Thursday, March 29, 2012

Research Paper on Business Strategy

A Critical Review of a Customer-Focused Business Strategy

Unquestionably the success of a business depends on a strategy that was chosen to be implemented. In a nutshell a business strategy is a manner in which the firm formulates, implements and evaluates cross-functional decisions that will enable an organization to achieve its long-term objectives (Campbel, 2002, p. 234). A strategy a firm chooses is usually customized, thus every company develops its own kind of business strategy. However, in general, the business strategies fall into three main categories that include many subcategories (Barney, 2000, p. 197). These main categories are customer-focused, operations-focused and product-focused strategies. The following essay will focus primary on the customer-focused strategy. The strategy will be defined in details as well as examples of its implementation and advantages and disadvantages of its use will be provided.


Customer-focused business strategies as the name suggest emphasize a close relationship with the customer. This strategy approach focuses on customer value and customer profitability quite the opposite to share satisfaction, or product profitability that is a focus in other strategies. Today more and more companies choose to draw on the customer-focused strategy, however, the strategy is not always applicable. The strategy can be successfully implemented only under the condition that the company's products and services are essentially a commodity in the marketplace. Consequently, the products and services produced and provided by the company should be available from multiple sources at approximately the same price and quality (Hines, 2004, p. 23-24).

The approach of customer-focused strategy accepts that a great investment should be made in marketing activities in order to get customer recognition and make profits. At the same time, without a shadow of doubt, the firm expects to earn high returns on the customer satisfaction in the future (Hines, 2004, p. 24). Thus, this approach combines the traditional marketing approach, where the customer is the centre that gives signals to the company, and the finance approach, where the profit generation is put in the centre.

Customer-focused bushiness strategy is used by big retail corporation as well as now it is widely used by companies that offer their goods to be purchased on the Internet. The Internet has in fact had started a new ear of customer-focused business strategy because it offered many tools with the help of which it was much easier for companies to put the customer in the centre of the deal Customer-focus and devotion is presented on the websites of many companies when offering a customer a variety of options of purchasing a particular product. Consequently, such approach generates profits and creates customer satisfaction (Sharma, 2002, pp. 696-697).

Customer-focused strategy has many advantages. To begin with, the customer-focused strategy initially focuses on the long-term objectives of the company. The long-term objectives are achieved by seeing the customers as assets who provide long-term returns. Positioning the customers in the above way the investments made in marketing and advertising activities starts to be seen as a direct investment made into the customer (Hines, 2004, p. 2005). Consequently, such approach enables the business to earn high returns on the marketing and advertising investment. The second advantage of this strategy I would like to mention is that it recognizes that the value of customers might vary significantly over time. The above means that the strategy considers that very often large customers who are commonly the largest revenue generators for a company are not automatically the most profitable ones (Barney, 2000, p. 198).. This is due to the fact that serving large customers requires high costs from the company oppositely from small and medium customers (Campbel, 2002, p. 235).

However, the discussed strategy has also its disadvantages. The disadvantage I would like to mention is that customer-focused strategy does not always assume the importance of the value of a customer to a company. Thus, the customer-focused strategy can be successful when it considers the two main factors: the value that a firm provides to a customer and the value of a customer to the firm. The rule seems to be simple on the paper, however, it is the problem many businesses overlook when choosing to implement the customer-focused business strategy. Another big disadvantage is that for most organizations it seems to be difficult to indentify “the customer”, and then to integrate customer-level data sources. Additionally, organizations face a tough challenge when trying to establish the component metrics needed to develop useful customer profitability metric.

In conclusion I would like to say that certainly customer-focused business strategy offers many opportunities to a business as well as can cause failure. Those companies that are willing to implement the above strategy should be ready to bring the people, processes, and technology into alignment with the objectives of the strategy.
Warning!!! All free online research papers, research paper samples and example research papers on Business Strategy topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education.

Order Custom Research Paper on Business Strategy
If you need a custom research paper, research proposal, essay, dissertation, thesis paper or term paper on your topic, will write your research papers from scratch. Starting at $12/page you can order custom written papers online. We work with experienced PhD. and Master's freelance writers to help you with writing any academic papers in any subject! High quality and 100% non-plagiarized papers guaranteed!

The War in Iraq Essay

The War in Iraq Essay

1. Introduction
a. Good morning, ladies and gentlemen!
b. The following briefing is Persuasive/Decision Making Briefing. Proposal to end the war in Iraq.
c. The current state of the war does not meet the expectations of the anti-terrorist war, and has become a burden for the US society and economy.
d. Recommend the recall of the U.S. Army from the territory of Iraq and the enlargement of the Peace Corps.


2. Body
a. Current state of affairs.
The United States troops invaded Iraq in 2003, and we were persuaded that Iraq war is "the central front in the War on Terror". Five years passed, and there is no real evidence we have combated terrorism. Instead, we have more losses than one can imagine and the price we pay every day is unbelievably high.
b. Costs of the war.
Rough estimations state that this war costs the United States $275 million per day, which is somewhere around $4,100 per household. The financial cost of the war has been more than $498 billion to the U.S.
c. Reputation.
The reputation of the United States in the world has never been so low, as under the Iraq war period. The aggressive military policy and the ideas of world supremacy made even the U.S. partner countries reconsider the foreign policy and the relations between the states. We are losing both credit and the financial stability.
d. Human losses.
After the war began over 700,000 Iraqis were killed, and there are almost 4 million refugees worldwide. In the course of the war, over 4,000 U.S. soldiers have been killed, and more than 60,000 are wounded.

3. Conclusion
Terrorism can not be beaten by invasion, cruelty and killing civilians. We should stop the war in Iraq and bring our heroes still serving in Iraq back home safe, to their suffering mothers and beloved wives and children, until it is too late for each and every given soldier. We might provide the strong Peace Corps mission instead, the status of the war have strong negative effects on the reputation, society and economy of the United States.

The war in Iraq has exhausted potentialities and it should be over. We deserve peace and a change to get back to normal lives.
Warning!!! All free online essays, sample essays and essay examples on The War in Iraq topics are plagiarized and cannot be completely used in your school, college or university education.

Order Custom Essay on The War in Iraq
If you need a custom essay, dissertation, thesis, term paper or research paper on your topic, will write your papers from scratch. We work with experienced PhD and Master's freelance writers to help you with writing any academic papers in any subject! We guarantee each customer great quality and no plagiarism!

Wednesday, March 28, 2012

Research Paper on Smoking

Effects of Smoking Research Paper

The Psychological Effects of Smoking
Smoking is one of the most widespread bad habits all over the world. In its turn, tobacco industry is one of the most profitable businesses nowadays. Millions of people start smoking, and then decide they want to get rid of this habit, thus the health industry products for smokers who try to quit their habit are also quite attractive to invest in. Nowadays everyone knows smoking is hazardous for the health of the smoker, and of people who inhale cigarette smoke; it leads to lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases, influences on prenatal development, and causes many other unpleasant and dangerous effects.

Nevertheless, the profits of tobacco sellers do not seem to get smaller; moreover, tobacco sale levels still continue to grow in some countries. This paper is targeted on analyzing the psychological effects of smoking in order to find out why individuals begin and continue to smoke while they know this habit is dangerous for their health, and for well-being of people who surround them.


The National Center of Health Statistics (2007) indicates that throughout past fifty years the percentage of smokers in the U.S has been decreasing gradually. In 1965 41,9% of Americans confessed they smoked, in 1985 the percentage was 29,9, and in 2006 only 20,8% U.S citizens were smoking. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention statistics says that still nearly one in every five deaths in the United States is a result of smoking, making tobacco use the leading preventable cause of death. According to their data, more than 440,000 deaths in the United States each year are attributable to tobacco use, resulting in more than 6 million years of potential life lost each year. If we look on smoking from this viewpoint the impression is created that smoking is some kind of the nationwide suicide, taking thousands of lives each year; in addition it inflicts enormous damage to national health industry, as the sums spent by the U.S government each year on dealing with the results of inhaling cigarette smoke, either actively or passively, are devastating.

Whether to smoke, or not, is a matter of personal choice, and prohibiting smoking is the direct infringement of the freedoms guaranteed to the U.S citizens by the Bill of Rights and Constitution. Most of the smokers in our country know the consequences their bad habit leads to, they are reminded about the increasing threaten of lung cancer, heart diseases etc almost every day. Thus they are able to make informed choices about their health, and the government doesn’t have a right to prohibit them to act according to their decision.

Another point of concern associated with ban on smoking is the employment of people, who work in the tobacco industry nowadays. According to the data, provided by the World bank in their study Understand and Evaluate the Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Employment, the number of people, directly employed in this industry is about 65-68 thousand. Direct employment numbers don’t include people who earn their living by selling tobacco products. The stricter are the government policies on smoking, the more unemployment they create. In addition, in case the U.S government will decide to ban smoking, the American economy may become unstable for some time, as tobacco production is a quite important sector.

Literature review
Statistics provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also states that approximately 80 percent of adult smokers began smoking before age 18, and 70% of them state they would never began smoking. Thus it is obvious that people mostly start smoking in an early age. Scientists conducted numerous researches to find out the reasons of this phenomenon. For example in 1995, Abernathy and Massad researched the interdependence between self esteem and smoking among youngsters. Their target group was children and teenagers from ten to fifteen years old. Researchers conducted four stages of surveying, one in sixth grade of the Calgary Catholic or Board of Education schools, which included 190 schools, one in seventh grade, and then in eighth and ninth grades subsequently. They surveyed children for their levels of self-esteem and cigarette use; the surveys were anonymous. The results were ambiguous – as long as no consisted pattern was found between the self-esteem of boys and subsequent smoking, among girls a strong association was found between their self esteem in grade sixth and smoking in later years. “For a female with low self-esteem in sixth grade, the odds of smoking in any given year from grades 6-9 is between 2.5 to 3.5 times greater than if she had high self-esteem in grade 6”, Abernathy and Massad state. Their research revealed that females are more vulnerable towards the stereotypes concerning smoking that exist in contemporary society, and smoking is one of the ways to conquer low self-esteem for them.

In the same time the study by Larson et al (2007), showed that smoking frequency in their research was similar among males and females, and no significant differences in smoking frequency were observed according to weight status based on BMI. These scientists researched the relation of diet and physical activity patterns towards cigarette smoking. According to their research smoking was associated with grade level, race and ethnicity, and with low-middle and middle SES but not with sex or weight status. They found that children who smoked tended to eat less healthy food and exercised less than their non-smoking coevals. Researchers detected the relation between regular smoking and irregular meal patterns at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. They noted that irregular meals let to poor intake of key vitamins and microelements and increased sugar consumption, and provoked adolescents to consume fast food frequently.

Larson et al also found out that frequency of smoking was not related to the amount of time adolescents spent watching TV, albeit they hypothesized that more frequent smoking would be directly related to time spent watching television and videos, as use of these media may be related to smoking initiation.

On the contrary Gidwani et al (2002) who researched the dependency between television viewing and smoking among adolescents found out that the relationship existed, and it was a strong one. According to their findings “youth who watched >5 of television per day were 5.99 times more likely to initiate smoking behaviors than those youth who watched 0–2 hours per day. Similarly, youth who watched >4 to 5 hours per day were 5.24 times more likely to initiate smoking than youth who watched 0–2 hours”. The researchers concluded that the rise in number of smoking adolescents was caused by numerous images of smoking people in movies, TV shows, music videos and sporting events, where smoking was associated with being popular, being a part of the group of beautiful and successful people, accepted by their surroundings. Children and teenagers who watched these programs subconsciously associated these traits with being a smoker, and thus bought their first pack of cigarettes.

One of the widespread persuasions about smoking is that it reduces the levels of stress. The review conducted by Parrott (1999) proves this persuasion is erroneous. According to his findings the stress levels of adult smokers are slightly higher than those of nonsmokers, while adolescents who smoke tend to have stress levels much higher than that of their non-smoking coevals. In his research Parrot cites Ikard, Green, and Horn (1969), who found out that “80% of smokers agreed with statements indicting that cigarette smoking was "relaxing" or "pleasurable." In questionnaire surveys, most smokers respond positively to statements such as "Smoking relaxes me when I am upset or nervous," "Smoking calms me down," and "I am not contented for long unless I am smoking a cigarette". In the same time their research displayed that people who smoked felt irritated, angry and vulnerable when they could not have a cigarette for some time. Thus the researchers developed a hypothesis that explained the fact that smokers felt relaxed and less stressed, which was that smoking just helped to relieve the stress caused by not smoking, to get rid of the irritation caused by the absence of the doze of nicotine a smoker had got used to inhaling.

Abernathy and Massad found out that the dependency existed between the level of self esteem and subsequent smoking in women. Thus the conclusion may be that for females being a smoker is a characteristic trait of successful person. Moreover, it is obvious that the girls were more vulnerable towards tobacco advertizing targeted on youngsters. One of the explanations for this phenomenon may be that many females share the commonly held persuasion that smoking provokes weight loss, while quitting smoking makes one gain weight.

Researchers prove that women are strongly affected by the images they see on media, especially when they concern their weight. The research in 2001 by Vartanian et al showed that it was the influence of the media that was the most significant predictor of overall body satisfaction among females who were getting college education. In addition the research showed that the media also impacts overall body dissatisfaction among men, though less than among females. The authors concluded that the influence of media on forming of the body image is growing both among men and women. In the same time, Green and Pritchard (2003) showed that while media influences had significant impact on female's apprehension of their looks, men's body image wasn't formed by TV. Thus we can explain the results Abernathy and Massad got in their study by assuming that women, affected by TV images of “ideal bodies” and believing that smoking allows one to lose excess weight, were more likely to start smoking than males whose self esteem was not affected by media display of body images.

Larson et al (2007) found a connection between race, grade, levels of SES and smoking. Their study showed that teenagers who had low and middle SES were more likely to start smoking than the kids whose SES were high. This phenomenon can be explained by the assumption that for many kids smoking is a form of protest against being ideal, satisfying all the requirements of their parents, teachers and surroundings. Being a smoker mean “being bad” for them, and kids who are “bad” are not obliged to try hard to achieve high results. Thus the assumption can be made that smoking may be a way to get rid of the responsibility to be “good”, to refuse to live up to expectations the adolescent’s parents, school and surroundings have of her.

Another assumption that can be made basing on Larson’s team findings is that smoking is one of the instruments teenagers can use to control their body. It is a proven fact that the desire to gain control over an important aspect of one’s life is one of the main causes of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa in teenagers. Adolescents have lots of aspects of their lives controlled by parents, teachers or friends, and harming one’s body by overfeeding it, or letting it starve is their way to take control at least somewhere. If such a need exist cigarettes may become this “aspect of control”. Lots of parents try to stop their kids smoking. Some try to persuade their sons and daughters smoking is hazardous for health and social interactions; others just forbid their kid to smoke. But smoking is quite a tricky thing to control. It is almost impossible to ban person from smoking if she does not want to quit it, even when the smoker is in her teens or tweens.

Parrot in his review of literature concerning the bond between smoking and stress adduces the argument that nicotine relieves only the kind of stress brought by the absence of nicotine. Looking closer at this statement it becomes obvious that this statement is true for heavy smokers, and for people who smoke regularly. They have a clear physiological addiction to nicotine, and abstinence from this substance is stressful for them. But there are people who are referred to as “occasional smokers”, who smoke only when they are in the company of other people who smoke, or who grab a cigarette when they get into stressful situation. They do not have physical addiction to nicotine, thus they are not stressed because of absence of this substance in their organism, thus there is other reason cigarettes help such smokers to cope with stress. It might be just that they are under the influence of stereotype about the stress-relieving effect of nicotine, and their addiction is transformed to a purely psychological one, they need to put a cigarette in the mouth in order to calm down.

When talking about smoking it is necessary to remember that it is more psychological issue than a medical one. It often happens that person remains a smoker even after she has quitted inhaling tobacco fumes. It is important to remember that smoking is a dependency that can be overcome, thus sometimes one may need the help of the psychologist. Nevertheless it is important to remember about the facts set forth in Parrots review: smoking does not make one calmer, it does not reduce the level of stress; smoking a cigarette removes the stress that is caused by not having a chance to smoke.

After reviewing relevant literature we can try to find out the elements that form the psychological dependence from smoking tobacco, and the psychological effects of smoking.

1. Nicotine has a slight arousal effect and some smokers use it to get this effect
Small doses of nicotine have a slight arousal effect. People whose life seems boring and uninteresting to them use it in order to add a little diversity to their existence. People who are addicted to the tobacco arousal effect tend to be under the threat of becoming addictive to other substances, like alcohol, chemical drugs etc. This type of addiction becomes even more obvious in combination with alcohol and caffeine.

2. Smoking is a way to fill silence gaps when communicating
Lots of smokers report they tend to consume more cigarettes when they are in a company of people who smoke. For many people smoking is social, a factor that helps to get acquainted with others, a motive to spend time together, and a way to participate in communication without opening one’s mouse. Some smokers report they do not feel any urge to smoke unless they are in a company.

3. Smoking is an attribute of being “adult”.
This factor is of most importance for adolescent who start to smoke. Teenagers often want to get older as soon as possible. For them being a grown up is a synonym of being independent, able to do what one wants. Adults do not have to visit school, they are not limited in resources (at least lots of kids and teenagers think so), they are not obliged to do things their parents tell them to do. Most teenagers do not think over the point that adults have to carry the responsibility for decisions they make. After such smokers grow up they find out they actually have to take responsibility for their poor health condition caused by their adolescent decision to start smoking in order to look like an adult.

4. Smoking is an attribute of being “cool”
As Gidwani et al found in their study, the more hours an adolescent spends near the TV screen, the more chance is that she will begin to smoke. Lots of movies, shows and music videos depict smoking people as successful and loved ones. Adolescents’ minds are much more vulnerable to such images than that of the grownups, so lots of teenagers try smoking because they want to look cool, or look like their favorite star. In the same time their subconsciousness accepts the images of happy, successful and loved smokers, and concludes smoking is a necessary attribute of such a person.

To learn to survive in the outer world, children imitate adult behaviours, and smoking is one of the most attractive ones, as it demonstrates belonging to the dangerous adult world. Children tend to start smoking to be like their elder siblings or parents, or favourite TV show protagonists. As the kids’ organisms are more vulnerable to addiction inductive substances than that of the adults, they tend to be physically addicted to smoking much more quickly than the adults are.

In addition, there is a bond between smoking and using drugs. The smoker does not have the psychological barrier against inhaling substances, thus it is much easier for him/her to try marijuana, than for the non-smoker. This is especially true for youngsters, as their psychological barriers towards trying substances are lower than that of adults, as they are more curious, have less responsibilities, and less social standards and requirements to act according to them.

Possible ban on cigarette smoking is one of the most debatable ethical issues of this day. Cities and states all over the United States accept laws that limit the freedom of smokers to enjoy their habit in public places, educational institutions, or just walking down the street. Smokers and tobacco companies rebel against those rules, declaring them discriminative, while non-smokers are happy that they and their children can get more fresh air. Finding a compromise between the right of every citizen to make decisions for himself, and the initiative to limit negative tobacco products impact on the health of the citizens is one of the most challenging tasks the American government has to deal with at this time. The protest aroused among smokers by this initiative is also one of the important psychological effects of smoking.

By introducing laws that limit places where people can smoke, or increasing prices on tobacco products government creates a huge protest group. Most of the smokers protest passively, but there are some who are ready to active opposition in case they feel their rights are being violated. On one side the behaviour of smokers who oppose anti-tobacco laws may seem suicidal, as these restriction are imposed on the sake of their health, and of people who live near them, but that is where a question arises which is whether the government has the right to decide what is good and what is bad for its citizens when it concerns their personal habits. Every government and every political force has to answer this question. For now the answer is negative, as there is no American, European or Asian country where smoking is banned completely.

It is clearly seen that smoking is rather a psychological addiction than physiological one. Of course, nicotine is an addiction inductive substance, and after one decides to drop smoking she encounters with abstinence syndrome, but psychological effects of smoking are much more attractive than physical ones. Smoking allows person feel oneself comfortable as a part of the group, it calms down and helps to fill pauses in communication. For adolescents smoking is a way to look and feel older, to be “cool” in the eyes of coevals, and in their own eyes. In case an individual decides to quit smoking it is important for her to find out the psychological effects smoking has on her, and begin the process of leaving smoking behind by inventing new healthier methods to satisfy needs that are contended by inhaling tobacco fumes.

This paper analyzes the psychological effects smoking has on tobacco users, researches the motivations that attract people to smoking, explorers the physical and social characteristics of smokers. Concepts researched in this paper are connection between smoking and levels of stress, images of smokers in the media and their influence on potential tobacco consumers and interdependence between smoking and levels of self-esteem. Works analyzed to complete the paper are research studies and literature reviews found in scientific journals.
Warning!!! All free online research papers, research paper samples and example research papers on Effects of Smoking topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education.

Order Custom Research Paper on Effects of Smoking
If you need a custom research paper, research proposal, essay, dissertation, thesis paper or term paper on your topic, will write your research papers from scratch. Starting at $12/page you can order custom written papers online. We work with experienced PhD. and Master's freelance writers to help you with writing any academic papers in any subject! High quality and 100% non-plagiarized papers guaranteed!

Essay on Yasir Arafat

Essay on Yasir Arafat

Did Yasir Arafat Do More Good or Bad for the Palestinian Cause and People?
2005 became the tragic year for Palestinian people because this year the life of the national leader, Yasser Arafat, came to its end. For many Palestinians living not only Palestine but in the Middle East and other parts of the world, he was like a father of the nation. He was not just a person that headed the national movement for the liberation of Palestine, but he personified this movement, he became the symbol of the strife of Palestinian people for independence and freedom. The death of Yasir Arafat practically divided the history of Palestine and the movement of Palestinians for liberation into two distinguishable parts: the epoch of Yasir Arafat and the epoch after Yasir Arafat. For many Palestinians his death was a great shock because Yasir Arafat was the major leader of Palestinians, whose contribution in the struggle of Palestinians for independence can hardly be underestimated. At the same time, his peace efforts were recognized on the international level as he became the Noble Peace Prize winner for his peace efforts resulting in the Oslo Accords that marked the beginning of the peaceful resolution of the long –lasting Palestinian conflict.


On the other hand, the personality of Yasir Arafat and his historical role was not absolutely positive as it may have seemed to be at first glance. The fact that world political leaders have ignored his funerals is a perfect illustration of the extent to which the figure of Yasir Arafat was controversial in the history of Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the struggle of Palestinians for independence. Symbolically, even his death was as controversial as his life and work because the actual cause of the death still remains under a question.

Nevertheless, the assessment of the contribution of Yasir Arafat in the history of the liberation movement of Palestinian people is even a greater mystery because for many Western leaders he was and still remains a terrorist, a person that was ready to use all possible means to defeat the enemy and grant his people for independence. In such a situation, this extremely negative image of Yasir Arafat contrast to the image of the national leader and hero of Palestinian people. This is why it is extremely important o evaluate both positive and negative aspects of his life and work in historical terms.

Yasir Arafat as a symbol of evil
In fact, Yasir Arafat was traditionally perceived as a leader of clandestine movement, which was often characterized as extremist and radical (Rubin and Rubin, 2003). In such a context, it is quite natural that for Israeli people and state, Yasir Arafat was the enemy number one, while his death was a great relief for Israel and its security services. However, in actuality, it turned out that the death of the national leader of Palestinian people rather raised new problems Israel had to solve than totally eliminated the threat from the part of Palestinian organizations which continue to the struggle started by Yasir Arafat, the struggle for independence.

In actuality, the chaos in Palestine that followed the death of Yasir Arafat was basically determined by those mistakes that he had made in his life time. It is obvious that, in spite of the image of the national leader, Yasir Arafat was not perfect and, in spite of his seeming political wisdom, he was not secured from errors he had made in abundance, especially in his early years in the political struggle. Obviously, he was too focused on his own leadership to be able to make objective judgments and create a strong ground for the further struggle of Palestinian people for independence. Probably, he was too self-assured and convinced in his ability to lead his people to freedom and peace, but, in actuality he had failed, while mistakes he had made in the course of his life undermined his positive image. In this respect, it should be said that even among Palestinians, it is possible to find critiques who argue that the policy of Yasir Arafat was insufficient and ineffective to make Palestinian people free of Israeli control.

In fact, it proves beyond a doubt that, in spite of all his efforts, Yasir Arafat had failed to improve the life of Palestinians consistently. Instead, they still live in concentration camp type territories and their freedom is limited consistently, while the independence of Palestine is still rather a desirable goal than a part of the contemporary reality. In such a way, Yasir Arafat fully benefited from his status of the national leader, but, in actuality, he had failed to improve the life of Palestinians.

However, there is even a more serious problem that Palestinians inherited after the death of Arafat. This problem is caused by his leadership. His charismatic leadership was so significant for Palestinian people that there is not a single person in contemporary Palestine that could become a new national leader. In fact, what Palestinian people look for is a new Yasir Arafat, but not a new leader. This is probably the greatest drawback and failure of Yasir Arafat because he had managed to unite the nation under his leadership but he had failed to prepare his follower, who could continue his work. As a result, after the death of Yasir Arafat, Palestine movement for the liberation became headless at the national scale since its leaders could not have such authority as Yasir Arafat had.

By the way, this is another problem of Yasir Arafat controversy. To put it more precisely, Yasir Arafat became the national leader but he proved to be too authoritarian to introduce democratic principles of the functioning of the PLO as well as he failed to stimulate the democratic development of Palestinian people (Mahmood, 78). This is why his opponents regard him as an undemocratic, authoritarian leader and the fact that there is no influential leader in contemporary Palestine compared to Yasir Arafat proves the fact that there is no democracy in Palestine as people cannot accept a democratically elected leader, but rather rely on the authority and leadership as the main qualities of the new leader.

At the same time, the methods of struggle Yasir Arafat had implemented during his life, especially at the beginning of the struggle, are probably the most controversial issues. Basically, it is the use of violent methods of struggle that made Yasir Arafat a terrorist. At any rate, Israeli and many Western leaders could not interpret violent methods of the struggle of Palestinians headed by Yasir Arafat otherwise but terrorism (Pipes, 2002). Even though in the 1990s he started to wider implement peace talks as the main tool of the resolution of the conflict between Israel and Palestine, the violent methods of struggle were so deep rooted that they repeatedly undermined positive effects of peace talks between Israel and Palestine and this is probably why Palestine is still stateless.

The contribution of Yasir Arafat as a freedom fighter
Nevertheless, the contribution of Yasir Arafat in the development of the Palestinian liberation movement and the growth of the national consciousness of Palestinians can hardly be underestimated. In actuality, Yasir Arafat became the national leader that had managed to unite Palestinians and, what was even more important, he became the personification of Palestinian struggle for freedom (Sayigh, 1997). In other words, he became a person who was ready to struggle for independence, take responsibility for violent actions and conduct peace talks with the enemy, which was traditionally associated with Israel. In this respect, it should be said that before Yasir Arafat the liberation movement in Palestine was weak and, as long as there were no leaders like Yasir Arafat, it was very convenient for Israel to accuse some extremist, innumerous groups in the clandestine struggle, which did not reflect the public opinion and the general position of Palestinian people. In stark contrast, as Yasir Arafat grew in power he had proved that his ideas of the freedom of Palestinians people, the necessity of change of the position of Palestinians and their return from abroad to the motherland, were not some abstract ideas or ideas of extremists, but these were ideas supported by the overwhelming majority of Palestinian people (Sayigh, 1993).

Moreover, it is possible to estimate that Yasir Arafat had managed to create the national idea of Palestinian people. What is meant here is the fact that he speed up the unification of Palestinian organizations in the struggle for independence and he created the ideological basis of this struggle as he made the idea of the national independence of Palestine from Israel the ultimate goal of his struggle and his entire life (Aburish, 1998). In addition, he developed the methods of the struggle. Even though, he was severely criticized for the excessive use of violence and the implementation of terrorist methods of struggle, these methods proved to be effective at the moment when they were used. In fact, it is due to the permanent threat of the violent attacks from the part of Palestinians that forced Israel to start peace talks with Yasir Arafat and Palestine.

In such a context, Yasir Arafat was not only the national leader of Palestinians but he became their representative on the international level. In this respect, it should be said that gradually he started to refuse from excessive violence and stick to negotiations. As a result, the Oslo Accords of 1993, which he was rewarded with the Noble Peace Prize for, and the Camp David Summit in 2000 became the turning points in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict because they showed to the international community that it is possible to find the peaceful solution of the conflict and stop the military actions (Pipes, 2002). In such a way, Yasir Arafat paved the strategic way of peace talks which could lead Palestinians to independence, but his death had ruined his plans and it had thrown Palestine in the chaos of the struggle for power.

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that the historical role of Yasir Arafat is extremely controversial. On the one hand, he became the national leader that had united Palestinian people and headed them to the national independence. On the other hand, in spite of all his efforts, he failed to achieve the major goal of his life and Palestine is still stateless. Moreover, the noble goal of Yasir Arafat was dramatically overshadowed by the violent methods of the struggle he used. Nevertheless, whether Yasir Arafat was good or bad, he was the only person who could unite the nation and who could take decisions and control the situation in Palestine and he was the only one who made the world to take into consideration the strife of Palestinians for independence.
Warning!!! All free online essays, sample essays and essay examples on Yasir Arafat topics are plagiarized and cannot be completely used in your school, college or university education.

Order Custom Essay on Yasir Arafat
If you need a custom essay, dissertation, thesis, term paper or research paper on your topic, will write your papers from scratch. We work with experienced PhD and Master's freelance writers to help you with writing any academic papers in any subject! We guarantee each customer great quality and no plagiarism!

Friday, March 23, 2012

Research Paper on Managed Care

Research Paper on Managed Care

1. Introduction
In this research paper I will investigate in Managed Care development in the USA and its importance in relation to the overall Health Care reform.

In order to evaluate the influence of Managed Care, it is necessary to follow all stages of its development, starting with its emergence, estimate its consequences, key parameters, understand all advantages and disadvantages not only from the standpoint of the client companies, but also for counselors who are working in Managed Care Organizations.

Managed care as the separate notion emerged in the beginning of 1990s and had a great impact upon counseling and psychotherapy practices. The great problem at the very beginning was that there were almost no books for beginners and the new staff lacked professionalism. The main reason for establishing managed care was the need in cutting costs for medical treatment, and managed care succeeded in fulfilling this particular task, although the situation not appeared to be constant. Consequences for cost reductions were rather rough, as managed care organization reduced costs not by means of increasing efficiency of services provided, but by decreasing number of clients and decreasing funding of service providers. Managed care brought a lot of new rules and regulations that seemed like another language to counseling professionals, and even though they were knowledgeable in their spheres, they had to start learning again in order be able to co-exit with this new type of health care. There was a conflict between providing best care services at lower costs, as he fuller and the better range of care services, the higher are the prices.


2. Reasons for Managed Care
Prices for medical services at the beginning of the 90s were constantly increasing. There were few reasons for that, which included: increases of inflation rates, increases of the costs for the mental health. Lack of professionals is definite spheres also made an impact upon this decrease. Some other reasons included: more services were used by the elder people and aging population, improved medical technologies needed more funding; a lot of money were spent on administrative and supportive staff.

At the same time federal government started the process of industrialization of health care system in USA. Creation of centralized and structures managed care was inevitable. Even though managed care organization emerged in the beginning of the twentieth century (Western Clinic in Tacoma, 1910, Farmers’ cooperative Health Plan in Oklahoma, 1929 and Kaiser Foundation Health Plans, 1937), the real necessity in them appeared just during last two decades. Starting with this very point, there were proposed three basic stages of behavioral managed care development. The first stage can be characterized by shifting of traditional health insurers (for example, of Blue Cross) to Health Managed Organizations. Their goal was increasing savings and revenues. So, now they focused more upon gaining profit and not providing qualified medical help. These goals were achieved by means of cutting access to particular services (providing only one program out of several that can be four ours by car away). The second stage was about focus upon large employers, making them the target market. Behavioral health was strongly encouraged to be separated from other medical services. Means were very different for achieving this- from publicity to personal persuasion. Large companies, in their turn, demanded cost control, discounts, and minimum complaints from the side of patients. The last stage was characterized with the consolidation of the managed care organizations, with the disappearance of traditional insurers from the market and drastic increase in number of licensed professionals who were willing to work, and subsequent decrease in their income.

The another researcher of this question- VanLeit- claimed that there were only two phases for managed care organizations formation. The first one is characterized by seeking for cost effectiveness and hostile relationships between managed care companies and providers, as well as by attempts to pay attention to quality and care effectiveness. The financial risk was shifted to health care providers, which leas even to more mistrust in their relations.

3. Consequences of managed care
The first and the most important consequence of managed care became lack of adequate health care. Results of the conducted research showed that people were not satisfied with the provided services, haven’t received in-time services or had problems regarding paying for services. The limited number of providers’ strategy that was originally used to save costs, resulted in bad treatment services, and showed no improvements. When the company that should have take care of people’s health, transfers to the mission of gaining more, then there is nothing to say about what kind of service they would provide. And even though such a switch was an obligatory measure stipulated by the lack of state funding, quality should also be pursued in any case. There was the change in the types of services offered. The psychotherapy and psychological testing became less profound and complicates by switching to more brief therapy, crisis intervention, medication and substance abuse treatment. The level of specialists also decreased from doctoral levels to common nurses, psychiatrists and bachelor-level specialists.

Simultaneously with all stated consequences, the amount of paper work increased as well as administrative expenses, as the number of administrative staff was greatly decreased, effectiveness of work in this sphere decreased greatly. Practicing doctors were wasting lot of time for administrative work and performed less of their direct job tasks. Another problem with paper work was for the client companies and providers connected with constantly changing rules, regulations and forms. Training opportunities were also very restricted, because of lack of financial resources. Students, who were willing to practice their skills, not payment for their ob was offered for the reason that they were not licensed yet. So, students had problems in acquiring enough clients during their practice. Training problems finally resulted in decreased ability to ensure training upon long-term basis mental health, and switching to short-term, as well as in additional stress for staff in viewing students as additional burden to their every-day responsibilities.

There were also legal and ethical contradictions that counselors faced connected with the provision of the best care services along with least expensive for the managed care organization (time-consuming). Confidentiality was also an issue to be considered, as managed care companies needed information that could violate clients’ privacy, which could not be guaranteed. So, in general terms, medical model of health care was interchanged by the business model with subsequent changes in core values and service quality.

4. Work conditions for providers in Managed Mental Health Care
Counseling process and discussed issues had always been the private matter of the client and the counselor. But with the emergence of managed care organizations, this could not be longer guaranteed. Prior to managed care, any outside influence was viewed as the intrusion to the private life and was not considered ethical. Any outside influence or attempts for evaluations were strictly forbidden. In managed care companies, specialists, when trying to evaluate the overall efficiency of the counseling process, were violating primary ethical standards of behavior.

Definite instructions and complex, and sometimes contradictory, requirements were developed for counselors to obey. They were dictated how to behave themselves during sessions as well as in the office.

Provider panels had the series of limitation for membership, including geographical limitations, difficulties in starting of the new practice in new place (is not referred to rare specializations), group panel membership, which had a lot advantages especially for newcomers and provided an ability to combine private and group practice.

Contracts were another big problem with managed care organizations for both providers and clients. If the client was not paying for services provided, the counselor still had to continue his sessions with the client.

When the contact was once signed, it was very difficult to change any of its issues. It was prohibited to discuss with the client any topics beyond indicated in the contract. It was allowed to do and to treat only what was written in the insurance and nothing more. If the patient needed any additional sessions or treatment course, it was the company’s prerogative to decide it, even if the treatment was not successfully finished. It usually took a lot of time for the decision-making process for companies’ to extend the treatment, and in some cases the disease already could took more serious form and needed far more time and investments.

Each therapist should also remember that the company could stop sessions any time without notifications. And therefore each new treatment session was like the last on.

Also strict diagnostic criteria were developed and if the client was not corresponding to any, he or she were refused to be treated or just offered to purchase the better insurance.

Client should have been informed that have the limited number of sessions, so that they didn’t feel themselves suddenly left alone. Client companies received all information about treatment sessions and the contract requirements were not considered closed, unless all information was delivered.

Each therapist should have developed the treatment plan and to follow it. The common treatment plan included a formulation of the problem occurred, description of the therapeutic intervention, and the desired result of the treatment. Effective treatment result depends not only upon the treatment effectiveness, but also upon the cooperation of managed care organization, the client company and their allowing therapist to work competently and provide in-time services.

As to the providers work conditions, I would like to summarize that all procedures and instructions appear to be directed to the discouragement both to work and to use counseling services, as the neither allow effective service delivery, not afford obtain the qualified assistance. Clients are obliged to face delays and providers are to wait long for payments and experience high administrative expenses.

5. Managed Care Evaluation
Evaluation of any services provided is the key task of management and the driving force for constant improvements. In case with managed care, the only thing that is needed to know the customer satisfaction is to ask clients about it upon constant basis. But the information is usually collected by managed care companies and data collected can be interpreted in any ways, depending what the company wants to emphasize. As data is not available to broad public, but only statistical outcomes, there is no evidence that results depict the true situation. No data follow-ups were also practiced. So, there were no improvement expected in the quality aspect for the simple reasons that managed care companies didn’t possess enough valid information about how reliably improve psychotherapy and counseling services; there is little evidence that data collected is relevant, as not all client companies equally share information and the results can be taken just from the small sample group and be subjective. And the last reason was about that there was no evidence that managed care companies would have been motivated with any factors beyond profit.

There could be several possible solutions, including setting external common standards for evaluation so that all criteria, sample size, etc. were common for every company and the information be publicly presented. Multiple sources for making up reports should be used, as well as examination of the frequency of medical services use after the counseling process was finished, idiographic assessment involvement, developing general basic quality standards for outcome assessment. Cost reduction can be proposed to be done without influence upon quality by means of subsequent psychotherapy that would result in providing less medical and surgical services.

6. Managed Care Improvement
Managed care companies in general are not willing to change their way to do business. And then the question arises upon whether the basic care that they provide is good or bad. In order to answer it objectively, it is necessary to understand to whom good or bad. For client companies (who take care of its employees), patients (who just want to be health and happy) and government (that has to protect rights of its citizens)- it is bad, for managed care companies, which are looking for cutting expenses and gaining more profit, it is good. And the task is to find the best solution, which would benefit both sides, as health care crisis is the stumbling block of ethical standards and human rights.

There are several suggestions to improve quality of managed care services delivery, which are primarily connected with establishment of democratic allocation procedures, fair grievance procedures and also practicing more respect for privacy and confidentiality. And there were developed nine directions that would improve activities of managed care organizations. The first one is about continuing transition from inpatient to outpatient services, as this step would reduce costs for providing mental health services, as there is little evidence that inpatient treatment is more effective then outpatient and costs for providing outpatient services are much less. The second hint refers simplifying managed care and medical bureaucracy- less administrative work- less expenses. The third advice concerns constant investments in the research. Even though such investments are long-term ones and will not be paid back immediately, they are essential driving part of contemporary managed care. The forth hint concerned removing control of health insurance from employers. The fifth advice is about having enough supportive staff at the managed care companies, so that each staff member was doing his or her particular job, there were no overlapping job responsibilities and no staff deficit. Traditional labor strategies are also firmly advised to be considered as well as offering managed care to the educational programs and giving students the opportunity to receive practical experience. Managed care professionals should be politically active and participate actively in lobbing laws and regulations about managed care. And finally counseling professionals should stay informed about all changed occurred not only in their organization, but also from outside (professional newspapers, journals, web-sites, etc.). It is very helpful to share own experiences, successes and problems with other specialists and to hear their opinions, acknowledging something new and constantly improving professional skills.

7. Conclusion
In the conclusion I would like to mention that managed care organizations played one the dominant roles in Health Care reform. Even though their operations are not always successfully managed and delivered, managed care serves as the driving force for constant health care improvement and pursues the main goal of the reform – decrease of health care costs.

Managed care was an absolutely new experience for both health providers and company clients and therefore it was not always smoothly going. Health providers were underpaid and were put into strict frames in delivering their services. Clients had to wait for sessions and may not receive the expected help, but in general managed care organization should primarily pursue the goals of effectively helping people with their problems and not thinking just about profit. Probably there should be more government funding, but still the question remains open.
Warning!!! All free online research papers, research paper samples and example research papers on Managed Care topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education.

Order Custom Research Paper on Managed Care
If you need a custom research paper, research proposal, essay, dissertation, thesis paper or term paper on your topic, will write your research papers from scratch. Starting at $12/page you can order custom written papers online. We work with experienced PhD. and Master's freelance writers to help you with writing any academic papers in any subject! High quality and 100% non-plagiarized papers guaranteed!

Thursday, March 22, 2012

US History Research Paper

US History Research Paper

1. Great adjustments did not occur in American Society after World War I.
False. Although World War I greatly affected all countries involved and left a deep trace in history, it strengthened positions of the USA in the world and brought adjustments to American Society. It is known that World War I changed the balance of political forces on the international arena. In the course of the war and right after it, the military forces of the USA greatly improved. In such favorable conditions, the USA developed faster and produced more than other countries. It gained the reputation of a post-war leader, and took an active part in the European affairs. Although the years immediately following World War I were years of social unrest and racial tension, the USA did not suffer from mass destruction that took place in most European countries. It gave the USA a chance to advance its positions and improve life conditions of people. Besides, because the USA got involved in military affairs only in 1918, its war casualties were not as numerous as in other countries. The prosperity of Americans was the result of many technical and marketing innovations in American business and industry. As a result, the level of job loss decreased and salaries became higher. According to statistics, the average income of American workers increased twice in comparison with pre-war times. While in other countries, people suffered from deficit and lack of food, American society gradually improved its welfare. The USA entered a new stage of industrial evolution. Besides, the immigration to the USA also contributed to social prosperity. European immigrants came to the new land in search of jobs and better life, and new labor force increased the potential of the USA. Apart from this, it is known that the USA supplied other countries with weapons and ammunition, and the amount of export rapidly increased. It brought considerable profit and contributed to the welfare of American society. In such a way, all the above stated points prove that for American society post-war times were characterized by great adjustments.


2. During the Republican era (1921 to 1933) economic, political, and foreign policy was not successful at all!
False. The Republican era was a long process of economic and political changes, and we cannot say that it only aggravated the situation in the USA, as there were some positive changes as well. Republicans came to power in 1920, when the USA suffered industrial and economic crisis, caused by many factors, such as the results of the Paris Peace Conference. The Republican government introduced radical changes into the state regulation. Firstly, the introduction of “dry law” negatively affected American society. Naturally, the prohibition of alcohol production and distribution brought about criminal growth, and as a result, this amendment was abolished. Moreover, despite the economic crisis, American manufacturers were desperately looking for profit, and were ready to use any means to gain it. It led to a high level of corruption and political machinations. On the other hand, there was a positive side of Republican policy. In 1920, women gained right to vote, which was a serious reform in the political sphere. However, the post-war economic instability of 1920s not only revealed the drawbacks of capitalism, but also brought troubles to American society. Millions of people lost their jobs and became useless for society. Mass job loss caused despair, hopelessness and even anger among common people. The gap between wealthy and poor people was gradually growing. It is important to emphasize that home policy of Republicans aggravated social problems and led to workers’ strikes throughout the country.

However, the years of 1922-1929 were characterized by industrial growth in the USA. Rapid rates of economic growth can be explained by temporary political and financial stability. New plants and factories were supplied with new technological equipment. Considerable growth of car industry is a bright example of economic stability, which was accompanied by national prosperity.

Nevertheless, this period of prosperity did not last for long. Beginning with 1929, American prosperity began to rapidly decline. The stock market crashed and serious weaknesses in American economy became apparent. As a result, the United States entered a long period of economic depression. The crisis affected industry, agriculture, financial system and many other spheres. During the Great Depression, thousands of people were left with no money, no homes and no food.

Thus, the post-war development of the USA under the rule of Republicans was influenced by many factors and was rather unstable. Taking into account all the events, we cannot say that the whole period of Republican era was not successful in economy, politics and foreign policy at all. We should not forget that a medal has two sides, and although Republican era had many negative results, it was characterized by temporary political and economic growth of 1922-1929.

3. President Roosevelt’s (FDR) New Deal (economic policy) and diplomacy leading up to World War II was completely conservative, isolationist and liberal.
False. Analysis of the economic policy of President Roosevelt shows that he took effective measures in the struggle against the disastrous crisis that took place in the USA and managed to improve the welfare of the country. His New Deal was a considerable turn in the US history, and it became an example for further generations of rulers to follow. Roosevelt’s New Deal became a miracle, which the whole nation had been waiting for. However, different historians interpret Roosevelt’s policy differently. Some historians consider that it was the third American Revolution. Other historians claim that Roosevelt strengthened the fundamental principles of the US policy. His New Deal was completely isolationist and liberal, but it was not conservative. His isolationist policy is rather controvertible. On the one hand, he was the follower of Woodrow Wilson and supported his ideas of the US role in world policy. He considered that America ought to play an active part in it. On the other hand, he understood that the country tended to distance itself from world instability. Overall, Roosevelt continued the isolationist policy, without interfering to European conflicts and contradictions. He understood that it was impossible to ignore the USSR and in 1933, he established diplomatic relations with it. Another evidence of his isolationist views was Neutrality Act. According to this Act, the US President ought to lay an embargo on the export of ammunition to countries in case of a war conflict between them. In this way, he did not want the USA to take part in military affairs.

As for his liberal views, they can be illustrated by his ideas on the basic reasons for American crisis. During his ruling, he always reminded Americans his loyalty to fundamental liberal values and clearly explained their meaning. Besides, among his ideals of American liberals was Thomas Jefferson. His National Industry Recovery Act provided a number of liberal reforms in the sphere of labor relations. His aim was to achieve peaceful relations between upper and lower classes. He managed to strengthen the position of monopolies and improve the conditions of workers. Later in 1938, Roosevelt adopted Fair Labor Standards Act, which was also a liberal reform. This act prohibited child labor and established relatively fair salaries. Owing timely actions of Roosevelt, millions of Americans went back to work for the federal government on jobs such as forestry projects and building of parks, schools, airports, roads, etc.

However, the New Deal met with much criticism. Supporters of conservative policy stood up against Roosevelt’s New Deal. This opposition affected the efficiency of Roosevelt’s policy and led to elimination of several Acts. Conservative politicians disapproved Roosevelt’s attitude to workers and demanded stricter measures. Besides, conservative critics claimed that the New Deal amounted to unnecessary interference in the American economy. Other critics felt that the New Deal did not go far enough in its fight against the Great Depression. For this reason, the New Deal cannot be considered conservative.

4. World War II and its aftermath did not have the United States emerge as a developing world power.
False. The United States proved to be a developing world power during World War II and after it. Firstly, it was aware that strengthening of German fascism was a great threat to the US international position. For this reason, it began to support Britain and France in the first place. In 1939, the US congress abolished embargo on ammunition export, and stood up against fascism, taking side of victims of the aggression. It began to cooperate with European countries in their fight against fascism. The US government provided them with ammunition, weapons, various military goods and services. The Lend-Lease Act adoption proved the importance of the United States during the war. According to statistics, the USA spent 46 milliard dollars during the years of 1941-1945. Lend-Lease supplies expanded the US productions and made it a developing world power. During the early months of the war, the American economy directed its efforts to production of goods needed for the war. Women became valued members of the work force, replacing men who had joined the US army. At the end of World War II, the USA was an absolute leader of capitalist world. Even before the war, it had a great economic power and was the most prosperous state. During the years of World War II, the national income and industrial production of the USA increased twice or even more. Profit of American companies reached 70 milliard dollars. The war advanced agricultural process and allowed farmers to increase their incomes. The US economic superiority was based on its financial power. It should be mentioned that dollar became a worldwide convertible currency. After the war, the United States faced a problem of reconversion, which was successfully solved by the government. The demand for innovative equipment rapidly increased, and the country produced an enormous number of planes, tanks and ships. No other country ever made such a large quantity of war materials in such a short time. All the stated above aspects prove that the United States was a leading world power not only during World War II, but after it as well.

5. International policy (US Foreign Policy) during the Cold War was not one of containment (waiting for International Communism to collapse – economically, politically and socially). Who was George F. Kennan?
False. Although the USA won Cold War, in reality it spent so much money for armaments race that it cannot be called an absolute winner. These resources could have been spent on solving of various demographic, ecological and other global problems. In such a way, it is impossible to say that the United States did not lead a policy of containment. After WWII, countries of Western Europe and the USA united their forces against the USSR, and the world was divided into capitalist and socialist coalitions. The armaments race was the most vivid example of the US struggle against the USSR. At first, it dealt with atomic weapons. It is known that in 1945 the USA appeared to be the only country with nuclear weapons. Besides, as soon as there appeared a new sort of weapon, each of the opponent countries strived for getting it. This insane competition influenced all spheres of war industry. As a result, the USA managed to outrun its rival for weapons, and did not stop at that point. The armament race affected even the spheres of education and sports. The USA, for example, put under boycott the Olympic games of 1980 in Moscow. In return, the USSR put under boycott the following Olympic Games in Los-Angeles. The US government led an active policy in order to surpass the USSR in economic, political and social spheres. Nevertheless, it is evident that it was too expensive for the country and such policy could not last for long. As a result, the USSR gradually began to loose the battle.

Speaking about Cold War, we cannot help mentioning George Kennan, who is considered the main «architect» of the war. He created and developed the doctrine, according to which International Communism ought to be contained. At first, he led an absolutely anti-Soviet policy, considering that there could be no compromise between two world powers. At the same time, he was interested in Russian culture and tried to learn more about it.

Besides, Kennan had equally negative attitude to changes in both countries. He disapproved social protest movements of 1929, and criticized Roosevelt’s actions towards the USSR. On the other hand, Kennan was first to notice factors that would lead to the destruction of Communism. On the other hand, he did not consider that a new war would change the matter of things for the best. The war ought to be cold. It was a competition without battles, tanks or bombs. There was no destruction. Probably, for this reason he began his policy of containment. He thought that the Soviet System would destroy itself, without interference from the side of the USA. Overall, George Kennan is known as a historian and diplomatist, who predicted the course of development of the Soviet regime.

6. Great social change took place during the post-World War II era.
True. As for social changes, it is important to say that most Americans did not want to enter war again. Eventually, this war appeared to be the most destructive war in history. The cost was impossible to measure. Cities were destroyed and people were moved from their homelands. Although the USA came out of World War II as the most powerful nation in the world, it still faced many social problems. For this reason, we can see that after World War II, American society underwent constant changes, especially under the rule of President Truman. He managed to take control over prices and increase minimal salary. His Employment Acts made government responsible for social relations. He also introduced a number of other social reforms, even though some of them were never realized.

Great social changes were also caused by rapid technological development. It particularly concerned the structure of labor force. Many spheres, such as industry and transportation encountered the reduction of employment. However, in science absorbing industries there was a great demand for labor force. As a result, less people were involved in physical labor. The number of highly qualified specialists surpassed the number of low-qualified workers.

A positive result of the post-war technological development was improvement of life standard. However, the country also faced many social problems, caused by the introduction of innovative technologies. Thus, the level of job loss quickly increased, because of considerable changes in the structure of production.

7. The Vietnam War did not have a significant impact on American Society and US Foreign Policy.
False. First, the Vietnam War bitterly divided the nation. Many Americans thought that it was wrong for the country to fight in Vietnam. Some of them did not like the means applied by the government. Others believed that the USA ought to send guns and planes, but not troops. It caused conflicts and contradictions among American people. It split American society into two groups: one group for fighting the war to the end, other one for getting out of Vietnam as quickly as possible. After the war, Americans helped European countries to prevent starvation and rebuild homes and cities. No one would argue that if people have enough to eat, live in proper housing and have clothes to wear they are less likely to become involved in revolution. It was the idea of the US government in post-war years. It sent thousands of Americans to many developing countries to help build schools, hospitals and roads. On the other hand, because a great number of soldiers were sent over from America to fight, there were numerous cries of protest and social unrest. The protest took place mostly in the university campuses, as people tried to make them heard more and more. More than 46,000 American soldiers had died in Vietnam by 1973, when all American forces were removed and the North Vietnamese took control of the whole Vietnam. There were no manifestations of job when the war ended. The country had been defeated and the death of so many soldiers could not be justified. It had a great impact on American society. As for the foreign policy, during the war in Vietnam, the US government aimed to improve relations with the Soviet Union. The United States also established normal relations with the new communist government in China. Probably, Vietnam War influenced all these diplomatic actions, as the government tried to avoid further conflicts and wanted to establish peaceful relations. In such a way, it is clear that the Vietnam War had a significant impact on American society and US Foreign Policy.

8. Watergate did not have a great impact on the American Political scene.
False. First, it should be mentioned that the Watergate Crisis led to President Nixon’s resignation, which was already a great change on the American Political scene. The events of Watergate rocked the American nation. It started during the 1972 election campaign. Some Republicans formed a committee called the Committee to Reelect the President. This committee hired burglars to get secret information from the Democratic campaign headquarters in a building called Watergate in Washington, D. C. The burglars were caught, and the crisis, which followed “Watergate”, demonstrated the work of the system of checks and balances. It should be mentioned that Watergate Crisis took place in the conditions of sharp political struggle in the USA. In addition, President Nixon was severely criticized. «Watergate» caused a chain of great political scandals in the USA, which often concerned Presidents of the country.

“Watergate” had a great impact on American society and their attitude to presidency. It was undoubtedly a tragic event in the American history, which defined the course of state development in many ways. American nation changed its views on relations between government and press. Besides, people radically changed their opinion about Nixon’s presidency. One of the consequences of “Watergate” was lack of trust to the representatives of state power from the side of American society. Besides, unsuccessful foreign policy was caused by instability throughout the country. American society began to reject any war conflicts, no matter what purposes the government wanted to achieve. The matter is that people could not trust authorities any more, and did not want to get involved in new conflicts. In such a way, “Watergate” brought about social protest and change of values in American society. Moreover, it undoubtedly affected the American Political scene.

9. Foreign Policy, domestic American politics and diplomacy were changed by the mistakes made during the Vietnam War era.
False. The Vietnam War is certainly one of the most tragic epochs in American history, but observing Foreign Policy, domestic politics and diplomacy, we cannot say that they underwent significant changes under the war. The USA actually had no economic interests in Vietnam, and the majority of Americans had never even heard of this country before. John Kennedy decided to support to regime of Southern Vietnam only because he wanted to prevent the spread of totalitarian regime. The main mistake of American governors during the Vietnam War was underestimation of the enemy. For many years different nations desperately tried to gain control over Indochina, but their attempts were fruitless. Vietnamese leaders showed a vivid national resistance to foreign superiority, and the conflict between Vietnam and the USA was considered one more kind of foreign oppression. The strategy of the US leaders was full of flaws, as they could not understand the nature of the war to full extent. However, mistakes made by the US government did not affect foreign and domestic policy, as well as diplomatic relations with other nations. Many historians consider that history tend to repeat. They also compare Vietnam War with the war in Iraq. Why did the USA fail to achieve its goals? First, it should be mentioned that they lost the war on the strategic level. Sometimes the US leadership is criticized for its wrong war strategy, and its confidence in future victory. However, they undervalued the abilities and determination of Vietnamese people. They could not predict such strong resistance from the side of the enemy, and as a result, they lost the war. However, they did not learn from their mistakes and repeated them in their further foreign and domestic policy. Vietnamese loyally defended their traditions and rights for freedom. Numerous American soldiers served in Vietnam and even intensive bombing could not overcome resistance of Vietnamese people.

As a result, Americans lost the war. The number of casualties and the cost of blood frustrated American people, and they did not understand what they were fighting for. The Vietnam War seemed unnecessary and groundless. Only after a long period, the US authorities began to understand how persevere and determined their enemy was. They understood how dangerous it was to attack an enemy, whose strength and subtle abilities were unknown to them. Besides the US diplomacy did not work well, and they did not know their allies at a proper level. The true reason for the US participation in the war was an attempt to contain Communism. The US authorities thought that if to preserve one country from Communist spread, other countries would follow its example. A question of whether a more efficient and flawless strategy would lead to American victory in the war, remains under discussion, but anyway what is done cannot be undone. It is better to learn from past mistakes and not repeat them in future. However, some historians consider that the War in Iraq shows that the USA did not learn much from previous experience, and did not change its policy and diplomacy after the war.

10. Since the fall of the Soviet Union the USA is not generally recognized as the only remaining great world power (super power) presently existing in the world. Other countries are classed as super powers.
False. The United States still remain the strongest country in economy and military affairs, as well as in politics. In a century, the USA became isolated from the Western hemisphere and turned into a great world power. Though it is clear, that after the Cold War there remained only one super power in the world, some historians consider that the world is gradually becoming multipolar, as many other countries strengthen their positions in the world. They keep to the point that the very phenomenon of super power is vanishing, and the concentration of power in one state is eventually becoming unnatural. Be that as it may, the 21st century will belong to America in all regards. America will remain the only guarantor of international security and global trade. This statement can be proved by the following hypothesis. First, no other state finds it necessary to challenge the USA. The European Union is too disjoint at the moment. As for Russia, certain internal problems will not allow it to play the central role on international scene. Japan, however, may be the only rival of the USA. Its rapid technological development has long surpassed the development of the United States, and represents a threat for the existing world power. However, Japan remains too isolated and concentrated on internal state of affairs, and it does not lay a claim for the position of the world power.

Thus, the USA remains vitally important for the whole world. The United States maintain political and economic stability in the world and guarantees global order. It is clear that if the world looses its leader, it is likely to become dangerous, unstable and disorderly. However, it is also evident that due to rapid development of other countries, in perspective we may expect certain decline in the US economy. It should be taken into account that the situation in the world is gradually changing. China has the fastest growing economy in the world, which makes it a dangerous competitor of the United States. However, the ambitions of China would take a lot of time to realize. Some historians consider that it is time to make some changes and probably they are right. However, it does not depend on how rapidly other countries develop, as the USA will obviously remain the world power for a long time to come. Maybe, only when China, Japan or Russia grow to the highest stages of their development, they will replace the USA and become strong economic and military powers. But this is evidently not a quick process.
Warning!!! All free online research papers, research paper samples and example research papers on US History topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education.

Order Custom Research Paper on US History
If you need a custom research paper, research proposal, essay, dissertation, thesis paper or term paper on your topic, will write your research papers from scratch. Starting at $12/page you can order custom written papers online. We work with experienced PhD. and Master's freelance writers to help you with writing any academic papers in any subject! High quality and 100% non-plagiarized papers guaranteed!

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Arms Race Essay

Arms Race Essay

Arms Race Contribution to the Decline of the Soviet Union
1. Abstract
Arms race as the separate notion appeared at the end of the 19th at the beginning of the 20th century. It refers to the rivalry and competition in the most science-driven and technologically complicated field of economy- in the military industry. Superiority in this field had always been the key goal of the countries and armies which were aspiring geo-political goals. Arms race includes development of new systems and implementation of innovations. It appears to be the race of battleships, weapon systems, airplanes, nuclear weapon and spaceships.

In the 20th century arms race between the USSR and the USA played one of the dominant roles in the fall of the USSR. The beginning of the arms race was primarily connected with nuclear weapon. As it is known, at the end of the World War II United Stated appeared to be the only nuclear country in the world. USA obtained strategic dominance over the world during the war with Japan blowing atomic bombs upon it, and this lead to the fact that American military forces began to plan preventive attack on the USSR. But this nuclear dominance was only for four years. In 1949 USSR made first check outs of its first atomic bomb. It was the real shock for the Western world as well as new important mark in the Cold War. Later on USSR developed not only nuclear but also hydrogen weapon.


There were several distinctive features of arms race that are necessary to be mentioned. First, common arms race involves huge amount of financial resources. Second, apart from creation of different arms type, arms race presumes creation of particular economic, production and technological chains which demand high level of economy and management at the governmental level development, demand highly professional supporting working staff, which in its term involves high claims to the education level and fundamental science in the country, and finally are not easily reoriented to the other type of the production. So, when the country does not correspond to any of mentioned demands or lacks some essential resources, it simply can not only lose the race, but also experience inevitable and as history shows inconvertible changes in its state system. This was exactly what happened with USSR in the arms race with USA.

2. Fall of USSR and the Arms Race
The nuclear potential of USSR and USA became so high that any military actions or starting the open war could lead to the destruction of the world. It is important to note that those potential needed to be stored somewhere, as well as it demanded substantial financial resources which would never be paid back. When one country invented or developed some type of weapon, other was using all financial and labor force to obtain the same or even better. Even though this race later on was “ex gratia” stopped by signing of a series of treaties, it greatly broke the economy of the USSR. The first treaty was SALT I. The SALT I agreements also proved valuable for another reason. During the negotiations, virtually all of the data on the Soviet strategic weapons used for the talks were provided by U.S. intelligence. Scouring through the data, a stern but brilliant military officer named Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov was able to determine how the Americans were getting their satellite intelligence. With the approval of the Soviet Council of Ministers, he worked feverishly with the secretive Scientific and Technical Committee of the General Staff to develop a comprehensive strategic deception program to hide from Washington the true size of the Soviet arsenal(Schweizer, 2002). The second- Treaty II. Carter took several steps to signal his anger at the Soviet move. He postponed Senate ratification of the SALT II treaty and placed a partial embargo on grain sales to the Soviet Union. He also tightened the U.S. ban on exports of military–related technology to the Soviet Union. The defense budget was boosted by 5 percent and he announced the Carter Doctrine, declaring that the United States was prepared to resist any further Soviet encroachments in the Middle East — by force if necessary (Schweizer, 2002).

In order to answer the question whether the arms race contributed to the decline of the Soviet Union it is necessary to understand the reasons which led to fall of the Soviet Empire and its structure.

In the USSR constitutions united republics were endued with government sovereignty and with an exclusive right to exit the body of Soviet Union. But these were mainly declarative and decorative constitutional dispositions which were later on used by regional separatists for the aims of their own. Autonomy republics were less privileged then union republics. Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was the main and actually the only source of union budget. And so, other republics were deflating financial, material, technical and labor resources from it for development of national outskirts, which were far behind in economic and social development.

Arms race was one of the peculiarities of the Cold war for world domination. Even though it led to many scientific discoveries in many technological and military fields, extensive participation of USSR in it led to non-efficient internal policies towards democratic republics.

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 some 70 years after its grimly riveting and highly expectant Marxist-Leninist beginning ranks alongside World War I as the two most singularly pivotal events of the Twentieth Century. In a sense, both are conjoined, with the War providing the decisive finishing blow to what remained of both the totteringly indecisive Romanov dynasty and centuries of turgid, slow-to-change Russian autocracy. Lenin and Trotsky's ability in October 1917 to "pick the Revolution up off the street," if not guaranteed, certainly was facilitated by the disaster on the Eastern Front (Lovell). In understanding why USA succeeded in destruction of USSR, it is essential to remember that in the 20th century USSR experienced two World Wars, and each time after the end it should reconstruct its potential after huge people, economic and territorial losses while USA experienced minimum losses of all countries participants after two wars. And even though during the World War II United States had the greatest direct military expenses, its national wealth for the period had increased for more then 20%.

Arms race was destructive for USSR also for the reason that its economy was less effective then that of USA, which succeeded in more efficient use of new achievements of scientific and technological revolution.

It is obvious that USSR succeeded to endue this military and political opposition with such a mighty opponent during more then 40 years only grateful to over militarization of the economy and low, compared to the standards of the developed industrial countries, level of well-being of the population. Arm race lead to the total deformation of the USSR economy, in which military industrial complex was about 80% of the total industrial production. Civil fields of economy and agriculture were just an appendix to the enormous military complex. In the early 70-s this situation promoted general economic underdevelopment of the USSR that led to qualitative decline of soviet military and technological potential as well as to weakening of international positions of the country.

As I already mentioned, economic underdevelopment had also negative influence upon internal social and economic development of USSR and its allies.

Then perestroika began, during which USSR government decided to involve traditional methods of rising economy effectiveness (“strategy of speed-up”) and realized that its entrance to the world technical and economical level is impossible without its integration into the world economy, which demanded, in its turn, not only radical changes in forms of management, but also a radical change of all government and political state of the country. Perestroika was impossible without economy and social and political life demilitarization, without refusal of the huge military expenses, which were directed to the support of the global opposition with USA. Politics of new thinking which was tried to be implemented by Soviet government was an attempt to sustain Soviet Empire. But it never happened because of USSR fall.

3. Conclusion
In the conclusion I would like to summarize that arms race between USSR and USA influenced dramatically upon economies and political situation in both countries. And if in case with the USA that influence promoted its development, then in USSR step-by-step it contributed to its decline and fall. According to the definition, arms race can be passive, active and aggressive. Throughout the Cold War, American presidents had been reactive, responding to Soviet probes and provocations around the world. Reagan wanted to be less reactive and more aggressive, taking the initiative away from Moscow (Schweizer, 1994). At this example we were able to follow all stages of it and final superiority of USA. USA used arms race as the transitional step and as the geopolitical mean of getting power and dominance.
Warning!!! All free online essays, sample essays and essay examples on Arms Race topics are plagiarized and cannot be completely used in your school, college or university education.

Order Custom Essay on Arms Race
If you need a custom essay, dissertation, thesis, term paper or research paper on your topic, will write your papers from scratch. We work with experienced PhD and Master's freelance writers to help you with writing any academic papers in any subject! We guarantee each customer great quality and no plagiarism!