Sunday, December 30, 2012

Iraq Term Paper

In the contemporary world Iraq remains one of the countries which fate is hardly predictable and it is not always possible to say what is the future of peoples inhabiting this country, suffered from the war, and continuous clandestine movement of opposition and followers of the former leader. Iraq has been remaining top news during last several months and even years. Despite an extremely hard situation in the country there is a slight hope for better that could be brought by recent elections in the post-war Iraq. But many specialists argue whether the results of the Iraqi vote are rather positive or negative. That is exactly what will be analyzed in this paper.

Pre-election history
First of all, it is necessary to say a few words about the pre-election period in Iraq. As it is known, the country has been ruled by Saddam Hussein who established a dictator regime and deprived any opposition and dissidents. Naturally, such an undemocratic regime could not remain for a long time because it contradicted to national interests of the US that is now the only super power in the world.

Iraq is situated in a vitally important region for national interests of the US, consequently, the US needed a controllable and preferably democratic country and not a rogue or outcast that threatened to the stability in the whole region.

Taking into consideration the importance of the region at large, and the role of Iraq in particular, the US, supported by its alliances, used conventional military forces to dismantle the regime of dictatorship of Saddam Hussein. In the result of a brief war Iraq was relatively freed from the former authority and the problem of a new legal government and parliament aroused. Despite the provisional government was established it was obviously not enough since it did not have enough legislative power, or as it may be said it was not supported through the plebiscite and nation wide democratic elections. Logically, Iraqi parliament had to be elected and than it could form a new absolutely legal government. So, democratic elections were finally appointed. But at this point it is necessary to say that the conditions before and during the elections were far from ideal. The post-war country suffered from terror attack of supporters of the former regime of Saddam Hussein and Islamic radicals. All of them formed a strong clandestine opposition to the new provisional government, American troops, administration and its alliances and used all means to prevent the elections. However, they failed to sabotage the Iraqi vote but still these elections were probably the bloodiest elections Iraq had ever seen. Furthermore, the results of the elections are quite arguable.

Results of the Iraqi vote and their possible consequences
As it has already been mentioned, the results of the Iraqi vote are not very optimistic because it did not clarify significantly the future and perspectives of the country and the whole region.

Actually, there are two contradicting opinions about the results of the elections. On the one hand, it is estimated that the Iraqi vote is the victory of the American president administration. The opponents of this point of view stay on the ground that the results are rather in favor of Iran, another country which ahs quite tense relation with the US.

At the first glance, 4,23% that Prime Minster Allawi’s bloc seem to be an absolute failure of American policy in the country, particularly in comparison with the results of Shia, pro-Iran coalition. Actually, the former fact is the main reason why many believe that it was Iran that in this vote. At the same time it is necessary to take into consideration the fact that the great majority for Shia coalition was in the Southern part of the country and regions bordering on Iran, whereas relatively stable regions with strong presence of Americans and their alliances mainly voted for Allawi’s block.

Another noteworthy fact that could influence the elections and further development of Iraq is the nature of party and alliances. Basically they are parties representing certain ethnic groups. For instance, the two main parties in Iraq the mainly-Shia Iraqi United Alliance and the Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan are ethnic parties but they are “the most vanilla ethnic parties you can imagine” (Bergusen 2005, para.5). Moreover, these two parties used to fight in the civil war against each other. Naturally such a situation creates tension in Iraqi society.

That is why, one of the possible consequences of the Iraqi vote may be growing tension between different political forces, particularly if there is no real majority in Iraqi parliament that could form a stable government. So, speaking about consequences, it may be said that the existence of strong ethnic parties may result in opposition of peoples these parties represent. At the same time, “there is no party winner that could control the government and the parliament” (Jalal 2005, para. 2), consequently the further policy of Iraq would be based on compromises and consensuses, or at least on attempts to reach consensus that would be appropriate for different political forces.

So, the lack of winner may be a disadvantage but on the other hand, it permits different political forces play their own role in political life of the country. It creates conditions for normal development of all regions and all peoples of Iraq regardless their residence or nationality.

Furthermore, it has to be said that on the international level there is practically the same situation. It is quite obvious that in the elections there were two counterparts the US and Iran. In the result of elections both of them or it might be said none of them really won since they do not completely control the parliament and consequently the government of Iraq. In perspective, it means that the future of Iraq is not clear but the fact that the elections took successfully place symbolize that Iraq has perspectives and future.

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to say that Iraq, being in a crucial situation, managed to organize the elections, though American assistance in this process was very significant. It means that Iraq after long years of Saddam Hussein’s dictatorship starts its movement toward democratization. However, the results of the Iraqi vote prove that it is a very difficult and challengeable way. Politically, there is no obvious winner both within and outside the country. But still there is a hope that there is one winner, and the winner is Iraqi people.

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Thursday, December 27, 2012

Leonard Kleinrock Essay

Leonard Kleinrock – “Father of Modern Data Networking”
Leonard Kleinrock is one of the most important people when it comes to the informational revolution; without a doubt, he truly deserves to be called “father of modern data networking”. He was born in New York, on June 13, 1934. Being a kid, he displayed a great interest in mathematics, which was noticed and further promoted by his parents. 

“He received his BEE degree from CCNY in 1957 and MSEE and PhD degrees from MIT in 1959 and 1963, respectively, all in Electrical Engineering.” (Begley 56) Kleinrock is called «Father of Modern Data Networking» for his great contribution (we might even say invention) of packet switching technologies. For the complicated research he had to perform to receive his PhD at MIT, he was able to develop and defend a theory (mathematical) of data networking, as well as the basic principles of packet switching. It is of primary importance to the informational revolution because packet switching allowed the birth of Internet. 
As packet switching is something that made Leonard so famous, more information will be provided to explain it. It was through a marriage of minicomputers and communications that a new kind of digital communications service was developed in the sixties to meet the growing demands of these computer services bureaus and databank services companies as well as the business community of users in general. 

Packet – switching invented by Kleinrock used time-division multiplexing (TDM) techniques to enable individual users to share the same transmission channels on a time-sharing basis in a similar way as they share time-shared computers. (King 126)Because the facility was shared, it was less expensive to use, and because the service was based on digital technology, its quality, reliability, and security was superior to that of leased line analogue channels available from telephone companies. 

After Kleinrock’s invention, Packet - switching was pioneered by the Defence Research Projects Agency (DARPA). In 1969, DARPA financed the development of a network, appropriately called ARPANET, to test the feasibility and economics of the new technology. Kleinrock was a major part of this process with his research works. 

ARPANET grew to connect hundreds of universities and military establishments across the United States and eventually overseas in the seventies, and it subsequently came to constitute the backbone foundation for the Internet, the network of networks that connects millions of users around the world today. (Richardson 118)

Once packet - switching proved to be technologically feasible and economically attractive, it was commercialized by companies like Tymnet and Telenet which leased bulk transmission facilities from the carriers. Because it combined both computers and telecommunications in new and unique ways, packet - switching defied the traditional definitions of telecommunications services. 

On the one hand, companies that supplied these services constituted data processing service organizations. On the other hand, they could be regarded as legitimate telecommunications common carriers. Telephone companies regarded these suppliers as a competitive threat and lobbied the FCC to curtail their expansion. (King 133) 

The FCC, on the other hand, was in a quandary as to what they constituted under the Communications Act and whether or not the act required it to regulate them. As for Leonard Kleinrock, “his laboratory at UCLA became the first node of the Internet on September 2, 1969 and from that laboratory he supervised the first Internet message transmission on October 29, 1969.” (Begley 118) 

The academic work and numerous contributions of professor Kleinrock are tremendous. He was a faculty member at UCLA since the year 1963; he helped graduate 43 PhD, some of whom later on were also able to contribute to the development of the Internet technologies. He worked as Chairman of the Computer Science Department at UCLA in the years 1991-95. 

“In 1997, he received an Honorary Doctor of Science degree from CCNY.” (Begley 124) Leonard Kleinrock is an author of six books, which were highly praised by the scientific community. Also, he was able to publish more than 225 papers, which is quite a great load of work even for such highly acclaimed specialist as professor Kleinrock. “He co founded (and was the first President of) Linkabit Corporation, the Computer Channel, and Technology Transfer Institute.” (Begley 127) 

The numerous rewards and honors received by Leonard are quite astonishing. Currently he is an honorary member of the National Academy of Engineering; he is a fellow of the IEEE, ACM and IEC. One of the most significant accomplishments of Leonard Kleinrock was L.M. Ericsson Prize; he also became the recipient of “the Marconi Award, the C.C.N.Y. Townsend Harris Medal, the CCNY Electrical Engineering Award, the UCLA Outstanding Teacher Award, the Lanchester Prize, the ACM SIGCOMM Award, and a Guggenheim Fellowship”. (Begley 131)

Currently Leonard Kleinrock lives in LA together with his wife Stella.  He has four children and five grandchildren and lives quite an active life. His hobbies include Karate, running and swimming, so that Leonard can stay in shape. He is also a big fan of puzzles. In the sphere of business, recently he founded Nomadix, Inc, a California based company that specializes in developing nomadic computing technologies. 

Tuesday, December 4, 2012

The Internationale Essay

Essay on The Internationale

From the day the human race appeared on this planet it learned to put their emotions and feelings in sounds. At first the sounds were indistinct and bobbled and could not be interpreted. Though, later the sounds evolved into songs with which it was easier for people to deliver the message that was hard to be described in words. With every century song had been obtaining more and more importance and setting a very significant place not only in the heart of an individual, but also groups and even nations. Songs have become so vital for us and they represent so much that today we cannot imagine a country without an anthem, an organization without a call or a couple without a special song that means a lot to them.


In this paper I would like to talk about the song, or better to call it a hymn, that has been famous for about one and a half centuries already and had been translated into more than thirty languages. This song is the Internationale (L ‘Internationale in French) written in 1870 by Eugene Pottier.  The original was written and sang to the tune of La Marseillaise.  It is the most famous socialist song, one widely recognized around the world.  In my paper I would like to mention two occasions when this song was by people and what it meant to them. The occasions I would like to cover is the Russian October Revolution and a more recent example that is a protest of the students and workers at the Tiananmen Square in 1989—China.

The Internationale is one of the most widely-recognized songs of the world. It is sung by people in all the countries and it came to mean the socialist, communist, social-democratic and anarchist symbol of those oppressed. The author of the song had become the workers’ poet much earlier than the song was written. He himself had suffered from the oppression of the working class and he himself lost the faith in what he believed (Gluckstein). With the help of his song he was willing to restore this faith by starting to believe in new ideas. He alleged that very soon there would be changes made in the situation of the working class. The aim of his song was to imbue the people not to be afraid to stand up and speak out for who they are and what they represent (Halsall).

The Internationale means sets a very important place is the Russian Communist History. The song was initially translated by Arkady Yakovlevich Kotsin in 1902. At that time only three stanzas out of original six were translated and some grammatical changes were made in order to fit the song to the taste of the Bolsheviks (Busky, p. 159).   The song became the anthem of the communist party at the October revolution and continued to be so until 1944 when the Soviet Union adopted the Hymn of the Soviet Union as its national anthem.  At that time this song was sang by the working class, the Russian peasants who were willing to throw off the fetters of czarists and other bourgeois.  With this song people went after soviet authorities not knowing what they would have not bare from them later (Busky, p. 159).

The song, translated in Chinese was also the hymn of Chinese workers and students at Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 in Beijing.  The protests were caused by the caused by the death of a democratic official, Hu Yaobang, whom protesters wanted to mourn.  The protesters lacked organization and strong leadership, the amount of those protesting had reached 100,000 people (Gluckstein). The people protesting were against the current governmental regime in the country and demanded changes from communist to democratic rule the way it was done in many other countries that year. For them the Internationale was a call for freedom, however then from the communist government and not for it the way it was in Russia (Halsall).

In conclusion, it is important to once again mention that the Internationale is a masterpiece recognized in many countries all over the world. It sets a very special place in the hearts of many people and links all of us to a long and proud tradition. This is so even if sometimes those singing this song and believing that the change they were fighting for would be for the better were wrong.

Warning!!! All free online essays, sample essays and essay examples on The Internationale topics are plagiarized and cannot be completely used in your school, college or university education.

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