Monday, August 29, 2011

Writing a Research Paper Proposal Online

Help with Writing a Research Paper Proposal Online

Writing an academic research proposal is considered to be one of the most important thing before writing a research paper in university or graduate school. Students have to represent a well-written and effective research proposal for starting their research on the topic chosen. When a research paper proposal is approved by professor, student is allowed to get down to writing a research paper. If you want to get a PhD or Master's degree – you should write a good research paper proposal.

Don't know how to write the best research paper proposal? Do you need guidelines for writing a great proposal for your research paper, thesis or dissertation? Feel free to find information in the Internet – there are plenty of educational websites which offer research paper proposal at no cost. Almost each university in the US, UK or Canada will help with writing your research paper by providing free articles and instructional materials about research proposals. I'm sure you will find a good stuff concerning writing research paper proposals.

Actually, there are a lot of free sample research paper proposals and examples of research proposals online on different research topics and disciplines (Business, Marketing, Management, Nursing, Psychology, Philosophy, Accounting, Biology, Chemistry, Finance, Sociology, History etc.) to be selected by a student for research paper proposal writing. But unfortunately all free research paper proposals are plagiarized, they are pre-written with the purpose to help students with writing research proposals for Master's, MBA or PhD academic degrees. If you are looking for a free research paper proposal online – download any sample or example and start writing your own proposal based on it by structure, outline, topic, subject or format.

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Thursday, August 18, 2011

Writing PhD Dissertations Online

Get Help with Writing PhD Dissertations Online

As a fact writing a PhD degree dissertation or thesis paper is a very complicated assignment in university for graduate and post graduate students. Before PhD dissertation writing students must provide instructors or professors with successful PhD dissertation proposal to be approved or disapproved. If a PhD dissertation or thesis proposal approved – a student start working on his PhD project. He/she collects research materials, scientific data and documents about the topic chosen for dissertation writing. When it is collected, a student get down to making his complete research on dissertation topic.

Actually, writing a PhD dissertation is a half-way to success – it is must be defended to get a PhD degree officially. Sometimes a student can write his PhD dissertation paper for 1 year. If you can write a PhD dissertation proposal within 7-10 weeks, the whole PhD dissertation can be finished within several months.

The question: Where to find useful dissertation writing guidelines and tips? Are there any websites which may help with writing a PhD dissertation online? Can someone help with your PhD dissertation writing online if you have no time for writing a dissertation project? Certainly, there are a lot of sources from which you can get professional PhD dissertation help online: free and fee-based. What means “free PhD dissertation help”? Many professors and instructors write guidelines about how to write a good PhD dissertation in their blogs. Some universities provide articles how to succeed in writing a dissertation for PhD degree. If you need assistance in writing a separate chapter (methodology, abstract, literature review, introduction, discussion or conclusion) for your PhD paper – you can find professionally written dissertation chapters online, for free. You don't know how to format your PhD dissertation in APA or MLA? There are thousands of online writing guidelines how to do it. Search with Google and you will find anything you want.

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Research Paper on Francisco Franco

Research Essay on Francisco Franco

In answering this question it is important to look at all factors concerning the two dictatorships going back for many years before the collapse of these regimes. In Spain's case it was mainly economic factors that caused the downfall of Franco's regime but there was also large scale opposition towards the party, particularly in later years. In Portugal, the main factors for its demise was the colonial wars in Africa and economic repression to name a few. However, the demise of these dictatorships were very different, with Spain's process to democratization being gradual with no abrupt break in the dictatorial process as was the case in all the other European dictatorships whereas the Salazar/Caetano regime was very immediate.

Franco's economic policies of the late 1950's and 1960's were one of the principle reasons for the demise of the dictatorship. With the economy on the verge of collapse in the 1950's through the inadequacy of the restrictive policies of autarchy that had been practiced since the end of the civil war, a new team of technocrats of the Opus Dei, Ullastres, Navarro Rubio, and Lopez Rodo, entered the cabinet in 1957 and were able to institute a number of reforms. After a period in which the economy was stabilized, it then proceeded to enjoy an economic boom. The Spanish economy grew in the 1960's and early 1970's at a pace unrivalled in Europe and matched only by Japan. Combined with rapid industrialization, there was also a fundamental demographic shift away from the rural Spain as more of the rural population moved to the large industrial towns, greatly increasing the size of the industrial proletariat. By 1965, the uninterrupted growth of the economy, and the prosperity it provided reduced the regimes repressive capabilities as it increasingly came to realize that economic growth could only be maintained with the goodwill of the new industrial classes.


This "economic miracle" involved an unusually high degree of movement of peoples as well as goods and capital. Tourism played a key role in this characteristic as the total number of foreign visitors grew from 6 million in 1959 to 34 million in 1972, the level at which it stayed for most of the 1970's. The emigration of a large number of the Spanish workforce formed another source of movement of peoples in the 1960's. This led to workers sending remittances back to Spain. Tourism and worker emigration helped ensure that benefits of the economic growth would be widely distributed among the Spanish population as they benefited small-scale enterprises primarily rather than the small group of elites. However, these promising aspects of the economy also had serious outcomes for the dictatorship. Because of tourism, Spain was flooded with foreign articles and newspapers which provided, for the educated elite, uncensored sources of information. It also forced the Franco government to exercise political restraint. As Spain's largest source of foreign income at the time tourism could not be endangered by the repressive policies that had characterized the government for so long. Also the existence of a large Spanish workforce abroad was an indication of one of the shortcomings of the economy, the lack of full employment and the decline of skilled labour.

Another departure of the regime's earlier economic policies was Spain's integration into Europe, Ullastres repeatedly asserted that the aim of the new economic policy was to "integrate" Spain in the booming world of advanced Western capitalism, particularly into the European market.

The Plan of Stabilization of 1959 aimed to address the crisis of Spain's balance of payments by removing physical controls, opening the country to foreign investment, freezing wages and limiting credit. The immediate result was recession and unemployment with the idea that once the policy started working, the economy would function as a modern capitalist economy in which rapid growth would take care of all problems. Spain was now part of the world capitalist market, something that showed a contradiction with Franco's earlier policies of isolation in Europe.

However, Spain was not a member of the EEC, a fact that the economic elite were well aware of. They believed that this was holding them back as "the benefits that it conferred could be provided equally well by a stable democracy of the European type, and the regime increasingly came to be regarded as an obstacle to economic growth." The decline in support for Franco was probably greatest among modern, internationally orientated industrialists but agricultural producers also saw the benefits from entry into the EEC. Franco's regime could not offer a prospect as appealing as "Europeanization" and this implied democratization.

Franco's economic policy initiated these developments and the government using the modernization of the economy to ensure its power meant a change in its political strategy. This had previously relied mainly on repression of any political opposition and the use of propaganda. Spanish industry that was linked to multinational firms pressed for further liberalization and "they hoped for an opening-up of Spain vis-а-vis the Common Market, and were even prepared to pay the price of political liberalization to gain it."

Also, fundamental changes in the economic circumstances created changes in the social structure. Increasing prosperity brought expectations and growing industrial unrest. Though strikes were still illegal, the total number of hours lost in strikes between 1966 and 1970 had increased by 480% and these strikes were taking on a political as well as an economic complexion.

Although opposition was also still illegal, it emerged through the system in the form of working class protest and student rebellion through strikes, public demonstrations and confrontations with the police. A more violent form was Basque separatism, the tactics of the organization known as ETA. Even the Church, once a loyal ally, distanced itself from the regime and the upper clergy withdrew its support from Franco, "leaving his regime bereft of the religious sanction it had once been able to take for granted."

Tensions were mirrored in the regime itself between the "liberal" Opus Dei, who wanted continuing economic development, and the "fundamentalist" Falange, who saw a danger in modernization. The Falange emerged victorious as the new cabinet of 1969, headed by Carrero Blanco, reversed the liberalization of the 1960's and began a program of repression. This further fuelled discontent and narrowed the regime's already fragile support. These policies were reversed after the assassination of Blanco in 1973. This highlighted the fact that the regime had lost its way and merely exacerbated the divisions within it.

The end of the regime came shortly after the death of Franco in 1975. King Juan Carlos 1 had been appointed by Franco to act as the head of state of an authoritarian monarchy and right-wing elements of the regime still favored this strategy. However, both Juan Carlos and Adolfo Suarez (PM from July 1976) believed that the continuation of the dictatorship would result in civil war and proceeded to dismantle Francoism and guide Spain to democracy which they achieved in June 1977 when Suarez's Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) won the election.

In Portugal the situation was very different as Salazar, from the beginning, wanted to keep Portugal, as far as was possible, a rural society and wanted to avoid modernization and liberalization Industrial and financial opportunities were created but were only available to those who were able to develop large-scale industrial projects. Although economic opportunities were restricted, important effects were made to change infrastructural conditions such as the public investment in roads, dams, ports and power production and the promotion of industrial and agricultural modernization by some Ministers of the Economy, Barbosa and Dias. This led to an integration of Portugal in Europe. However, it was clear that Portugal could not become a member of the EEC as the founding members would not accept a country without democratic roots and "for the Portuguese authorities, it would not be acceptable to be included in an organization with supranational powers." Therefore, when Portugal joined the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), it was able to retain markets and maintain exports and they could hold a much stronger position in future discussions with the EEC. This was a liberalization of economic policy that Salazar wanted to stay away from but to stay away exclude themselves from all European movements would have led to the loss of existing markets.

Portugal has traditionally been a country of emigration but from the late 1950's and all the way through the 1960's there was a large shift away from traditional destinations such as Brazil and towards the Europeans Communities. By 1975, about 1.5 million Portuguese were living outside Portugal. This led to a decline in the agricultural workforce as two out of three people leaving the countryside went abroad.

The remittances of the overseas Portuguese had a significant impact on the domestic economy and for a while, "Portugal benefited from Western Europe's growth and prosperity. Later on, however, Portugal proved vulnerable to economic recession and stagnation."

Throughout its entire existence, Salazar's Estado Novo (the New State) had one particular source of strength and weakness, which was Portugal's colonies overseas. Salazar saw these as important possessions for four reasons. First, they were of historic importance. Second, it guaranteed Portugal a world role. Third, Portugal had an historic obligation to "civilize" and convert the peoples of Africa and finally, the overseas empire was of economic importance, supplying Portugal with raw materials and providing markets for its goods. Therefore, when its colonies pressed for independence, Salazar had no intention of giving it to them which led to war with its African colonies, most notably Angola and Mozambique. One of the first effects of this was that the number of regular soldiers and conscripts was increased which had an overwhelming influence as by the late 1960's one in four men of military age were in the armed forces.

The war also led to a huge increase in public spending as almost half of the total public expenditure in this period was concentrated on the military. Industrialists were strongly critical of the colonial war, although they did not say so, which was causing serious labour shortages and diverting resources needed for expansion. This was especially so as the opening towards Europe and North America meant that there was less need for colonial markets and raw materials. Much of the Portuguese population recognized that this was a war that they could not win and did not want to fight in but their leaders did not recognize this. At the same time, they were fighting a war that seemed never-ending, and in any case they realized that it would not end with victory on the battlefield.

Marcelo Caetano replaced Salazar in office in 1968 and in the beginning of his premiership he took some steps towards liberalization. Political exiles were able to return home, Censorship was reduced in books, journals and films. SEDES (Social Development Study Group), an association of intellectuals, was set up and the political police (PIDE), instrumental in carrying out the repressive reforms of Salazar, had their activities reduced. However, this liberalization was stopped in 1972 as Caetano was apparently unable to overcome conservative interests and so abandoned his original aims.

Meanwhile, economic conditions were deteriorating. Largely as a result of the oil crisis and the onset of world recession Portugal found itself with rapidly rising prices, accelerating labour unrest and middle-class disillusionment with the regime. This, along with the continuing war in Africa led to the coup d'etat of April 25th 1974. This was carried out by a group of junior and middle rank officers, convinced that a coup was the only way to a political settlement. This overthrow of power was met with widespread popular support and there was very little support for the regime. "It was the army that pushed, but it pushed a structure so fragile that it fell like a stack of cards."

To conclude, it can be seen that the processes which led to the decline of these regimes often had some similarities and differences but the way in which the demise was reached was extremely different. In looking at this, it is important to note that Franco, Salazar and Caetano were not looking for the best way to improve the countries they had control over but were looking for a way of sustaining power, as is the case with all dictatorships, which ultimately leads to unrest once the interests of the population are not met as best they can.

Warning!!! All free online research papers, research paper samples and example research papers on Francisco Franco topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education.

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Wednesday, August 17, 2011

Need Help Writing a Paper Online?

Do You Need Help with Writing a Paper Online?

Writing a paper is a very specific academic activity in school and college. Actually, students hate writing academic papers such as essays, research papers, term papers and thesis papers. College and school paper writing is the thing students prefer avoid, as it takes a lot of time for researching and thinking. That is why a lot of students try to get online writing help at some educational websites for free, or to get fee-based custom writing assistance from professional writers. Let's examine pros and cons of free paper writing help and custom paper writing help online.

Thousands of free essays online are available for downloading – some websites offer databases with samples of essays and examples of research papers on popular and interesting topics.

However all free papers are plagiarized students use them for writing their own papers. Plagiarism plays a vital role in US and UK education – a lot of students are afraid of plagiarizing and have to write academic papers on their own. Additionally, each student can find a lot of free paper writing tips and guidelines which may help them with writing a paper in APA or MLA format. You don't know how to write an academic paper, or, how to format your academic paper in any citation style – instructional articles will help with writing your paper for free.

If you need help with writing your paper online – why not to contact professional writing companies whose goal is to help students in writing essays, term papers, dissertations and other assignments for money. I think it is the best solution for any student who has no time for writing research papers and essays in school or university. To have your paper written by qualified experts you will have to register at a custom paper help company, to get a free quote and to order your paper online. The most suitable writer will help with writing a paper within your deadline.

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Research Paper on George W Bush

Research Essay on George W. Bush

George W. Bush is very easy to get along with. He is known for his easy, outgoing manner. Walker Bush's life has been filled with ups and downs. From childhood, to adulthood, to governor, to the President of the United States, he has discovered life isn't always as easy as it looks.

George W. Bush, our forty-third president, was born July 6, 1946 in New Haven Connecticut. His father, George H. Walker Bush, attended Yale at the time ( His father and he share the same name, except for "Herbert." People called them George and Georgie, George and George W., or Big and Little to distinguish them from each other. However, one name George W. did not like being called was Jr. He was not a Jr., because he didn't have "Herbert" in his name (Mitchell).


George W. is a very well educated and well-rounded man. His freshman year at Yale, on Thanksgiving, he made a commitment to "make something" of himself at Yale. In 1968, he received a BA degree from Yale University. At Harvard Business School in 1975, he received a Masters of Business Administration. Additional ventures include the oil business and the military. He flew an F-102 for the Texas Air National Guard. W. Bush also assembled the wealthy group who purchased the Texas Rangers in 1989.

Before George was elected President of the United States, he served as Governor of Texas. When he announced he was running for governor, everyone laughed at him. During the campaign, he would call his dad every weekend for encouragement(Mitchell). He was elected governor on November 8, 1994, with 53.5% of the vote, then again on November 5, 1998 with 68.6% of the vote. This made him the first Texas governor elected to two consecutive terms. During his terms as governor, he was called a "compassionate conservative." He made public policies based on principles such as limited government, personal responsibility, local control, and strong families (

Bush's Presidential campaign and election was one of the closest in history (World Book, 2002). On May 6, Bush beat Reese in the Republican Primary by 800 votes (Mitchell). His campaign outlined many things, including public reformation, transforming defense, and tax cuts ( As many people know, there was a dispute in Florida that went all the way to the Supreme Court of the United States. There were two recounts, by machine and by hand involving ballots cast for Bush and Al Gore. In the end, Bush came out on top (World Book, 2002).

As President, Bush has faced many issues. A popular topic is abortion. His position on abortion is to ban partial birth abortions, while discouraging abortions of any sort. Another important topic is the death penalty. Bush claims it's for deterrence, not revenge ( Several tax cuts have been made, thanks to his signature. The same signature has provided more pay and benefits for people serving our country in the Armed Forces.

So far, the Bush administration has been very successful. He provided relief, benefits, and, most of all, courage. Some say there have been mistakes, like his old drinking problem. It is, indeed, true he has made mistakes, like everyone else. The only mistake to be made now is not re-electing George Walker Bush for a second term as President of the United States of America.

Warning!!! All free online research papers, research paper samples and example research papers on George W Bush topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education.

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Tuesday, August 16, 2011

Research Paper on Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome Research Paper

The main ways were to look at the many traditions that have been passed on from generation to generation, by studying the ancient language that was spoken by the Romans, and most importantly through the archeological findings. The religion, values, and ideas of the early Romans have changed many times. The religion that they had was based, at first, on mythology.

The Romans had no real mythology of their own, only that in which they had borrowed from the Greeks. These mythologies dealt with many gods, which served their own different, but special purposes. Since the Rcertain acts have power in thy selves to control nature. There was a belief in a numerous amount of spirits, that came along with magic, had lacked personalities, were limited to certain places, in which they were found to ensure that a persons prayers and offerings, could be in one way, secured. This form of magic was known by the Romans as religion and continued until the uprising of Augustus as emperor. After this switch to monarchy, the religion of the Roman empire came to its official downfall.


There are many reasons why the Roman religion had failed. For one, the gods that the Romans believed in had so many powers that it reduced the unrealistic gods almost down to a human level, because of this, there was no man who had the interest in making their religion, a real power. Second, since there was no moral teachings, life after death did not exist. Finally, "There was little emotional content to religion. There was little more emotion in the regular ritual of the later religion, and it aroused men's emotions without satisfying them" (Geer 217). Years after the downfall, the Romans turned to the religion of Christianity, and to this day it is still practiced in many Roman countries. The values that the Romans had within their marriages were based purely on humanistic laws.

A Roman marriage had many expectations. The marriage was supposed to be a union between two equal partners. This meant that the rich will marry amongst the rich and the poor amongst the poor. "No specific civil ceremony was required for the creation of a marriage, only mutual agreement and the fact that the couple must regard each other as husband and wife accordingly"(Gardner 47). The brides back then were usually in there early teens. After the girls had went through the ceremony of marriage, they were no longer considered "little girls" but as a wife and a women. The only real responsibilities of the wife was to take care of the children and to housekeep. This was because, "Monogamous marriages were dominated by the husband. The patria potestas, the father's authority, ruled the whole life of the Roman family" (Kiefer 8). Though the marriages were supposed to be monogamous, free sexual relationships co-existed. After these relations went on, marriage still went on because divorce did not exist in the early Roman years. After a marriage took place the next thing that the couple valued was having and rearing children.

There were many events that had taken place when a women had a new born. Women usually had the babies on their own. This was because there were no such things at hospitals or doctors. Childbirth back then was extremely dangerous. Many women often died during childbirth, because the medical field was so under developed. After the woman had given birth and the baby was cleaned off. The baby was then placed between the fathers feet and if he picked the baby up, he had officially accepted the baby into the family. The baby was not named until nine days after birth, in which a ceremony was held and the baby was given a charm in hopes that evil spirits would stay away from this small child. Many children died when they were really small. If the child was a boy and lived to see his fourteenth birthday, he was recognized as an adult and a special ceremony was given to him, to enter him into his adult hood. The next thing that the Romans valued was the events that took place in the amphitheaters.

There were many events that took place in the Roman amphitheaters. They were the place that public executions took place. The most popular thing that took place in these amphitheaters was gladiator games. Gladiators were usually recruited from criminals, slaves, fugitives, and prisoners of war. They had no choice of becoming a gladiator. The games that were held, even though most turned out to be funerals, were seen by the Romans as a great source of entertainment. Not only were there gladiators fighting, but there was also an orchestra near the pit, that provided music for the people who were attending the games. More gladiators died than lived. "These games lessened the chance for survival, perhaps owing to the development of a taste for death and the revival and increased popularity. Nevertheless it is certain that many of the gladiators that survived the arena to freedom and to retirement." (Futrell 86). The ideas of law in the ancient Roman times had much cruelty to them.

When a law was broken, there was only one conclusion to the breaking of the laws, which was death. The breakers of these laws died in 2 frequent ways; public execution and crucifixion. "By death of the criminal is eradicated from the community whose laws he did not observe. That is the fundamental purpose of the death penalty" (Kiefer 80). The person who disobeyed the law was executed publicly. "At these executions the condemned man's hands were bound behind his back. He was chained to a post, stripped, and flogged; then he was laid on the ground and beheaded with an axe"(81). This kind of execution was performed if the criminal killed a sacrificial animal. Crucifixion did not deal with being nailed to a cross and dying a slow death, but it dealt with being flogged to death. "The criminal was stripped, his head was covered up and a fork was laid on his neck"(81). A fork was a piece of wood that was laid over the shoulders of the criminal, so that his head would fit through the fork while his hands were tied to the prong pieces. Crucifixion was performed if you were guilty of murdering a family member or if you were a runaway slave. The ideas the Romans had on slaves existed in the earliest times in Rome.

The slaves of the Romans came from many places, had many duties, and because of the low price they were sold frequently. Even though there were very few slaves, they were often enslaved citizens for debt or those that were captured in local wars. "There slaves were many men of good education and man more who were skilled in various trades and crafts" (Geer 176). These slaves were often used as teach so that the younger Romans could have a good education. There were also the slaves who worked side by side on farms taking care of the crops, and some that worked inside to aide in the housework that need to be done. "Because of the almost unlimited supply, the price of common slaves was low" (178). The slaves were sold between fifty and seventy five dollars depending on the skills that the slave had. The more skills one had, the greater the price of the slave. The Romans thought they had a good idea on religion, values, and the many ideas they had.

The Romans had a lifestyle that is in some ways like the way we live today and there are also those that are nothing like the way we live today. Many of the things that occurred during the ancient Roman times, in a way, foreshadowed what was to come in the next centuries. I believe that some of the religion, values, and ideas could have possibly gave us some of the background, in the what we believe in today's society. Omans believed in many gods, they were considered to practice the religion of oligarchy. The Romans had taken many of the Greek gods and had given them Roman names. For example, the Roman god known as Cupid, which was the god of love, the Greek god, Eros, served the same purpose as did Cupid. "These gods were given lifelike human forms, had statues representing them, and were housed in temples" (Geer 200). Even though these gods were faceless and formless, it made them no less powerful. The only thing that did exist in the religion of the Romans was a long and confusing history.

Warning!!! All free online research papers, research paper samples and example research papers on Ancient Rome topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education.

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Tuesday, August 9, 2011

Research Paper on Bob Marley

Bob Marley Research Paper

There is much to be said about Robert Nesta Marley and his musical calling. As an accomplished musician in Jamaica, Nesta (as his mother preferred to call him), had moved from the country hills of St. Ann, to the ghettos of Kingston, to America to live with his mother, and then to 56 Hope road in Kingston. He played at the Zimbabwe independence concert "ending British rule in Africa"(White 113) and helped clothe half of Trench Town's youth in soccer gear. Bob Marley was the first black musician from a third world county to become internationally known.


Early on February 6, 1945, a Tuesday at approximately 2:30 AM Robert Nesta Marley was "born with thin lips and a slender pointed nose he greatly resembled his white father Captain Norval Marley"(50). At four months old Nesta became very ill one day when his mother left him for 10 minuets to go to the store. When she came back he was "lying on his stomach quivering, water dripping from his nose, and was making short coughing noises"(50-51). His grandfather, Omeriah, who was an accomplished "myalman"(one who possesses the knowledge and power to deflect or defuse the machinations of obeah and to heal with folk medicine), whose house Marley was born in (called big house because was this biggest building in Nine Miles St. Ann) and lived in until he was sent to Kingston in his teens. He announced that Nesta had been touched by a great obeah. His great-grandmother, who was also educated in the ways of the obeah, made a potion and gave him an amulet to ward off the evil duppy. Through out Nesta's childhood, Ciddy, his mother, had heard of many accounts of his "fortune telling powers"(73) and believed they were either a gift from The Almighty or curse from Satan. Bob had the uncanny ability to see things far in the past and future with great detail. Nesta's father, who was a captain in the British naval fleet on the island, lived in Kingston and scarcely got to see Robert. Although Ciddys father disagreed of the co-racial marriage, Norvals family demoted him to the lowest possible rank in the navy. After his demotion, Norval had trouble even earning enough money to keep himself feed, let alone his wife and a child. He then moved to Kingston where his family lived. Ciddy sent many letters to him but never got a reply, so she started a produce shop selling the food grown on her fathers farm land to support herself and child.

When Bob was ready for schooling, which was a year early because his teacher said he was as smart as some boys twice his age, his father sent a letter from Kingston requesting that he be schooled in the Kingston Public School System that is superior to the country schools of Nine Miles. With the blessing of Omeriah Bob was sent to Kingston on a bus. To Bob, having never seen an automobile, this was a rather terrifying experience. That was the last time his mother saw him that year.

After several months she became worried that her young "pickney bawi" had gotten lost and there was nothing she could do to find him. After this realization she became very sad and could do nothing but cry and wait. Then one day one of her aunts informed her that she had seen the boy in Kingston during a business trip to sell produce. Ciddy was very excited when she said that he had told her that he was staying with a Miss. Grey on Haywood St. In the excitement she had forgotten the address of the home. The next day she took a bus to Kingston, found him playing with his new Kingston friends and brought him home the next day.

When he got home was the first time his mother ever heard him speak of music. When Mrs. Hanson (a customer at his mothers produce shop) asked him to read her palm he said, "I don't do that any more in a singer now"(103) and sang this song he learned in Kingston. "Please, mister, won't ya touch me tomata! Touch me yam, me pumpkin an potato! All ya do is feel up, feel up! Ain't ya tired of squeeze up, squezze up?"(Bob) Delighted, she gave him a tuppence as a reward and he continued to sing his new songs. When Nesta was 14 years of him and his mother moved into his uncles house on Second Street of Kingston's Trench Town. Trench Town is a suburb of Kingston, from 1-10th Street are concrete dwellings made by the government after the hurricane of 1951 had "remolded" half the city. This is where Bob spent his most of his time throughout his teens.

When they moved to Kingston, Ciddy was making 2.10 pounds a week as a waitress and spent all her extra cash towards Bob's education. She worked six days a week and spent most all day Sunday at church or visiting relatives. After living in Kingston a while Ciddy learned where Mr. Marley was living and stopped by to find that he had married again. After a brief talk with him she stormed home, but thought that Nesta deserved to see his father so she took him there the next day. Nesta went to a lesser-known private school named the Mabel Private School, off Hanover Street in Kingston.

After the age of ten most Jamaican youth fall prey to discrimination of color and parental perturbations, often giving them acute anxiety problems and even ulcers. Most of these youths where considered "rude boys"(Taylor 57) which were stereotyped as Rastafarians and considered bad news. Marley was no different and neither were Peter McIntosh, who later named himself Peter Tosh, and Bunny Wailer, who he had met in Trench Town. Now late in his teens Marley had earned the title "tuff gong, which later became the name of his recording company"(Morris 47).

At this time in his life his mother wanted him to become a welding professional but he convinced his mother music was an acceptable and much safer trait after he got a few small shards of metal in his eye one day. He had to go to the poorly equipped hospitals in Kingston and it's a miracle that he was got blinded in his right eye. Shortly after Marley, Tosh, and Wailer hooked up they met Joe Higgs, "the godfather of reggae"(Sheridan 10) who helped the Wailers perfect there sound as a trio of vocalists. Not only did Higgs couch the early Wailers, he gave Marley his first "spliff, a hand-rolled cigar sized marijuana filter less cigarette "(Taylor 27). Bob's first recording was a solo that he recorded at Beverley's, a production company/ Chinese restaurant in Kingston run by Leslie Kong. Bob didn't like Leslie Kong much, there was even a rumor that he killed him at the age of 38 with a obeah curse. Peter Tosh said that this was untrue and inappropriate in a later interview. As Bob got older he became interested in the Rasta philosophy introduced to him by Higgs, and soon became a heavy Rasta follower praising "as Tafari Haile Selassie I emperor of Ethiopia, king of kings, conqueror of the lion tribe of Judah"(Bob 47).

As Bob's spiritual beliefs became more entrenched his music switched from love songs to more seriously lyrical ballads. Bob started growing his dreads at the age of 21 during his acceptation of the Rastafarians religion. Around this time the group switched from the Wailing Wailers to Bob Marley and the Wailers. The Wailers didn't think of it was a take over but more of just the natural progression of the group. The Wailers would give the same energy in a performance to 50 people as they would to a crowd of 5,000. In 1978 Bob Marley was shot through the chest and into his arm over the political battles in Jamaica during the seventies. Bob Marley and the Wailers preformed the One Love concert where he got the leaders of the to political parties in Jamaica to shake hands. Altogether he made about ten albums worth of material in the some time he lived. Bob loved football (American soccer) and him and the wailers play every chance they got. It is slightly ironic that in the end it would be his down fall. He badly injured his right foot one day playing soccer and didn't get it checked. After a while it got infected and after five years he went to get it checked, it was the every stages of cancer. He died at the age of s6 in 1981 and buried in his hometown of Nine Miles St. Ann. His funeral was held on the 21st of May 1981. There is an old Rasta saying, that Rasta's have no funerals and yet Bob's was the biggest in Jamaican History.

Joe Higgs was a very large part of what the Wailers became because of the early couching he did and how he helped them in vocal harmonies. He tough many of the kids in Trench Town to sing but took particularly to Marley and Tosh. Higgs helped them get record deals with the companies that of groups from Trench Town got. More then anything he helped them find backup singers, bass player, and percussion experts who would record and tour with the group. Chris Blackwell was one of the Wailers agents and gave them a contract when no one else would. He helped them produce their first hit album Burnin. He produced their first three albums. Ras Tafari was the emperor of Ethiopia and was believed by some to be the reincarnation of Christ in the black form that King George I deleted from the Bible back during his reign. Bob was considered his personal ambassador and had backdrops with his face of them during all of their tours.

The One Love concert that they played helped cool the fiery hot political wars in the ghetto streets of Kingston. He helped calm down the city and its activists. He played at the Free Zimbabwe concert when Zimbabwe became its own country and ended British rule in Africa.

He succeeded at dominating the musical market in Jamaica and then all over the world. He became the first world-renowned musical artist from a third-world county. He failed to recognize he was going to die unless he got radiation treatment for his cancerous foot and died much earlier then he had to. He succeeded at moving up from the ghetto streets on Trench Town to Hope St. a very exclusive and expensive neighborhood.

Many people have thought of Bob Marley as a spiritual guru for the black ghettos and a musical voice to legalize marijuana and to end police brutality in Jamaica at roadblocks. He has touched the lives of millions around to globe from Canada to Japan, Australia to Iceland, and Africa to Europe. His music offers many different things to different people, some people like his message, some the smooth chugging island beat, and others just the way it will relax you.
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Wednesday, August 3, 2011

Research Paper on Othello

Research Paper on Othello

Shakespeare's writing tends to have an antagonist who is power hungry. In the play "Othello" the bad guy, Iago, uses his perceptiveness to pick up on Othello's doubts towards Desdemona's faithfulness in order to destroy their relationship. Iago is able to use his people skills to get close to Othello and then use this gained trust in order to devastate him.

In the beginning of the play we quickly discover that Iago only has bad intentions towards Othello, seeing that he tried to demolish their marriage. Since his original idea hadn't worked Iago was working out an immense scheme to break down Othello. Iago is bent on crippling his brave commander for one reason alone, revenge. He always felt as if Othello wasn't worthy of the respect that he had from everyone around him. Iago was jealous of Othello's high position in society, and found that he was not worthy of Desdemona's heart. So Iago was going to do whatever it took to ruin Othello's reputation.


After achieving the position of lieutenant by eliminating Cassio from the picture, Iago began to gain Othello's trust. Iago was very good at manipulating someone by gaining their trust and using words of wisdom to tell people what they want to hear. In act 4 scene 1 specifically Iago begins talking to Othello about the alleged relationship between Desdemona and Cassio. Iago tells Othello some words that Othello wanted to hear, and this made him listen to Iago intently. After Othello was hanging on his every word Iago states, "[Faith,] that he did - I know not what he did."(Act 4 sc. 1 line 38) This makes Othello tense because he wants to hear what Iago know about Cassio. When Othello asks what they did all Iago said was, "Lie." (Act 4 sc. 1 line 40) It was that one small word which drove Othello insane with anger. Iago knew that he couldn't tell Othello everything he allegedly knew about Cassio; otherwise Othello wouldn't be so distraught. All that Iago has done was give Othello some words of wisdom concerning the two adulterers, but he then twists these words in order to enrage Othello. Othello becomes so angry he falls into a trance, where Cassio enters and Iago tells him that he would like to talk with him as soon as Othello leaves.

At this point Iago comes up with in immense plot to use three separate people in order to make Othello's fears about Desdemona come true. Iago specifically tells Othello he will get Cassio to admit his relationship with Desdemona while Othello isn't there. As Othello withdraws off stage Iago states to the audience, "Now will I question Cassio of Bianca, a huswife that by selling her desires buys herself bread and [clothes.] It is a creature that dotes on Cassio.т"(Act 4 sc. 1 lines 110-113) He states this in order for the audience to understand that he's going to question Cassio about Bianca, even though Othello thinks he's questioning her of Desdemona. From this point on he speaks with Cassio who bursts into laughter thinking of Bianca's obsession with him. Iago uses his knowledge of Bianca's fascination with Cassio in order to manipulate Othello into thinking they are talking about Desdemona.

After Iago has gained the trust of Othello, Othello doesn't think twice about the fact that Iago and Cassio speak of the adultery so easily. He sees Iago as a friend, and thinks that Iago only has good intentions when questioning Cassio of the relationship. Othello and Cassio are completely oblivious to the streak of lies that Iago has been passing off, and it's all because Iago is so good with his words.

Iago was a character built with determination. He was willing to stop at nothing in order to succeed. Iago gained the trust of everyone he ever knew, but it turns out he was only using them to harm Othello and his first-rate reputation. Iago's character was built on revenge, and it was his intelligence and quick wits that helped him get his revenge on Othello.

Warning!!! All free online research papers, research paper samples and example research papers on Othello topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education.

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