Tuesday, January 17, 2012

Research Paper on Diseases

Research Paper on Diseases

1. Description of diseases
1.1. Malaria
Malaria is among the major causes of death in the world and kills over a million people annually. (Kujtan). Although this virus kills less than 1% of those who actually contract it, the high infection rates (over 300,000,000 people contract the disease every year) account for the impressive mortality figures. Malaria “kills more people than any other communicable disease except tuberculosis” ( The deaths primarily occur among young children in Africa, especially those who live in the countryside and have poor access to health care (


Malaria is spread mostly in tropical and sub-tropical areas including Africa, India, the Caribbean and South America, but affects people from other countries travelling to those areas as well. For example, in North America, over a thousand people are diagnosed with this disease annually after trips to the warmer regions (Kujtan). Over 90% of all malaria cases are reported in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, this disease is found in 101 countries: “45 countries in Africa, 21 in the Americas, 4 in Europe, 14 in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, eight in South East Asia and nine in the Western Pacific Region” ( Currently, the infection has appeared in the regions where it was exterminated years ago, such as Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, and Korea. Although the area affected by the disease has become smaller than 50 years ago, it is still a huge part of the world. Malaria is a major health problem now in over 90 countries with a population of 2,400 million people that represent 40% of the global population ( Malaria risk is increasing as methods of land use are changing due to the development of road construction, mining, logging, and agricultural and irrigation projects. International travel, flows of refugees caused by armed conflicts and global climatic change are also exacerbating the malaria situation around the globe. The particular forms of malaria spreading have become “airport malaria” when the disease is imported by travellers, and "weekend malaria," that affects town residents in Africa getting back to their rural settlements. The United Kingdom recorded 2,364 cases of malaria in 1997 brought to the country by travellers (

The disease is caused by Plasmodia, one-cell creatures that get into human blood after bites of infected anopheline mosquitoes. The parasite inside the body of the human gets into the liver, incubating there. Malaria is more frequently transmitted during a rainy season ( Malaria can also be contracted through blood transfusions or dirty needle use (Kujtan).

Malaria symptoms include “fever, shivering, pain in the joints, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, repeated vomiting, generalised convulsions and coma”, possibly also nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea (

If malaria is quickly diagnosed, it can be cured, which is why the majority of people who develop malaria survive. Malaria is diagnosed via a malaria smear that is a drop of blood that is examined under a microscope. Malaria has four different forms, three of which are “benign”, meaning that the patient has a fairly good chance of survival, while the fourth one is dangerous as it can lead to death within 48 hours. If the disease is not fully cured, the symptoms can return in a few months.

Malaria surfaces in the regions affected by hurricanes, for example, in the Caribbean. The disease was once common in the southern US but was eradicated later on (Kujtan). Currently the instances of malaria transmission in North America are limited to the cases when infected mosquitoes have come to the continent in travelers’ bags or have bitten local mosquitoes.

The studies of the economic impact of malaria in Africa, the region most affected by this deadly malaise, have been looking into the losses caused by the outlays for treatment, lost productivity due to missed working hours, households’ expenditures on medication and treatment, the days missed by schoolchildren at educational establishments, expenses at public health care offices, and the impact on people’s health. A study by Shepard et al. in 1991 revealed that the economic loss from malaria to the African continent in 1987 amounted to $791 million, constituting 0.6% of the Sub-Saharan Gross Domestic Product (Chapter 6:164). The study by Leighton and Foster in 1993 estimated the production loss inflicted by malaria on the economies of Kenya and Nigeria to be in the ranges of 2-6% of the GDP and 1-5% respectively (Chapter 6:165).

1.2. West Nile virus
West Nile Virus is contracted by people most commonly from mosquitoes or birds (CDC). Other creatures that spread the disease include insects such as sand flies, ceratopogonids, "no-see-ums", ticks, and vertebrates such as dogs, cats and horses. The contraction of the virus by humans is accidental, and the human being cannot be infected by the West Nile Virus as a result of communication with another human. In 80% of the cases the disease will be asymptomatic, but in 20% of the cases humans will develop a serious condition called West Nile fever or West Nile disease (CDC). The symptoms of the West Nile Fever are “fever, headache, tiredness, and body aches, occasionally with a skin rash (on the trunk of the body) and swollen lymph glands” (CDC: Symptoms of West Nile Virus). The contraction of the virus can lead to encephalitis affecting the brain itself, meningitis that affects the lining of the brain and spinal cord, West Nile meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the brain and the membrane surrounding it), and West Nile poliomyelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord) called then West Nile disease, or neuroinvasive disease ( the symptoms of the West Nile disease include “headache, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, and paralysis” (CDC). The risk of developing a disease is especially common in people over 50 or those with damaged immunity, such as transplant patients. The incubation period usually lasts from 2 to 15 days, and the disease itself is usually over in a few days, although in some patients the symptoms may persist for weeks.

West Nile fever is typically of short duration and does not leave any lasting health effects. On the other hand, the West Nile disease can evoke “permanent neurological damage” and result in the death of the patient ( The death rate of those infected with West Nile virus is less than 1 person in 1000, as less than 1% of those who contract the virus develop encephalitis, and the rate of fatality among encephalitis patients varies from 3% to 15%.

This dangerous virus first entered the Western Hemisphere and was registered in New York in 1999 (Zohrabian). Since then, the virus spread all over the US and most of the states registered WNV-positive in 2004, except Washington. Some of the Mexican and Canadian provinces bordering on the US were affected as well (US Geological Survey). During the outbreak of the disease in 2002, 4,156 WNV cases were registered in the United States. 2,942 people developed a condition affecting the central nervous system. 284 disease cases led to lethal outcomes (Zohrabian).

A study was conducted aimed at assessing the economic impact of the disease in Louisiana where 329 cases were reported in 2002, including 24 lethal cases. The research took into account “medical costs (inpatient and outpatient); nonmedical costs, such as productivity losses caused by illness and premature death, costs of transportation for a patient to visit a healthcare provider, and childcare expenses; and costs incurred by public health and other government agencies for epidemic control” (Zohrabian). The costs associated with the short-term impact on the epidemic on the economy of the state including the factors mentioned above were found to equal $20.1 million, and the figure is likely to be understated as some of the costs such as expenses associated with outpatient medication and others were not available to the researchers. The scientists extrapolated their findings on the local impact to other regions. Assuming that Louisiana was a representative state, the cost to the nation of the epidemic in the time span between June 2002 and February 2003 was found to be $139.8 million, including $57.5 million in short-term costs of inpatient treatment, $5.6 million for outpatient treatment costs, and non-medical costs of $76.7 million (Zohrabian). The long-term impact can be expected to be even greater as some of the patients were not able to get back to their jobs immediately after the end of the given timeframe and expected to continue with treatment.

1.3. Dengue
Dengue is world’s most common arthropod-generated disease. There exist four serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV), all of which are transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. If a person has experienced infection with one dengue serotype, the person acquires lifelong immunity to that type, but can fall victim to other serotypes (WHO Fact Sheet).

Currently, over 50 million people around the globe contract dengue every year. On the American continent, the epidemic of the dengue occurred in the 1980s starting with the first outbreak of dengue haemorrhagic fever/ dengue shock syndrome in Cuba.  Now dengue is found in many countries in North and South America. In 2002, 75% of the cases found in the Americas were registered in Brazil (Cruz 2002: 1).

Dengue infection can result in a variety of conditions ranging from a mild ailment (undifferentiated febrile illness (viral syndrome)), to an illness whose symptoms resemble the grippe (dengue fever (DF)) to the most severe condition called dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) including dengue shock syndrome (DSS) that can lead to a lethal outcome within 24 hours. The fatality rate for dengue haemorrhagic fever can exceed 20% without proper treatment, but with intensive therapy this figure can be reduced to 1% (WHO).

Undifferentiated fever usually develops in children infected with DENV for the first time and has the same set of symptoms as other virus infections. Sometimes this disorder is accompanied by maculopapular rashes. Dengue fever is accompanied by “headache, myalgias, arthralgias, rashes and leucopenia” (WHO Fact Sheet). Sometimes the disease is accompanies by more severe symptoms such as muscle and joint pain and haemorrhage. Dengue fever usually does not affect the local population in the areas where this disease is endemic.

Dengue haemorrhagic fever occurs with a quick advent of high fever, often accompanied by the liver enlargement. In some cases this acute condition is accompanied by circulatory failure. The fever reaches 40-41 degrees Celsius, along with febrile convulsions and haemorrhagic phenomena. The fever subsides after 2-7 days, after which symptoms usually disappear. If the patient enters dengue shock syndrome, death can follow within 12-24 hours if he/she is not rescued by intensive therapy. DHF usually occurs in people who have already experienced the DENV infection, although sometimes it can be found in people who are contracting DENV for the first time (WHO Fact Sheet).

Dengue was found in only 9 countries before 1970, but since then the disease has been gaining spread and severity. The number of the countries reporting dengue has risen by four times and continues to increase. Every year viruses cause infections in almost 100 tropical countries, leading to 2,000-3,000 deaths, primarily of children. The pandemic of the 20-21st century was caused by the changes in lifestyles that came with “population explosion, urbanization and rapid transportation of large numbers of people” (Pan American Health Foundation). The new conditions in the developing countries where population growth has been especially quick precipitate the spread of the infection creating a more favorable environment for the main DENV transmitter, Aedes aegypti. Quick migration of the developing nations’ population to cities with poor urban infrastructure, inadequate water supply, and heaps of solid waste can lead to high proliferation of Aedes aegypti (WHO). Modern trends of international trade contribute to the transportation of the mosquito’s larvae in the used tires where rainwater accumulates (WHO).

Some estimates claim that de-facto infection rates are even higher as the number of deaths may in fact total 12,000 per year as not all the cases are reported to the WHO (WHO). The pandemic is on the rise on the American continent, in the Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific (WHO). In the unprecedented pandemic of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in 1998, 1.2 million cases were registered in 56 countries worldwide.

1.4. Plague
Plague can be of three different forms: bubonic plague, septicemic plague, and pneumonic plague differing in their clinical features. The symptoms of bubonic plague are enlarged, tender lymph nodes, fever, chills and prostration. A person develops a blister at the site that was bitten by the flea. Sometimes a patient develops ulcers in places of the lymph nodes, such as groin, armpit, and neck. The patient suffers from extreme exhaustion and delirium.

Septicemic plague is characterized by “fever, chills, prostration, abdominal pain, shock, and bleeding into skin and other organs” (Wrong Diagnosis). Pneumonic plague affecting the lungs causes “fever, chills, cough, difficulty breathing, and rapid shock and death if not treated early” (Wrong Diagnosis).

Bubonic plague offers better chances of survival, but if the disease is left untreated, the bacteria get into the blood and proliferate there. In this way they spread throughout the body leading to a severe condition that often leads to death.

Pneumonic plague occurs when the lungs are infected. This is a serious respiratory illness that may lead to quick death unless the patient is given quick antibiotic therapy.

Plague is caused by bacillus called Yersinia pestis transmitted by fleas. Humans most often get fleas from rats, which was why the disease was more common in the Middle Ages when towns and villages were teeming with rats. The bacillus is transmitted via “direct contact with infected tissues or fluids from handling sick or dead animals” or from “respiratory droplets from cats and humans with pneumonic plague” (Wrong Diagnosis). Fatality rate reaches 50-90% if the disease is not treated; 15% in case of proper diagnosis and treatment.  About 14% of all plague cases in the United States result in the death of the patient.

Throughout the history of mankind plague has taken almost 200 million human lives. Starting with the first outbreak of bubonic plague in Europe during the 6th Century, the disease became the scourge of the mediaeval world. Plague comes from the Gobi Desert and achieved a pandemic reach in the 14th century. In the Middle Ages plague killed nearly one-third of the population. The disease quickly spread through Asia along the trade routes. Although this terrible death is typically associated with Europe, it was as ruinous in other parts of the world. Even countries situated at a significant distance from Europe such as China were affected. The epidemic of plague in China in 1328 reduced the country’s population to 90 million from 125 million. With the advent of European shipping, the terrible disease spread to the areas such as the Crimea and Egypt. The size of the pandemic had a devastating effect on the size of the population of the mediaeval world, as whole areas became depopulated as people were fleeing from the areas where the disease was found. A special place in the history of mankind takes the Black Death of 1665 that almost halved the population of the British capital (Black Death).

The last outbreak of plague happened in the US in Los Angeles in 1924-25 (CDC).Now the WHO reports about 1,000- 3,000 cases per year (CDC).In North America plague occurs in animals and fleas in the areas located from the Pacific Coast to the Great Plains, and from south-western Canada to Mexico. The spread of the plague in the US is limited to two great areas. One is northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, and southern Colorado, and the other includes California, southern Oregon, and far western Nevada. Plague is found in a number of countries in Africa, Asia, and South America (CDC). The people who are in the risk group for contracting plague include those who often come in contact with rodents, for example, foresters, veterinarians, etc. Hikers or campers entering areas infected with plague can also catch the infection. In the United States plague is often transmitted by animals other than rats such as squirrels, prairie dogs, and other burrowing rodents.

2. Comparison
The four diseases described above all take a heavy toll on the human health, and when it comes to an individual illness, they all have an adverse impact on the human being. But if one thinks in global terms, the seriousness of the damage is not the same.

2.1. Economic perspective
From the global historical perspective, plague has been most detrimental to the progress and well-being of human society. We could claim that is affected the history of mankind reducing the size of population by a third in the Middle Age. Plague disrupted ties between different areas as authorities were seeking to protect the people by sealing off towns and villages affected by the plague.

However, now plague has fortunately lost the significance of a history-shaping factor. Although it is still found in Asia, Latin America and Africa, it can hardly be called the deadliest disease of the 21st century. 1,000 – 3,000 cases reported by the WHO annually with approximately 15% of mortality among those who receive proper treatment do not present a serious danger to the world’s population.

Among infectious diseases, plague has yielded its horrific first place as human killer to malaria that is responsible for 300, 000, 000 infections per year. Even with a mortality rate under 1%, with the number of infections, this disease posts a serious threat to the population of 90 countries where the disease is found.

Perhaps the most serious implication of malaria is the economic loss it inflicts on the Sub-Saharan region in Africa. The annual economic loss, as indicated in the section on malaria, amounted to $791 million, although the real numbers were estimated to be much higher. In comparison, the economic damage wrought by the West Nile virus in the US was assessed to amount to roughly $140 million. The comparison of the two numbers needs to provide for the striking difference in the size of the Gross Domestic Product in the US and Sub-Saharan Africa. The United States can ward off the impact of a similar economic loss with much greater resilience than the countries in the less affluent world.

2.2. Current situation
From the point of view of the dynamics of the disease spread, dengue is one infection that has been on the rise of late. Originally confined to only 9 nations, it has now expanded to over 100 countries worldwide, claiming at least 2,000 – 3,000 lives a year or 12,000 by broad estimates.

On the other hand, other infectious diseases have shrunk in the past few centuries. Plague that was a global factor in the Middle Age is now an important social phenomenon in a handful of developing nations and has been practically eradicated in developed countries. The area affected by malaria has also shrunk in the past 50 years, although a severe battle with this disease still lies ahead as it began to re-emerge in the Asian regions where is had been eradicated, such as Korea and Central Asian republics.

In the North America, only 1 to 40 cases of plague are found per year. This compares to about 4,000 cases of West Nile Virus registered in 2002 in the US. The virus that entered the American continent in 1999, quickly spread to the majority of the states, and is now found in some Mexican and Canadian provinces. This proves that this infection is probably the greatest challenge of the four for North America. Malaria and dengue fever are also found in only scattered cases, malaria mainly imported by travellers returning from tropical countries.

2.3. Clinical perspective
From the clinical perspective, all the four diseases can progress in a relatively mild form, while in a minority of cases a more serious form can develop that has significantly higher mortality rates. West Nile virus can lead to encephalitis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or poliomyelitis. Malaria has one form that may cause death within 48 hours as opposed to the other three benign forms. Plague mortality is higher if the patient develops a seroseptic or a pneumonic form, and dengue can lead to death if a patient develops dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to dengue shock syndrome. Thus, lighter forms of the disease caused by the same virus or bacillus have much lower mortality rates. For example, only less than 1% of those infected with West Nile Virus die, but for those who develop West Nile virus encephalitis, the rate is 3 to 15%.

Proper treatment is also important. Among those who contract plague and do not get quick therapy, the fatality rate is 50-90%, while among patients who have access to treatment the rate shrinks to 15%.
While dengue, West Nile Virus and plague are typically cured completely unless the infected person dies, malaria symptoms can recur in a few months, making this disease a more debilitating experience.

2.4. Epidemiology
West Nile Virus is transmitted by both birds and mosquitoes, while dengue and malaria infections are spread by mosquitoes. This means that the infection rates for these diseases can be reduced by trying to disrupt the environments favorable for the mosquito proliferation, such as damp areas.
The plague, in contrast, is transmitted by fleas that bite humans, and fleas reside in the rats’ fur. That is why the plague was conquered when the developed nations freed their towns and settlements from rodents and found ways to get rid of the parasites.

Taking into consideration all of the comparisons outlined above, we will conclude that the most serious disease from the global perspective is malaria. First, it affects the poorest regions of the world, eating at their already poor economic strength. Second, the overall size of the economic damage is significant. Third, malaria is a disease with recurring symptoms unless cured completely.

From the personal perspective, plague can be considered the deadliest disease. While any of the above-mentioned disorders leave a debilitating effect on the body, plague has the highest mortality rates that are above those for any other infection. Besides, it affects the immunity system, which is extremely harmful.

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Monday, January 16, 2012

TELUS Research Paper

TELUS and Securitization Research Paper

One should start by saying that TELUS Inc is one of the largest and most competitive Canadian providers of data, internet protocols, voice and wireless communications and Ethernet services. The company provides a full range of various communication products and services that connect the world. In the year ended December 31, 2004, TELUS generated more than $7 billion in revenues.

TELUS employs over 25 thousand people with offices scattered across Canada. The following research paper will speak about the securitization process as present in TELUS corporation.

Securitization is viewed at TELUS as a financial technique that pools corporate assets together and thus turns them into a tradable security. TELUS believes that the use of securitization will allow the company to immediately realize the cash value of a cash-producing asset. Securitization started in 1970s and currently formed a market that equals to about $6.8 trillion.

Asset backed securities (ABS) are bonds that are backed by a pool of corporate financial assets that are not easily traded in their existing form. Yet by pooling a great number of these illiquid assets into one large pool, one manages to create new instruments that are easily bought and sold on the major capital markets (Stone, 88).

The securitization process works this way. The originator establishes a large pool of financial assets, such as mortgage loans, and then in turn sells these assets to a new investment vehicle that in turn would issue bonds that are backed up by these financial instruments/assets.

There is a difference between ABS and conventional bonds. Thus, if investors purchase and hold a regular bond, they receive regular payments during the life of that bond, plus the face value of the bond at the end of the bond’s life. Therefore, as long as the issuer of the bonds makes these regular payments and is financially healthy it will continue making these payments. Thus, the risk of default of the bonds is directly correlated with the risk of corporate bankruptcy and depends on corporate solvency (Davidson, 129).

Securitization is a more complex process and the payments primarily depend on the cash flows generated by the underlying pool of securities.  Since the pool comprises many different assets, investors are given a certain level of protection should the company that created the financial asset goes bankrupt.

Because of such peculiarity applicable to the  securitization process, ABS allows various companies to issue bonds with very high credit ratings, usually AAA, A+++. It is rather hard to achieve such high credit rating with regular ‘classical’ bonds. ABS thus allows TELUS and other companies to borrow money at a much cheaper rate.

one needs to remember that although residential mortgages were the first financial assets to be securitized, various non-mortgage related securitized assets appears on the financial market and comprised instruments like credit card payments, trade accounts receivable, auto loans and even student loans.  If my memory does not fail me one would even use the royalty payments on David Bowie’s back catalog as an assets that qualifies for securitization.

TELUS finds the securitization process as a useful tool of generating cheap cash flows for the company in times of need. Annual issuance of securitized securities is about $800 billion which certainly makes the ABS market a place for TELUS to borrow money.

It is no wonder that “For TELUS, the securitization of its equipment leasing portfolio, currently managed by Telecom Leasing Canada (TLC) Limited (TLC), a wholly owned subsidiary of TELUS, will advance its national growth strategy and enable it to pay down debt incurred for strategic acquisitions.” ( ).

Understanding the advantage of the cheap funds generated by securitization TELUS will “apply the proceeds of the transaction, valued at C$147 million, toward the reduction in its bank operating borrowings thereby improving the financial flexibility of TELUS to invest in the growth areas of data, Internet Protocol and wireless” ( As a result of the successful securitization initiative for TELUS the company managed to raise about $1.2 billion from divestiture which it subsequently turned into securitization.  One needs to remember that the company surpassed its goal of raising up to $1 billion.  In 2004, TELUS had established a new financing plan that would use the free cash flows generated by its operations to “reduce and repurchase debt and amounts outstanding under its accounts receivable securitization program” ( ). The company also plans to redeem its publicly held preference and preferred shares of TELUS communications, since Asset backed securities deployed in the securitization program of TELUS will provide the same financial resources at a much cheaper rate. As the article noted, TELUS in 2004 already repaid about $200 million in debt and would engage in sale of securitized accounts receivable. One reads further and understands that TELUS has about 900 million in cash and an undrawn credit facilities of $1.6 billion let alone cash generated by operating activities, TELUS is believed to have enough of financial resources to undergo proper corporate operations and engage in redemption of more expensive debt such as debentures ( ).

In conclusion, I would like to note that securitization is a very useful alternative to traditional debt as provided by banks or other financial institutions/market. Securitization allows the companies with imperfect credit rating to create triple A rated securities and thus benefit from the lower rates associated with the securities with low risks. TELUS corporation understood the advantages of securitization in 2001 and that same year engaged in creation of some ABS. In 2004, TELUS engaged in the process of redeeming its other debt and generate most of its cash flows from securitization.

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Research Paper on Justice System

Research Paper on Justice System

Justice is the abstract philosophical concept that connotes fair distribution of society’s benefits and burdens among the members of the society. Once again one has to remember that there is no absolute justice in the world and the society, and its economic system each influence the principles of justice in the given society. Therefore, based on philosophical abstraction and King’s statement, I can state that there can be no long-term justice at all, because of the relative nature of personality degradation.  


Based on the egalitarian principle of justice all benefits and burdens in the society should be distributed equally among the society members. This can technically be achieved by providing equal wages to all nuclear engineers, body guards, McDonald’s waiters, and high school teachers. On one hand this may appear fair and just to all society members yet on the other hand equality may reduce the motivation in people to take risky jobs that because of the equal pay would appear unattractive to the job-seekers. People would stick to riskless jobs and would completely abandon the education that would not provide any monetary incentive in the society where every one would be paid similarly. Despite the fact that human personality is uplifted since all would get equal salary, such justice would not work for long since this system fails to compensate individual’s efforts.

Based on the Socialist principle of justice the benefits and burdens should be distributed based on the principle “from each according to one’s ability to each according to one’s needs”. This was the principle used in communist Russia (Soviet Union). Based on this principle, people should voluntary contribute as much as they could to the benefits of the society while expecting to receive everything according to their needs. I should note that from the logical point of view this system appears rather egalitarian as well, while focusing more on the better workers’ contribution while distributing the benefits among the other society members. In other words, this system could only work when people are voluntarily are willing to contribute their best efforts at work, while also being able to precisely express their needs to receive the benefits. As a result the education should also become unnecessary because the years spent in school (that do not guarantee future best efforts) could be spent on the field planting potatoes-or do other things that measure best efforts. To the best of my knowledge this principle of justice indeed worked in the USSR for a short period of time, providing justice for all. Still, I should note that the Soviet Economy based on the Socialist principle of justice indeed did not work for a long period of time and the efficiency was much lower than that in the developed capitalist economies.

Based on the principles of Capitalist justice the benefits and burdens should be distributed based on the principle “from each according to his / her investment”. This principle of justice states that the rich people should receive the greatest amount of benefits, as well as those who contribute the best/ largest amount of other investment (labor, financial or knowledge) to receive the largest benefits in the society. Therefore, this principle of justice is directly correlated with the personal or inherited input in the society to receive the best benefits. The injustice associated with the given principle of justice is that those unprivileged groups of people who do not possess the investment are not expected to receive any benefits from the society that lives according to the capitalist principles of justice. The blacks, Latinos or immigrants that come to the capitalist country in search of a new life-are doomed to work for the initial accumulation of capital and only then are expected to receive the benefits the society has to offer.

In conclusion I would like to say that because there are at least three types of justices as expressed above one cannot objectively state whether or not the justice can be achieved for a long period of time for all. By the same token the statement of M. L. King Jr. “any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust,” In the Soviet Union the socialist justice was present for all, thus making everyone work to the best of their efforts while receiving only to their needs (not wants or whims!). Yet the period of the existence of the Soviet Union was less than 80 years, thus making us think that maybe once the justice is achieved the society cannot exist. Therefore, I believe that to achieve justice for all a society has to create something perfect. Yet because humans that create this justice are not perfect, thus the creation of justice for all is impossible, or the created justice is not true justice for all. The capitalist justice is currently trying to employ the egalitarian elements of justice with the government creating safety nets for unemployed, unprivileged, minorities or physically disabled. Yet still the justice according to the true capitalist or egalitarian principles is not achieved anywhere and that in my opinion contributes to the creation of the efficiencies and innovations that various interest groups strive to create to assure justice for themselves (not for all) if not for a long than at least for a short term period.

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Friday, January 13, 2012

"The Red Convertible" Essay

"The Red Convertible" Essay

Reading the story “The Red Convertible” by Louise Erdirch I was looking for the message that the author was trying to give. What idea was the author trying to bring to the reader and what literary theory he indeed used in order to make this message vivid? How was Louise Erdirch trying to convey the reader and how was he exploring the main idea of brotherhood.

“The Red Convertible” by Louise Erdrich is the story about the young energetic man, who is full of energy and spirit of freedom, who lives a happy life and who has a great break in his life after he comes back from Vietnam. Indeed it is obvious that people who are involve in war zones suffer from a tragic experience and they are mentally scarred for life from the trauma in the war. Same happened to Henry.


Henry is a lively and cheerful man who loves his life. He enjoys taking his “red Olds” (Erdrich 283) convertible for a ride to many different places. He and his brother Lyman were eager to travel and had many small trips. Indeed, brothers had very close and trusty relationships. Soon after, the army assigned Henry to go to the Vietnam War. The war that he had to attend to was “at least three years” (Erdrich 286) before Henry could go home. That war was like no other war in American history. In that war, the “enemies was not easily identifiable or necessarily in uniform; women and children could kill others on the streets. The object was to kill as many people as possible and survive.” PTSD Summary”).

As soon as Henry returns home he acts and behaves “very different” and the “change is no good” (Erdrich 256). The once talkative and cheery Henry turns into a silent, irritated, and isolated person. He is quiet, “so quiet and never comfortable sitting still anywhere but always up and moving around” (Erdrich 286). Henry is no longer comfortable communicating; now he doesn’t talk. As his brother, Lyman said that Henry “always had a joke and now no one could get him to laugh, or when he did it was more the sound of a man choking” (Erdrich 286). He became very irritated and he hated company, preferring loneness. His family starts to notice Henry’s unusual actions. All of his symptoms were the results from the war. That was indeed the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder that Henry, an American Indian veteran marine, got after having to the war.

As a result, Henry couldn’t adapt to his experience in the war. It seems like he never came home. In an article it says that “veterans report the feeling that they never really made it back from the war. Formerly suicidal people feel they never really made it back to normal life” (“Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder”). He was stuck in the war and kept continuing to think about the past and dwells on it. He could no longer take all the stress and emotions that was going through his head. Therefore, he talked his own life and as he committed suicide he said “his boots are filling” (Erdrich 290) and than he’s gone.

Analyzing the story I came to the idea that the tension in the story is developed through the structure and word choice. The story begins with a close relationship between the brothers, yet differences are pointed out. They are carefree living day to day with no worries. Henry then leaves for the Vietnam War and comes back a different person. Struggles over the television, a picture of Henry, and the car are very noticeable, although the resolutions of these struggles are not as forward. A physical conflict at the river and the word choices through out the story bring it closure. The conflict between the brothers and the inner conflict each brother has is resolved at the end of the story.
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Essay on Canada

Essay on Canada

One should start by saying that health policy in modern day Canada is believed to be among the best health services in the world. Nevertheless, the demand for these healthcare services is constantly growing while the economic resources available for health care are diminishing. Originally healthcare initiatives were defined and presented in 1964 by the Royal Commission on Health Services and defined the main goal as to present quick and equal access to medical care for all Canadians. The current issue/goal is to help all Canadians to achieve the best possible state of health for each individual and achieve that within the proper constraints as imposed by ever-improving social, economic, political and technological environment.


The given issue had been expressed in the policy for health that was reflected in the mandate of the commission on the future of Canadian health care. The year 2002 was marked by the Commission’s recommendation regarding the new policies and measure that would assure sustainable, universally accessible, and publicly funded medical system providing only quality services in the long-run (Evans, 120). The policies attempted to find an optimal balance as to whether to fund preventive or health maintenance healthcare to assure proper services with least amount of investment. The recommendations speak about the sources of financing, organizational changes and challenges that the new policy goals currently face.

Currently these issues are divided into the following main categories:
a. Government responsibility for Canadian Health. The federal health department started to take responsibility for the national health in 1919; before that it was department of agriculture to cover any health-related needs. The new health department was created in 1993 and the federal government’s responsibility started to cover all health services for Canadians, Indians/Inuits, federal employees, and immigrants. The health department also started to control food and drugs, inspect medical devices, research the public health, administer health care insurance, collect general information about services related to health conditions and practices on the territory of Canada. The health care responsibility for the government is derived from the government’s constitutional power over criminal law, government spending on peace, order and good government of Canada. The government currently controls the medicine through Food and Drugs Act, Controlled Substance Act,  Canada Health Act, and Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST). Still, one needs to understand that the role of provinces in providing healthcare is also growing.
b. Healthcare financing. The federal government of Canada has the power to generate finance for healthcare through taxation and borrowing as long as it does not infringe on provincial powers. The National health Grants Program of 1948 was first insurance-type program for all Canada. The grants were welcomed by all provinces that required funds for planning and organization, public health and hospital construction.  The creation o Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act of 1957 and the Medical Care Act of 1966 unified all provinces and contributed to the nation wide health insurance system for Canada (Miller Chenier 132).

Currently Canada is in a great need to address the following issues that are a part of the Canadian society:
1. Tobacco control. Although some efforts are made with respect to advertising control and prohibition of sale of tobacco products to minors, Canada still needs to develop proper anti-smoking propaganda campaigns similar to those created in the USA.
2. Same sex marriage. Same sex marriages are permitted and major provinces boast a growing number of same sex marriages already. Certainly, one has not conducted any particular statistics regarding the future impact of same-sex marriages on the public health and morality.
3. Alberta’s possible tax deductions for gym memberships. Tax deduction for gym memberships as might be created in Alberta shows a wonderful attempt by the local government to stimulate physical activity among Canadians and invest in preventive healthcare. In my humble opinion, such initiative as presented by one province is a good boost of public preventive healthcare (Boychuk, 23).
4. Accessibility to healthcare is believed to be universal, yet still it is believed that Indians and Inuit communities of Canada are deprived of proper healthcare. Furthermore, there exist long queues for important organ transplants which although formally being of quick assess to everyone is of little physical access to people.
5. Privatization of healthcare. There are debates among political, economist and healthcare thinkers about the pros and cons of private healthcare options similar to those present in the USA. Currently, one views Canadian system of public welfare as superior to the US healthcare system that fully benefits only the rich and leaves the poor with little choice.
6. Pharmacare. One needs to understand that pharmacare is the government initiative created to subsidize eligible prescription drugs and necessary medical supplies to protect Canadians from high drug costs (Madore, 179).  Pharmacare provides several plans (e.g. Fair Pharmacare plan) that present financial assistance mostly to families who need it based on their household net income. The family pays a deductible based on the family income. The family pays a monthly deductible payment option (monthly installments) and start receiving PharmaCare assistance and services immediately.
Currently Pharmacare covers arthritis, fertility, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, Injectable Medicine, PAH (Hypertension), RSV, and transplants. The official pharmacare website, located at allows Canadians quickly estimate their deductible for Pharmacare plans and engage in it online. As one can predict, Pharmacare is suitable for every person who needs it based on his/her income.

At present Canadian government cooperates with numerous healthcare organizations with provincial and territorial representation to protect the health of Canadians from various sicknesses.

The healthcare department of Canada operates through the Health Intelligence Network and thus works with different levels of Canadian government across the Canadian healthcare system paying close attention to healthcare surveillance, prevention, control and research to predict and tap possible epidemics and outbreaks in Canada and other countries worldwide.

The Health Canada supervises various foods in Canada by administering food and Drugs Act and releasing advisories and warnings on existing consumables in Canada like foods and drugs, beautycare products. The most recent focus is on Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and Natural foods.

The government of Canada believes that it should play a drastically important role in securing public health and safety.

The Canadian government attempts to achieve positive health improvements by implementing the following different changes:
1. Invest heavily into public safety and emergency preparedness to integrate into a single portfolio of important activities.
2. merge the office of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Preparedness Office into Public Safety and emergency preparedness portfolio. This is believed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of Canadian healthcare system with respect to natural disaster and emergencies.
3. The Public Safety and emergency preparedness portfolio will tap natural disasters around the world as well as local emergencies.
4. Public initiatives used to protect the health of immigrants and foreigners living permanently or temporarily in Canada.
5. Government initiative to support a new Canada Public Health agency under the Minister of Health.

The following issues one still needs to address in the Canadian healthcare system:
1. Equity of access. Since the healthcare system is public it creates excessive demand for the services that basically cost nothing to people (except for their taxes). On one hand every person regardless of their financial status can be the needed attention and support. On the other hand, increased affordability leads to drug abuse, and inefficient spending of the scarce government resources applied to cases that do not necessarily need medical treatment the patient requires.
2. Safety vs. Efficiency.  Healthcare in every country needs to be safe since one deals with human health. Therefore, much investment should be directed towards developing and licensing safe drugs while abandoning unsafe products. Efficiency, on the other hand demand competition among existing health care institutions, healthcare plans and pharmaceutical companies. Competition although improves efficiency and contributes to safety in the long-run, in the short run might provide unsafe drugs as long as they are bought by the public. The role of Canadian public healthcare is to serve as a judge, selecting the best drugs to distribute to the patients and direct the pharmaceutical companies toward producing these government-endorsed drugs (Marmor, 210).
3. Cost vs. Containment. As every publicly funded program, healthcare appears to be underfunded. The need to control the spread of disease and to assure customer satisfaction typically requires high expenditures that may never be enough taking into account the publicly-funded nature of medicine in Canada.

Speaking about the main issue that should be given highest priority, I believe that it should be the full public insurance plan to cover all costs. Unlike other issues, the need to possess affordable full insurance is apparent. People should be given a monetary compensation in time of sickness according to their insurance plans. Then, a person would have a freedom to choose what healthcare institution she/he wants to use to remedy their disease. Insurance will provide people with an option of attending local hospitals and possibly foreign hospitals should Canadian hospitals fail to meet the customer needs adequately and in a timely manner.
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Tuesday, January 10, 2012

Help with College Essay Writing

Get Help with College Essay Writing

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Monday, January 9, 2012

Essay on School Nursing

Essay on School Nursing

The role of the school nurse in maintaining a healthy lifestyle of children and adolescent cannot be overestimated. The article titled “School nurses” on the Teachernet website states that school nurses provide help to the children with special educational needs, run vaccination, help young people with the family planning and do many other things that are of no less significance. But, it sometimes happens, that children and young people do not want to aks for the nurse’s help, even when they’re in great need of it. To solve this problem, the professional image of the school nurse should be promoted among her clients and their parents.


The authors of the School Nurse Practice Development Resource Pack say that the first thing that should be done for accomplishing this task is providing full and truthful information about the abilities and charges that the nurse has. The kids and teenagers should be aware of the possibility to get help with any health related problems and concerns from the school nurse.

Given a student comes to the nursing office to get some assistance the nurse has to do his/her best to help him. Children and adolescent tend to trust the experience of their friends much more than recommendations provided by the grown-ups, that’s why by helping one student you may gain the trust of his/her classmates. The nurse may also talk with teachers and other school staff and ask them to encourage the students to turn to her with health problem concerning them or their relatives and friends.

Young people are sometimes afraid to talk about the health problems they have, especially when they’re related to the sexual sphere, that’s why the nurse has to assure her clients that their confidentiality will be preserved. To fulfill this promise the nurse has to take care about the medical records she leads, as their promulgation may not only harm the pupil’s reputation, but also question the nurse’s professionalism.

The nurse also has to promote the concept of the healthy lifestyle, both verbally and with her own appearance. The students often become interested in this issue, so that they are likely to come to the nurse and question her about the peculiarities of eating and moving healthy.

I interviewed Valerie who has been working as a school nurse for fifteen years already. She says she really likes her job, for that both students and other school staff appreciate her work greatly and assist her best they can. Valerie reports that she was really disappointed when she started her practice. She had been absolutely sure that all the students and teachers are aware of the significant role that school nurses play in organizing a studying process, but misunderstandings and ignorance what that met her first. Valerie put a great amount of effort to prove that she could make a significant contribution into the work done by the school staff.

What helped Valerie was that she did her best to provide help for every student or teacher who asked it. She confesses that chain effect was the reason for the adolescent to trust her with their problematic issues. Valerie remembered it sometimes happened that she worked as an intercessor between the student and his/her parents, in case there was some information the youth was afraid to convey personally.

Valerie continued her professional education; she is constantly deepening the knowledge of the new trends in nursing. She says it makes her feel confident during the working day, as nursing is a very responsible and demanding occupation. When I asked my interviewee about the mistakes she made while promoting her professional image, she noted it would’ve been helpful if she had managed to maintain more productive professional relations with some of the teachers.

In modern world not all the people understand the significance of the school nurse’s practice, so that the nurses should make some effort to make their agency more prominent. This will result in the increase of people the nurses will be able to help.
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Oppositional Defiant Disorder Research Paper

Oppositional Defiant Disorder Research Paper

Before giving the exact definition of the notion oppositional disorder, we should not forget all children are from time to time hungry, stressed or simply upset and not satisfied and thus can conduct themselves oppositionally, with includes talking back, disobeying parents and teachers and other adults. This is to be considered a normal part of development of a child, but constant hostile behavior might become a concern, as soon as it becomes vivid in comparison with other children who are of the same age and level of development.

The American Psychiatric Association defines oppositional defiant disorder as: “recurrent pattern of negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures that persists for at least 6 months. Behaviors included in the definition are the following: losing one’s temper; arguing with adults; actively defying requests; refusing to follow rules; deliberately annoying other people; blaming others for one’s own mistakes or misbehavior; being touchy, easily annoyed or angered, resentful, spiteful, or vindictive.” (Barlow J, Stewart-Brown S: Behavior problems and group-based parent education programs. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2000 p.2). Such kind of behavior does cause difficulties with family and friends; oppositional behavior is usually the same at home and at school. Sometimes oppositional behavior can be a forerunner of conduct disorder.


Certain criteria were worked out, which are defining conduct and oppositional defiant disorder. For conduct disorder they are the following: 
  1. Aggression to people and animals (is able to initiate physical fight, threatens others, is physically cruel to others); 
  2. Devastation of property (setting a fire, doping harm to other’s property on purpose). 
  3. Telling lies or stealing something (is able to lie to obtain something or to avoid obligations); 
  4. Serious breaking the rules (running away from home, playing truant from school).

And the following criteria were worked out for oppositional defiant disorder: 
  1. Hostile and defiant behavior, which lasted not less than six months and with at least four of these characteristics: loosing temper and arguing with others rather often, refusing to obey the requests of adults, annoying other people, blaming others for his/her mistakes, get easily annoyed by others, being angry and vindictive. Here again should be stressed that all these characteristics are applicable only in case if such kind of behavior is met more often than among other individuals of the same age and level of development. 
  2. This behavior inevitably causes worsening of social and academic occupations. 
  3. Characteristics are not met for conduct disorder. 

It is no wonder that children, who had such kind of problems are more likely to take them into their grown-up life and start using alcohol of drugs, have poor personal life and career achievements, poor health, girls tend to become early mothers and single parents. Treating Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder is sophisticated and needs much effort and skills. It can not be called an easy task to find a way to child’s soul and most intimate thoughts as he usually behaves uncooperative and feels mistrust to others, especially adults. Treatment should not be one sided, the best way would be to create a combination of psychological and medical interference. There are several techniques of psychological treatment. Parents do play an important role in the child’s life and thus it is believed that treatment should also include improving parents, but it should never be done separately from the child. Children, whose parents did their best to participate in treatment procedures, showed better results, than those whose parents were less cooperative. Very close to this way of treatment is so called “dyadic skills training”, the main idea of which is that the result of antisocial behavior of children is bad care-giving during early childhood. This dyadic treatment “consists of 12 to 18 one hour sessions designed for pre-school age children and their parents. During treatment, the clinician teaches the parents about children’s social, cognitive, and emotional development” (Forehand R, McMahon RJ: Helping the Non-Compliant Child: A Clinician’s Guide to Parent Training. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 1981 p. 10-36).

Family therapy results in improving the communication within the family, to make it open and honest, bring clarification for the family roles. This therapy is believed to be useful for children, who have not conducted any kind of serious problems, like running away from home or stealing. As peers play an important role in child’s development, there’s another method, called “group therapy”, which helps to maximize the contact prosocial peers instead of deviant ones.

Most researches think that psychopharmacological treatment alone can not an effective method of treating conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, but on the other hand medication can be an effective means of treating some symptoms.

Overall, it is unfortunately the result of researches that such disorders are a part of our life and children are very often the victims of poor up - brining or bad social conditions and surrounding, and parents and other adults are to know about such kind of disorders and are to take all possible steps to help the child to overcome them.
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Monday, January 2, 2012

"Maestro" Essay

"Maestro" Essay

To state that the best texts are those that tell the reader about the important things that make us human can create a selection of ideas and perspectives on the issue. Many which may be for or against it. The portrayal of other humans also experiencing the hurdles and surprises that life presents can lead to a story becoming a countless novel. Things such as feelings, intellect and freedom are all matters of power that are encountered by humans and that can tell tales of willingness, pain, and success. These factors capture the reader as they can relate to the issues that are being conveyed. The reader follows the characters throughout the novel, while he or she overcomes or is defeated by these powers. This journey brings a distinct type of entertainment for the reader and it enables them to read on. Maestro, written by Peter Goldsworthy fills this category flawlessly. 


It contains all the factors of power that humans come to encounter throughout life: feelings, intellect and freedom. It is all incorporated into one story about transition form adolescence to adulthood by one of the storyA?a‚¬a„?s main characters Paul, and that of Keller an octogenarian ex-concert pianist whose sardonic and unwelcoming outlook point to a problematic past. The powers of the feelings felt by the characters in Maestro are all very compelling and deep. Keller feels a sense of betrayal after being assured that Jewish members of German families would not be harmed, especially his family considering that he was privately performing concerts for Adolf Hitler. After his wife and son are murdered by the very Nazi regime that he had entertained, Keller is shattered.

Keller also experiences the feeling and power of alienation, as he does not fit into the casual, vibrant world of Darwin. His formal dress and sophisticated nature set him well aside form the laid back and social culture of Darwin. When the story commences Paul is also something of an outsider. He is new to Darwin high school, unathletic, intellectual and musically intelligent. It is not until Paul joins the toughs of the school rock band that he finally gains acceptance. Love is another powerful feeling that is explored and felt throughout the book. Towards the end of the book we discover that Keller married his wife in his late forties.

Together with the power of the love of his music and the birth of his son he was living in one of the happiest moments of his life. In failing to protect his family, Keller not only destroyed his love as a source but also poisoned irrevocably the love for his music. For Paul he develops a love versus lust relationship between Megan and Rosie. However he soon realises that Megan brings him only pleasure and no emotional or intellectual stimulation. He eventually marries Rosie. The music theme is a thread in the rich tapestry of the story.

The intellect is in the two musically precocious main characters. It is a preoccupation of both Keller and Paul. Even Paul's parents are enriched or even defined of the operas. Keller's true mean of survival is music, through his teaching of it and the intellectual nourishment that it provides him. The power of the art is what, makes the book what it is. Keller states "if you want people to believe your lies, set it to music." This quote sophisticatedly informs us of the power that is held by music. Paul's life is also shaped by his love of music.

The older and more mature that he gets he attains a more sensual feel and response to music. The power of music assists Paul with love as their musical talents bring him and Rosie together, not to mention Keller and his wife that was a Wagnerian specialist. The power of love for a person, a song or a thing is what really creates and compliments the book. The human necessity for personal freedom is depicted in an unfamiliar way. Herr Keller searches for freedom of his past through the teaching of his music and his developing friendship with Paul.

While teaching Paul music, Keller lets go of past demons by revealing things about his life that had been kept unknown and unspoken of for many years. He releases his past and once again revives his love. For Paul he yearned for the freedom out of his struggle and subsequent agonies of self doubt that he felt while trying to establish himself as a first rate pianist. He longed to escape from the way the he was feeling and rise above it in order to achieve his goal. In relation to the success of the text Maestro it can be clearly seen that what truly assembles a story are the diverse aspects of human life and the way in which they are managed by the characters in the story.

Feelings of betrayal, love, musical intellect and freedom are all a portion of the obstacles and achievements that can be attained throughout a person's life.

The voyage that must be embarked on in order to accomplish or over come these things are what engages the reader into the story and provokes them to read on and pursuit the rest of the tale. This entertains the reader and it may also enlighten their outlook on life and their experiences. The maestro's tale is so realistic that it attains a power on its own. The realness, history and humanity of the human condition in Maestro are what make the story great.
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The Silmarillion Essay

The Silmarillion Essay

The Silmarillion takes place after the beginning of the world, but before Arda, the Earth, was fully finished, and at the start of the First War. The Valar are the first beings on Arda, and therefore they rule it. It is understood that Illuvatar made the Valar and that Elves and Men will enter the world when he chooses.

The First War is between the Valar and Melkor, who was a Valar, but wants the world to himself. Feanor, who hates him, later calls him Morgorth. With the help of Tulkas, the war is won by the Valar, and Melkor is sentenced to three ages in the Halls of Mandos. Mandos is where the spirits of the dead go. One of the Valar, called Aule, creates Dwarves, and Illuvatar orders them to be asleep until their time comes to enter the world. At this time eagles were made, and sent to dwell in the mountains. Melkor makes his stronghold, Angband also. 


The Firstborn wake up from the sleep of Illuvatar and enter the world. They are also called Elves and the Quendi. Of the Elves there are three branches, the Noldor, Teleri, and Avari. Each of the branches live in a different part of Middle- earth. The King of the Noldor is Finwe. His sons are Feanor, Fingolfin, and Finarfin. Feanor's sons are Maedros, Maglor, Celegorm, Caranthir, Curufin, Amrod, and Amras.

During this time Melkor was set free. Feanor creates the Silmarils from the light of the Trees of Valinor, and thus Melkor wanted them. In his plan to cause Feanor to go against his brothers, Melkor spreads lies. Feanor ends up breaking the peace of Valinor and was sentenced to twelve years leave of Tirion, despite the fact that Melkor was exposed. His sons and father, King Finwe, join him in his banishment.

After the twelve years Melkor was again up to mischief. He teamed up with Ungoliant, and evil spider creature, to bring darkness to the world. The Trees of Valinor lit the world, and this Melkor knew. Ungoliant cast webs of darkness while Melkor cut the trees. She then in turn drank their sap and their light faded and ceased. At this opportunity, he killed Finwe and took the Silmarils. Feanor was with the Valar and Finwe was guarding the Silmarils.

Very soon after this, Feanor gathered the Noldor together and made an oath to which they all stood by. They would not stop until the Noldor held again the Silmarils. On their journey to Angband, they ended up at a sea. The Teleri had ships that they would not give up, and thus Feanor killed the Teleri for them. Once they reached land, a dark figure stood before them. The figure cursed the Noldor, and Feanor gave a brave speech in response. Nevertheless, Finarfin and some of his followers turned back. As soon as the Noldor reached the far shores, they continued on foot. They were met by Dwarves, which came into Middle- earth not long before. Of all the Elven races, the Dwarves of Beleriand befriended the Noldor the easiest.

King Thingol of the Teleri in Middle- earth gave the Dwarves pearls. In turn, they built him Menegroth. The First War of the Elves began with Orcs, evil creatures of Melkor, fighting against Thingol.

The Two Trees of Valinor bore two last things, a fruit and a flower. They became the Moon and the Sun. Anar, the fire- golden guided the Sun, and Isil, the Sheen the Vanyar of old steered the Moon. At the rising of the Sun Men awoke in Hildorien, in eastern Middle- earth.

Ard- galen was the place of the Second Battle of the Elves, called Dagor- nuin- Giliath. The Noldor were taken at unawares, but were swiftly victorious. At this battle were Balrogs sent from Angband. Feanor fought and was smitten to the ground by the Lord of Balrogs. His sons came to him immediately after, and were told to avenge him and to hold to their oath.

The Third Battle lasted four- hundred years long and was called Dagor- Aglareb, the Glorious Battle. The Noldor also won this, and destroyed the servants of Melkor up to the Gates of Angband. They were unsuccessful at obtaining the Silmarils at the Siege of Angband.

Turgon ruled a secret city called Gondolin. His sister, Aredhel wanted to leave the city to visit her kin, the Noldor, who were outside the walls of Gondolin. This he barely allowed. Turgon did not want anyone outside to know where Gondolin was located. Therefore he sent with Aredhel three Lords of his household. Though she lost them, she went on. She did not find the Noldor either and ended up wandering through Nan Elmoth. A Dwarf named Eol set an enchantment upon her and she could not find her way out and came to his dwelling. They wed and had a son named Maeglin.

When Men first came into the world Morgorth's spies were watching and the Men were filled with fear and lies of the Quendi.

Amid the many wars that followed, some beings found light in love, such as Beren and Luthien. Beren proved to be very brave and when he came across Luthien he loved her at first sight. Her father was King Thingol and since she was a Vala, she was not allowed to love a mortal man. Thus her father gave him a task he thought was impossible, to take a Silmaril from Morgorth, which was set in the Iron Crown. Luthien's love for Beren was great and she joined him on this quest, despite the attempts of her father to keep her in Doriath. With the help of Huan, a werewolf of Celegorm and Curufin, they were reunited after Beren left for Angband. There Huan fought Sauron, the most powerful of Morgorth's servants. Sauron escaped from Huan as a vampire into Taur- nu- Fuin. The thralls were freed and they found Beren in a dark deep pit. Eventually Beren meets up with Morgorth and obtains a Silmaril, but gets his hand cut off. Beren dies by a werewolf, called Carcharoth. Luthien gives up her immortality to bring back Beren and to live with him in Middle- earth.

After the Fifth Battle called Nirnaeth Arnoediad, Doriath and Gondolin both fell by ruin of Morgorth. The Silmarils were lost forever, one cast into the fiery inner earth, and the other into the depths of the sea. The third stays in the sky by Earendil, who loved Elwing.

The last war called the War of Wrath, was the greatest war of all. It was not just between the Noldor and Morgorth, but the Valar, Elves, Dwarves and Men too. The Valar were victorious, and destroyed were the Balrogs and Orcs, few of which survived to the later years of Middle- earth. Angband was finally destroyed.

Morgorth was thrust through the Door of the Night into the Timeless Void. A guard was forever set upon those doors, yet the deeds of Morgorth remain visible. In the hearts of Elves and Men lies the power of terror and hate. That power is said to bear dark fruit until the end of days.

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