy and the new hard line and aggressive approach guaranteed the future establishment and growth of Rome as a prominent empire.

The destruction of Carthage as a need to gain revenge and quell a sense of hate and fear is reliant upon the influences of Scipio Aemilianus and Cato. Able to use their positions as consul and popularity within the Roman senate to encourage a sense of hate towards the Carthaginians, the desolation of Carthage is a result of the foresight and aims of both personalities. Combined with the new hard-line foreign policy adopted to discourage allies to drift from Roman allegiance the combination of all three factors added to the complete annihilation of Carthage. Using their individual strengths and prudence in order to guarantee the future of Rome, the devastation of Carthage was inevitable as all three factors added to the success of the Romans within their defeat against Carthage in the Third Punic War.

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Wednesday, November 24, 2010

Research Paper on Seat Belts

Research Paper on Seat Belts

Have you ever been driving down the Highway in the left-hand lane and have someone pass you on the right, only to cut you off? I know I have, as a matter of fact it happened to me just last week. The driver of this particular vehicle was clutching the steering wheel with a cell phone in one hand, and a hairbrush in the other hand. Shortly after this near death experience I was pulled over and cited solely for the purpose of not wearing my seat belt. Most people agree that seat belts save lives in certain types of accidents, and that all children under the age of 18 should be buckled in. Now with that said, I do not believe in the enforcement of the mandatory seat belt law on adults, because these laws are motivated by financial greed, infringe on our rights, and keep the police from working on more important issues.

First of all, I think we are all familiar with the expression “There is never a cop around when you need one.” The reason is you never see a cop is because they’re out patrolling the streets for seat belt violators. This reasoning isn't far from the truth; a friend of mine (who just happens to be a CHP officer) told me that he devotes about 25 percent of his time to seat belt violators. This is a gross injustice of our tax dollars, being that at 91 percent California already has the highest rate of seat belt compliance in the nation. Certainly the police have more important issues to contend with rather than hunting down and ticketing the dreaded seatbelt violators. I think our tax dollars would be better spent on fixing up the roads to make them safer.

Secondly, we were told seat belt laws were initiated for our safety, when in fact seat belt laws were motivated by financial greed. Over the years our government has bombarded us with the slogan "Seat Belts Save Lives," which is true in certain types of traffic accidents. But, there is plenty of proof that in other types of accidents people have been seriously maimed, or even killed because of seat belt use. The government regurgitates statistics that are bias and in favor of the mandatory seat belt law. We never hear about the people that could not escape from their burning or sinking vehicles. This leads me to believe that maybe the government had some other motive…money. Besides all the money generated by the issuing of tickets, states that participate in this law also receives federal grants. The money from these grants is used to pay the officers overtime while enforcing the seat belt law. This generous overtime incentive helps relieve the pressure for police salary increases, which is why the police support enforcement of these laws.

Thirdly, this insidious law infringes on our constitutional rights. In California we can be pulled over for the mere suspicion of non-seatbelt compliance. Even if the officer is mistaken, once they have you pulled over you can be subjected to interrogation, field sobriety tests, and a visual inspection of your car, all without legal representation present. The police often use this same type of procedure in racial profiling, often-targeting minorities, women, and young people that are usually traveling alone and at night. In this country we have the right to the procurement of one's own personal health and safety. We have the right to refuse any medical procedure or use any medical device even if it results in premature death. Therefore, this law violates all of our constitutional rights.

In conclusion, I believe in the voluntary use of seat belts for adults, as with any other health care or medical device; however, I do have a problem with the state mandatory seat belt law. It’s not the job of the police department to make sure that we are all wearing our medical devices.

What’s next, are the police going to stop by in the morning and fine us for not taking our vitamins? More and more everyday we are losing are constitutional rights. Nowadays it’ legal for the government to read our e-mails, tap our phone lines, and pull us out of our vehicles to interrogate us for not wearing our seat belts. More people should get out and vote and speak their minds or before long we won’t have any rights left.

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Term Paper on Agriculture

Term Paper on Agriculture

Since colonial explorers first sought to transform the Amazon into an agricultural landscape, agriculture in the Amazon has signified a means for taming the “wild” rainforest and benefiting human society. Alfred Russell Wallace, an English naturalist that studied in the Amazon from 1849-52, believed that in the Amazon “nature and the climate are nowhere more favorable to the labourer, and I fearlessly assert that here the ‘primeval’ forest can be converted into rich pasture and meadow land, into cultivated fields, gardens and orchards, containing every variety of produce, with half the labour…” (Wallace 1853: 335 in de Onis 1992: 24). The belief that the Amazon’s lush greenery indicated fertile soils suitable for commercial agriculture carried weight throughout the agricultural development plans of the 1960s-1980s. Agrarian reform programs and the development of the cattle industry during this period sought to ease population pressures in northeastern and southern Brazil and catalyze economic growth. Decades later, scientists, policymakers and regional planners question the suitability of this agricultural development model for the Amazon due to its social and environmental consequences (e.g., rural migration, abandonment of settlement plots, soil erosion and deforestation). Despite the lessons learned, a similar agricultural model based on the export of soybeans is being implemented in the Santarém region. The economic and scientific “success” of soybean production in Brazil’s cerrado is in part responsible for the push to expand soybean production to the Amazon. Fearnside (2001: 27) explains that the political discourse argues that “a few decades ago no one believed that the cerrado was good for anything, and now it is a great producer of soybeans. The next line in such rhetoric normally goes, ‘If only we believe in Amazonia…’” Just as previous agricultural development models were believed to save the Amazon from social and economic decay, soybeans are being taunted as the means for fast-track economic development. Advocates stress that soybean production will bring employment opportunities, improve infrastructure, diminish rural migration, and establish a sustainable economic path for the Amazon.

In this paper, I will look at the potential social and economic benefits proffered by the political-economic discourse for the Santarém region. In doing so, I will demonstrate the political-economic structures that are encouraging the expansion of soy into the Amazon, namely politically connected agro-businesses from central-southern Brazil, the government-sponsored infrastructural development program Avança Brasil, and the global soybean market. This paper will illustrate how Avança Brasil and the political-economic strength of Brazil’s agro-industry reflects Brazil’s development history of supporting large-scale economic activities, particularly agro-industrial enterprises that benefit large-landholders and national development objectives. In addition, I will explore the future outlook of the soybean agricultural model for the Santarém region with respect to sustaining rural livelihoods, regional food security, and generating regional economic opportunities. Lastly, I will briefly discuss how an export-oriented agricultural model can co-exist with smallholder agricultural production.

Agricultural Development in the Amazon: 1960s-1980s
Amazonian agricultural systems are a myriad of commercial and subsistence practices that involve cash crops and fruit trees, homegardens, swidden agriculture, and multi-purpose trees and shrubs. Development programs from 1960-1980 introduced an agricultural model to the Amazon that contrasted with the existing agricultural systems. They aimed to modernize and commercialize agriculture in the region in order to economically and socially integrate the Amazon with Brazil.


Several government programs systematically carried out the agricultural development plan including Operation Amazonia, the National Integration Program, and Program of Agricultural, Livestock, and Mineral Poles in Amazonia (POLOAMAZONIA), which directed agricultural programs from two levels-smallholder land settlement and large-scale cattle ranching (Mahar 1989) . Moran (1976) explains that the entire colonization process was overseen by National Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform (INCRA): advertising, the application process, transportation to settlement areas, land tenure, and supplying household goods and construction materials. Though it was reported that the application procedure was not consistent for each candidate (e.g., some were expected to be literate while others were not), the deliberate application process sought a particular “settler” profile (Ibid). As a result, the land settlement process was the government’s means for controlling who would be settled, where settlement would occur, and how Amazonia would be occupied. Mahar (1989: 11) supports this claim with respect to Operation Amazonia, which he asserts, “ensur[ed] national sovereignty by establishing self-sustaining settlements in frontier regions”. In this respect, colonists (colonos) marked the Amazon as Brazilian property.

As part of a development scheme, colonos represented progress and modernization. Other social groups such as caboclos were ignored entirely by government programs because they represented pre-modern, colonial times. Nugent (1993: 7) explains that in order to build a credible story for modern development in the Amazon, “the absence of ‘viable’ societies” in the Amazon needed to be portrayed. The colonos were to replace “pre-modern” populations as they were “unsightly obstacles to a vision of progress” (Nugent 1993: 7). Consequently, existing social groups’ knowledge about agriculture was ignored. Moran (1976: 30) notes that government administrators regarded caboclos as “ignorant of agriculture…which perhaps explain why few newcomers sought the caboclo for advice.” Thus, colonists relied on government institutions for agricultural knowledge and tools, which were in keeping with the development policies’ commercial agricultural objectives (e.g., high-yielding seed varieties) (Moran 1976: 56). (However, overtime those who remained in the agricultural sector integrated caboclo and indigenous agricultural techniques (Ibid). Need?)

In addition to contributing to the government’s national integration plan, the development agenda for the Amazon supported large-scale economic activities such as cattle-ranching and mining to boost economic growth. Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) policies in the post-World War II years until 1964 set the foundation for a development model and power structure that favored industrial agribusiness (Hecht 1982) and encouraged a similar process for agricultural development in the Amazon. Support for large-scale agricultural enterprises came in the form of infrastructural development (e.g., road building) and economic incentives including subsidies for landownership and agricultural inputs. The primary agri-business to receive support in the Amazon was cattle ranches, an industry that was controlled by a handful of families with political and economic power in the Amazon (Hecht 1982). The increased economic support for cattle ranching through programs like POLOAMAZONIA, strengthened cattle ranchers’ political-economic power in the region. At the same time, land settlement schemes, systematically relocated a poor class to the Amazon with no regional political or economic power. As a result, the two-tiered agricultural development programs established a politically and economically divided agrarian sector in the Amazon.

Soybean Development in Brazil
While cattle ranching received government assistance in the Amazon, soy farming was beginning to change the cerrado landscape (savannah) of central-southern Brazil. Support for soy farms came in the form of funds for land acquisition and subsidies and credit for tractors and inputs (draft Hecht 2001). The assistance provided for soybean production initiated a trend toward larger farm sizes and the expulsion of smallholders. From 1965-1980, soybean farms displaced 2.5 million smallholders in the state of Parana alone (Ibid). Overall, central-southern Brazil witnessed a decrease in the number of smallholdings and a 12.3 percent increase in 1,000-10,000 hectare farms and a 1.5 percent increase of 10,000 hectare farms (Ibid). Hecht (Ibid) notes that this trend in farm size and expulsions was due to smallholders’ inability to compete with the economies of scale favored by soy farms. In the 80s and 90s, these trends continued as soy farms moved northward seeking better soils and increasing family landholdings (Ibid).

The development agenda from 1960-1980 saw the expansion of large-scale agri-business throughout Brazil. In central-southern Brazil, the agro-industrial model resulted in the displacement of millions of smallholders practicing combinations of traditional and commercial agriculture. While central-southern Brazil witnessed a decrease in smallholder farming and the diversity of agricultural practices, the Amazon region increased its number of smallholders as many of the displaced migrated to the Amazon on their own or under INCRA settlement programs (Ibid). As noted above, the flux of smallholders to the region and the growing political-economic strength of cattle ranchers generated disparate landholdings and political-economic power in the region. The implications for the agricultural landscape, on the one hand, increased agricultural diversity with the addition of a new social group of smallholder farmers, the colonos, who adopted commercial agricultural crops and would eventually integrate these crops into a variety of agricultural practices. At the same time, the overall development agenda supported an agro-industrial model that encouraged the production of a few commercial commodities, which was cattle at this point in time. With the northern expansion of soy production and land concentration in the Amazon moving into the hands of a small number of agrarian elite, the development programs of this period set a political-economic framework suitable for soy production in the region.

An Export-Oriented Agricultural Model for the Amazon
The previous section laid out the process of land concentration and the implementation of a two-tiered agricultural model in the Amazon. While land holdings today remain disproportionately held by large enterprises, smallholders are important with respect to providing local grain and produce for Amazonian cities and rural communities (Shapiro 2003, personal communication and IBGE 1985). In addition, cattle ranches direct products to domestic markets (IBGE 1985). Thus, the current agricultural landscape in the Amazon functions within local and national spheres. The recent push for increasing soy production in the Amazon symbolizes a shift in the region’s agricultural model. Fearnside (2001: 26) points to this shift:
The role of global markets in soybean expansion is in marked contrast to the dominant land use in deforested parts of the Brazilian Amazon, namely cattle pasture. Cattle ranching has, in the context of Brazilian Amazonia, been largely motivated by ulterior motives such as land speculation, land-tenure establishment, and fiscal incentives.

Two main elements are encouraging this regional shift-the global soy market and the national agro-industry. The current global soy market is favorable to Brazil for several reasons: global demand for soy, cheap production costs in Brazil, the production of non-genetically modified soy products, and trade arrangements with China and the European Union (FAS 2003). The advantageous global market is encouraging the expansion of central-southern Brazil’s agricultural model to the Amazon. In addition, Brazil’s efforts to take advantage of the global soy market can in part be explained by the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) restructuring of Brazil’s economy in the late 1990s to pay back its mounting debt (Jacquacu 2003). By the late 1980s Brazil’s debt service (the sum of the principal and the interest on loans) equaled 103 percent of its export income (Porter and Shepard 1998: 530). In order to increase their export income, the IMF’s structural adjustment program for Brazil mandated “increasing Brazil’s export earnings and attracting more foreign investments” (Jacquacu 2003: 58). In particular, Brazil was encouraged to support the expansion of industrial agriculture with price and trade liberalization polices (draft Hecht 2001). Hecht (Ibid: 23) explains, “In a global market with numerous producers of rice, wheat, coffee, cocoa and sugarcane, Brazil was technically one of the very few countries with both the economic, farming, territorial and research infrastructure to take on mechanized soybean.” As seen with Brazil’s earlier soy expansion programs, the pillars of an export model for agriculture include: an agro-industrial sector with the capital inputs for mechanized agriculture (tractors, transportation, etc.), support infrastructure, and favorable conditions for purchasing land. The following section will outline how this foundation exists or is being developed in the Amazon.

Avança Brasil, a program for constructing and strengthening infrastructure throughout Brazil, will provide US$43 billion over 8 years for paving highways, improving highway conditions, constructing railways and industrial waterways, and establishing energy networks through gas pipelines, hydroelectric dams and transmission lines in the Amazon (Fearnside 2002). The transportation aspect of the infrastructural program is directed at reducing the transportation costs of exporting soy grown in central-southern Brazil (Ibid). In addition, the government’s commitment to improving transportation networks encouraged the private sector to invest in the region. For example, Cargill built a port in Santarém for soy export primarily because of the planned infrastructural developments (Cargill unpublished).

Avança Brasil is similar to the Amazon’s infrastructural development plans from 1960-1980 in that infrastructure is viewed as a means for building commercial enterprises and attracting foreign investment. However, the importance of soy in catalyzing infrastructural development is significantly different from the military government’s development agenda. Rather than establishing agricultural development in the Amazon for national sovereignty, soy production shapes the region to meet global market demands. McMichael (2000) notes the tendency for IMF export-oriented programs to deemphasize state managers for global managers of exports. He states, “In that sense, national policy embodies a global logic…[However,] global managerialism does not necessarily come from the outside; it can be expressed in the very policies and procedures of states as they attempt to reposition their producers in the global economy” (Ibid: 134). Under this framework, Brazil directs soy production and related developments in a manner that enables their participation in regional and global trade agreements such as Mercosul and the World Trade Organization (Ibid).

In addition to aiding an export-oriented agricultural model in the Amazon, the soy-related infrastructural developments are encouraging soy farmers from central-southern Brazil to relocate to the Amazon. Between 1995-99, the states of Pará and Amazonas increased soybean production by 300 and 1090 percent, respectively (draft Hecht 2001). Hecht (Ibid) claims that the state of Pará has the potential to cultivate up to 20 million hectares of soybeans. Cargill, the Brazilian agricultural agency (EMBRAPA), and the U.S. Foreign Agricultural Service report that soybean production will continue to expand in the Santarém region (Cargill and P., Joanne personal communication 2003 and FAS 2003). While slightly differing figures for the potential of soybean expansion are reported, approximately 515 hectares could be transformed into soybean fields in the region. Regardless of the exactness of the figures, documents such as soil maps for mechanized agriculture, a CD developed for Cargill by consultants and a municipal campaign in favor of soybean cultivation, demonstrates a level of commitment to the export-oriented agricultural model for the Santarém region (P., Joanne and Cargill personal communication 2003).

In order to elucidate the regional agricultural vision, it is necessary to profile who the soybean farmers are with respect to social history and networks, capital holdings and their goals for agricultural in the Santarém region. Fearnside (2001: 28) points out, “Because soybeans require heavy capital investment in machinery, land preparation, and agricultural inputs, this crop is inherently the domain of wealthy agribusiness entrepreneurs rather than poor farmers.” By many respects, the first fleet of soy farmers in the Amazon represent the agro-business sector of the south and demonstrate that the same agricultural model employed in central-southern Brazil is at work in the Amazon. Interviews with three soy farmers in Belterra, Pará demonstrated that: 1) two were from the southern state Matto Grosso; 2) in addition to soy cultivation, two are involved in agri-businesses such as seed sales and farm machinery; 3) two have credit arrangements with Cargill for agricultural supplies and business start-up costs; 4) they bought land from smallholders for their farms; and 5) their social and familial networks are connected to agri-business in the south (Reche, Shapiro and Espinosa personal communication, 2003). These findings support Fearnside’s claim that soy farmers are “agribusiness entrepreneurs” with respect to their capital holdings and access to credit-both of which are necessary for establishing the agro-industrial model pioneered in central-southern Brazil. Moreover, the ability to purchase land from smallholders initiates a land concentration process beneficial to the central-southern agro-industrial model. Hecht (draft 2001) notes that “the most recent, northern areas of cultivation clearly show a trend toward much larger holdings.” The lack of political-economic power granted smallholders under the development agenda of 1960-1980 created a land market favorable to agro-industrial farmers. For instance, the Belterra soy farmers noted that following the purchase of smallholders’ land, the land value increased up to three times the original sale price (Reche, Shapiro and Espinosa personal communication 2003). Soy farmers’ accounts of buying land from smallholders reveals a potential growing pattern of smallholder “buy outs” for the region in order to support the growth of the agro-industry.

In addition to land concentration, capital holdings and credit access, their professional class as indicated by their familial and social networks (e.g., family members own farm machinery companies and/or have agricultural landholdings throughout Brazil) provides the Belterra soy farmers with business opportunities and connections that can reduce financial risks and increase their success in the Santarém region. Though the soy farmers in the region are not formally organized, their southern origins form a political and economic link to southern political networks, which can impact soy-related decision for the Amazon. For example, Blairo Maggi, a politician from Matto Grosso who is financing soy planting in the Santarém region, is applying political pressure to pave the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (Fearnside 2001).

The political and economic networks not only demonstrate their professional status as agribusiness entrepreneurs, it also indicates an agro-industrial vision for the region. The soy farmers explored various Amazon locations (e.g., Roraima) before settling in the Santarém region. Their decision to settle in Belterra is a calculated business decision that was supported by the favorable agro-industrial environment being cultivated in the region. For instance, the Belterra farmers noted their proximity to the Santarém port and the higher profit earnings as benefits to soy farming in the Santarém area (Reche, Shapiro and Espinosa personal communication 2003). As a result, the Belterra farmers are establishing a long-term business foundation in the area. Combined, the three Belterra farmers are involved in research and development studies, farm machinery sales, seed sales, and planting timber trees for future sale (Ibid). These efforts indicate a belief that they are the pioneering farmers for an industry that is on the brink of exploding in the region. One soy farmer, Pio Stefanelo, demonstrated this pioneer spirit with a statement that he is improving the economic opportunities in the region and advancing Brazil’s economic growth (Shapiro, personal communication 2003). Another farmer, Ronaldo Reche, noted his contribution to the Belterra community such as maintaining town roads (Reche, personal communication 2003). His description conveyed a “neighborly” spirit that stressed his positive influence for the community and the region. Fearnside (2001: 27) notes the tendency for the “patriotic spirit” to be upheld as an explanation for soy expansion and settlement in the Amazon region. Much like the rationale for the Amazon’s agricultural development model in the 60s-80s, soy farmers’ envision an agro-industry that can provide employment, improve local infrastructure, generate personal and national economic progress, and transform the “fruitless” Amazon into a productive landscape.

A Changing Agricultural Landscape?
The Belterra soy farmers’ are not alone in their assertion that soy production could “save” the Amazon from being an economically wasted landscape. A Cargill agronomist stated that despite the region’s capacity for mechanized agriculture (based on soil-types), colonos would never be able to realize the region’s agricultural potential because they lack capital (Cargill personal communication 2003). The authors of The Dynamics of Deforestation and Economic Growth make a related argument by concluding that paving the Cuiabá-Santarém highway and intensifying agriculture, as soybean production does, would strengthen the local economy and diminish smallholders’ need to migrate to new rural areas (Reis et al. 2003 in Glenn 2003). The underlying assumption in both statements is that left in the hands of colonos and other smallholders the region will remain an economic failure.

With respect to development planning in the Amazon, the argument that without external assistance and the tools of development, the Amazon and its people will remain destitute is not a new one. In his classic depiction of life in the Amazon, Charles Wagley (1953: 2) describes his work as “a study of the adaptation of man to a tropical environment…a case study of a ‘backward’ and underdeveloped area.” Wagley (1953: 2) frames his ethnography of caboclo society in the larger context of modernism and development as he notes: “There is an awakening interest in the economically marginal regions of the world.” He outlines economic and social voids that exist in caboclo communities-education, proper nutrition, agricultural intensification, and modern technologies-and calls for “social and cultural changes” to transform “backward” people to modern men (1953: 1-19). Wagley’s depiction reflects the modernist discourse that penetrated the global economic and political forces after World War II (Escobar 1988). Escobar explains that the political rearrangement of the globe in the early post-World War II period remade the world into “underdeveloped” and “developed” countries. As discussed earlier, the agricultural development models of the 60s-80s were directed under the same development discourse. However, while many of the same benefits are attributed to soybean development as for previous development models, soy farming represents a new agricultural model based on exports and global markets. Thus, the question is: how might the new agricultural model transform the Amazon’s agricultural landscape? The following section will address this question with respect to the future of rural livelihoods, local food security and the region’s economic opportunities.

Economic opportunities
One of the most noted regional benefits from soy farming is employment. Cargill claims that soy farming produces 1 direct job for 3 cultivated hectares of soy (personal communication 2003). The Santarém infrastructure department stated that 6 indirect jobs and 1 direct job would be created per 30 cultivated hectares of soy (P., Joanne personal communication 2003). As both of these figures are not documented and appear to reflect personal estimations rather than research, the potential employment from soy farming is better accessed from actual on-farm statistics. Daniel Brito, a Belterra farmer with 250 cultivated hectares of soy, reported having 8 workers (Espinosa, personal communication 2003). Pio Stefanelo, a Belterra farmer with 850 cultivated hectares of soy (in two separate plots), employs 20 workers (Shapiro, personal communication 2003). Ronaldo Reche, a Belterra farmer with 200 cultivated hectares of soy, reported that 10-14 workers are sufficient for his business (Reche, personal communication 2003). In sum, these three farms provide roughly 1 job per 40 cultivated hectares.

With respect to regional economic opportunities, the important aspects to consider are: do the soy farms offer employment for local residents and is their a net gain in local employment. Interviews with five Belterra residents suggested that few local residents work on the soy farms (personal communication 2003). All, but one resident, claimed they did not know of Belterra residents finding employment opportunities on the farms. When asked why local residents did not work for the soy farms, two interviewees explained that soy farming is mechanized agriculture and, therefore, requires laborers skilled in this form of agriculture, which is not the case for Belterra residents. The interview findings supports Hecht’s (draft 2001: 34-35) notion that in Brazil, mechanized agriculture creates a “’labor aristocracy’-people capable of using and caring for very valuable heavy machinery, including combines, computers and driers and managing complex data pertaining to timing and management of the crop.” As a result, soy farms in the Amazon employ laborers from the south, which is an assertion supported by the interview responses. In addition to hiring few, if any, local residents, Hecht (Ibid) and Zockun (1980 in Fearnside 2001) argue that soy expansion in-directly results in the marginalization of local labor due to a shift in land tenure that decreases smallholdings. For instance, Zockun states that in Paraná, 11 agricultural workers were displaced for every one finding employment on the soy farms. The Belterra soy farmers’ accounts of buying land from smallholders practicing agriculture indicates that a similar decrease in employment opportunities could be under way in the Santarém region.

The initial employment findings suggest that soy farming may transform the social make-up of the rural landscape. As Hecht (draft 2001) points out, local residents lack access to the Sulista hiring networks, and as a result, soy farms resemble islands of southern businessmen and laborers. McMichael (2000: 94) notes the tendency for industrialization projects in developing countries to generate “islands” of economic and social improvement. Interviews with Cargill, soy farmers and the local municipality did not demonstrate an initiative to break this employment pattern. A Cargill representative remarked that smallholders have other means than agriculture for sustaining their families such as fishing (Cargill personal communication 2003). The Belterra soy farmers indicated that they did not know where the smallholders went after they purchased their land and expressed no concern for changing the relationship between the smallholders and the soy farmer. While the local municipality expressed concern about the potential for urbanization problems (e.g., growth of favelas, lack of social services, employment, etc.), there was no mention of a concerted program to mediate or prevent the employment trend (P., Joanne personal communication 2003).

Food security
The expulsion of smallholders and the trend toward large farm sizes deemphasizes an agricultural mosaic that includes the region’s traditional roça crops-cassava, rice, beans, and corn-and fruit trees and homegardens. In Belterra and other locations along the Cuiabá-Santarém highway, soy-rotations replaced smallholder roças. Changing the local pattern of food production is typical of developing countries that promote agro-industrialization for urban and export markets (McMichael 2000). In these “new agricultural countries” agro-exports “either replace or supplement the traditional exports of the colonial era (Ibid: 103).

In the case of the Brazilian Amazon, smallholder agricultural products are either ignored with the onset of agro-industrialization, as was the case for caboclos during the 1960-1980s, or shut down in the case of buy outs from soy farms. Fearnside (2001: 24) points out that along with the arrival of soy production the “lack of production of food for local consumption [occurs] because crop land used for subsistence agriculture is taken over by soybeans…” While it is too soon to predict the extent to which smallholder production will be replaced by soybean farms, the figures reported by Cargill and EMBRAPA with respect to the potential hectares suitable for soy production in the region (Cargill, personal communication 2003 and P., Joanne, personal communication 2003) indicate that maintaining local food security could be a future concern. In addition to replacing smallholder production, soy farms involved in rice rotations are in direct competition with smallholder rice production. Cargill’s literature on soy production in the Santarém region states that “Santarém is an optimal region for planting grains also because it is possible to have two harvests in the same agricultural year” (Cargill unpublished: 4). The company stresses that planting rice cultivation maximizes fixed production costs and prepares the soils for soy. Due to these benefits, Cargill recommends a rice-soy rotation and/or rotations with corn and sorghum. Reche and other soy farmers noted the added economic benefit of selling rice in the local market (Reche, personal communication 2003). Stefanelo and Clovis Casagrande, both soy farmers in the Santarém region, believe that mechanized rice production will dominate the Santarém municipality (Fujiyoshi 2003). In fact, over the last five years Casagrande’s rice production grew to equal half of the Santarém region’s rice production (Ibid). Santarém area soy farmers envision absorbing rice markets in Belém and Manaus as well. Casagrande indicates that they are negotiating with grain buyers in these Amazonian cities (Ibid).

Transitioning the local rice market to mechanized farms with medium- to large-holdings could have a variety of regional impacts including: devaluing smallholder rice production and minimizing the overall diversity of agricultural systems in the region-both of which signal a new framework for local food security. A Saude e Alegria program manager, a non-governmental organization that works on community development projects in the Santarém region, indicated that soy farms are changing the local rice market and deemphasizing smallholder agriculture (Saude e Alegria, personal communication 2003). If smallholders lose access to the local rice market, as Saude e Alegria and soy farmers’ plans suggest they might, a new agricultural landscape could reveal itself. McMichael (2000: 173) explains that “smallholder agriculture is ‘multi-functional’ in protecting biodiversity, enabling food security, anchoring rural social development, and preserving cultural heritage.” Agriculture as “multi-functional’ is not in keeping with an export-oriented agricultural economy that focuses solely on one crop for trade purposes. Agricultural functions such as local food security are no longer gained through local self-sufficiency but through a world agricultural system. The following statement by a US trade representative supports this notion with respect to food security: “Food security-the ability to acquire the food you need when you need it-is best provided through a smooth-functioning world market…” McMichael (Ibid: 172). Case-studies such as Japan and South Korea demonstrate that “this liberalization…requires dislocating a long-standing self-sufficiency in rice…” (Ibid). The export-oriented agricultural model playing out in the Amazon calls for a similar pattern of dislodging local self-sufficiency. In doing so, it supports the disintegration of smallholders’ myriad of agricultural practices.

Rural Livelihoods
Diminishing the importance of smallholder agriculture alters the economic opportunities available in the rural sector. As discussed above, soy farmers offer little to no employment for Santarém’s local residents. Soy farmers, Belterra residents, the Sindicato dos Trabalhadores Rurais (STR), and the Santarém municipality all reported that smallholders who sold their land to soy farmers went to Santarém or Manaus for work (Reche, personal communication 2003, Belterra school teacher, personal communication 2003, Belterra organizer for STR, personal communication 2003, and P., Joanne, personal communication 2003). Hecht (draft 2001: 36) notes that this is not a surprising finding as “…the economic differences between traditional and industrial sectors stimulates the very high rates of urbanization typical of closing frontiers.” McMichael (2000: 191) explains that in a globalized agricultural system “peasant farmers lose markets to cheaper imported foods or surrender their land to larger commercial agro-export operations, [causing them to] flood the towns and cities looking for work.” Urbanization in the Amazon is not a new phenomenon. In fact, the majority of the Amazon’s population is urban (Browder and Godfrey 1997). In Manaus, the establishment of the Zona Franca de Manaus (Free Trade Zone) in 1967 encouraged rural-to-urban migration and resulted in the city’s population going from 200,000 in 1960 to over 1.5 million today (Ibid). By diminishing economic support (e.g., markets, subsidies, etc.) for rural smallholders, industrialization, whether it’s a free trade zone or agro-industry, redefines urban and rural spaces and the livelihood practices embodied in each.

Regional Planning
The industrialization and de-peasantization process outlined in the previous section indicated striking transformations for the Santarém region with respect to economic opportunities, food security and a shifting rural landscape. While the projections such as diminished local food security and urbanization are typical results of industrializing agriculture, efforts by the STR, extractive reserves and the new administration’s Fome Zero campaign could lessen or prevent these transformations. These programs call for a different agricultural model based on smallholder subsistence and producing and marketing local products such as farinha, rubber, and indigenous fruits. The question remains: can both agricultural models co-exist in the Santarém region? STR’s campaign to sustain the smallholders’ rural livelihood opposes the in-flux of soy farms and calls for a soy boycott (STR unpublished). The strong links between STR and the CNS creates a solidarity among the colonos and residents of extractive reserves. STR’s and CNS’s agricultural vision does not allow space for agro-industry. However, Lula’s agricultural goals include: the Fome Zero campaign, which supports smallholder farming in order to attain national food security, and increasing agricultural exports (Trecenti 2003). It is too early to decipher how Lula’s administration will balance two agricultural models for the nation and how they will play out in the Santarém region. In the past, opposing agricultural development models, like supporting cattle ranching and land settlement projects, resulted in social clashes and violence. Frontier governance measures could mediate two agricultural models and minimize violent conflicts. Nepstad et al. (2002) provide examples for increasing governance in the Amazon such as recognizing and strengthening indigenous, extractive and biological reserves and increasing municipal government’s capacity for environmental and development planning. With respect to maintaining smallholder agriculture and agro-industry, several steps at the municipal and federal level are needed including: recognition of smallholders’ contribution to local food security and role in conserving the local landscape. In doing so, a new dimension to multiple-use communities (e.g., extractive reserves) could be explored that is based on smallholder farming.

In this term paper, I looked at the potential social-economic transformations that could occur under an export-oriented agricultural model in the Santarém region. In doing so, I demonstrated the political-economic structures that are encouraging the expansion of soy into the Amazon, including agri-business, the infrastructural development program Avança Brasil, and the global soybean market. I illustrated how Avança Brasil and the political-economic strength of Brazil’s agro-industry reflects Brazil’s agricultural development history of supporting agro-industrial enterprises that benefit large-landholders. Moreover, I discussed how an export-oriented agricultural model and the agri-business sector function under a development discourse. In this respect, I explored how a globalized agricultural model differs from the previous model. In turn, I demonstrated the potential outlook of the soybean agricultural model for the Santarém region with respect to sustaining rural livelihoods, regional food security, and generating regional economic opportunities. Lastly, I suggested how to integrate smallholder agriculture into a frontier governance framework.

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