Friday, April 29, 2011

Sample Essay on ADHD

College Essay on ADHD

ADHD is brain disorder that causes under achievement and poor behavior in children and adults that is not related to intelligence, brain damage or poor parenting. 2-5% of all children are affected by ADHD. Doctors are not yet sure, but ADHD is believed to be inherited. ADHD is a long-term condition, but as an adult they may not show as many symptoms as when they were younger.


ADHD can affect anyone of any age. Most people are diagnosed during Primary school age when the need to concentrate follows rules and finish work. ADHD affects both sexes although far more boys than girls are diagnosed, as girls tend to be less disruptive with their behavior

There are 3 common ways to treat the symptoms of ADHD. They are: medication, behavior modification and diet

  1. MEDICATION. Medication is the most effective way of treating ADHD The most commonly known drugs are Methylphenidate (Ritalin) and Dexamphetamine, which are both stimulants. There are lots more non-stimulants such as Tofranil, Catapres and Aurorix.
  2. DIET. food is doesn't cause ADHD but it can make symptoms worse. Excluding some chemicals, additives or foods in the diet may affect behavior. Diet changes only affect 5 % of children with ADHD.
  3. BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION. Behavior modification works best with medication. Common methods are, routine, structure and consistency, making sure you have the Childs attention before giving instructions, ignoring unimportant behaviors and encouraging good behavior with rewards.


  • 1902 A pediatrician, George Still, was the first to recognize and describe this condition. He saw this as a chronic condition that was inborn and not caused by poor parenting or adverse environment.
  • 1930s ADHD was believed to be caused by brain damage because of the similarities between Still's description of the condition and brain damaged patients
  • 1937 Doctors gave Amphetamine a group of behaviorally disturbed in-patents and found their difficult behavior improved. This finding influenced the future treatment of ADHD.
  • 1950-60s Researchers realized that most children with ADHD did not suffer any brain damage so they changed the name to Minimal brain dysfunction. This implied that it was caused by subtle brain malfunctions. It was believed that ADHD it was caused by parental and environmental conditions, for some this attitude continued until the 1990s
  • 1957 The main breakthrough came with the introduction of Ritalin. Over the next decade controlled studies proved that it was safe and effective.
  • 1960-70 Media miss information frightened parents from using medication. The Hyper Active child syndrome becomes popular.
  • 1970-75 Virginia Douglas promoted the view that attention deficit was a more important symptom than hyperactivity. Diet becomes popular in treating the problem. Media claims raise more concerns about medication.
  • 1975-80 Medication becomes more popular again.
  • 1980 The term Attention deficit Disorder is first used.
  • 1984 The term is re defined as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
  • 1997s ADHD is now seen an interplay of factors. Attention and learning, impulsive and poorly controlled behaviors, the presence or absence of co-morbid conditions.

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Research Paper about Fast Food

Fast Food Research Paper

The book I chose to review is Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. I do not think people can eat at fast food restaurants and not second-guess the quality and origin of their food after reading this book. Fast Food Nation is by Eric Schlosser and was published in January of 2001. The book goes into detail what consumers are really getting when they purchase a cheeseburger or other item from a fast food restaurant. The review that I formed some of my ideas from and also got another opinion comes from Andrew Roe, A journalist from the San Francisco Chronicle.

The book originally started out as a Rolling Stone magazine assignment. Eric was assigned to observe what goes on behind a fast food counter in the way food is prepared. He could not believe what he was about to find, and decided to inform the public in depth about it in this book.


Eric Schlosser studied the history of the fast food industry dating back to the 1950s. At that time it was not much of an industry at all, it was actually very small, but as it grew in the late 1970s and 80s it became more of a concern. The industry is responsible for changing how livestock are raised and how our food is produced. It is also not far fetched to believe that fast food industries are responsible for driving our other industries down. The low wage pay, and high turnover productivity has rubbed off on some other industries in our economy today. And usually the people accepting low wage are the people who are unqualified to be fit for the job at hand, resulting in lower quality products.

This book really makes you think what you could possible be eating when you order a value meal at McDonald's or Burger King. For me, I buy a cheeseburger at a local fast food place quite often not thinking that it is so unhealthy, just that I am not getting the "best quality meat." I don't think that my cheeseburger could contain E coli, or cow waste as I eat it. But after reading this book I may have different assumptions. As Schlosser describes the way the ground beef is processed, about one million pounds a day, the meat grinder could possible be containing manure from the cows.

The book not only talks about the food of these fast food places, but the employees as well. This industry can be thought of as the most dangerous, and unrewarding workplace ever. When you think of it, how many people do you know that work at McDonalds and has benefits? They don't, and the reason being is because they are usually scheduled to work less that the hours that would require McDonald's to provide benefits. Fast food restaurants are also very likely targets to get hit by robberies. They always have cash, and are usually always doing good business resulting in a good "spot" for criminals to hit. Also, an employee only getting paid minimum wage is kind of ridiculous when you think of how much profit these restaurants are making. Doing some further research, I found out that the average corporate bonus was $131,000 in 1997. Schlosser says that a dollar raise in employee's wages would only result in two cents raise in price of burgers. It goes to show you how these corporations have the best interest for their employees, and just how greedy they are. In my opinion, I feel they should be ashamed to sponsor events like the Olympics, and Ronald McDonald house when they can not even afford to give there employees above minimum wage. I highly doubt that a two cent raise in burger cost would affect there sales.

Something I found to be very interesting in the book is the target market of the fast food industry and how that might have an affect later in that markets life. Schlosser says how children are being targeted at as early as three with the "happy meals." There are advertisements in school, and billboards everywhere you look. In some studies, they have found that toddlers can recognize logos, such as the "golden arches" before they an recognize there own names written down on a piece of paper. What is dangerous about this, Schlosser says, is that your eating habits are developed very early in your life. When you grow older your still going to have these craves, and habits, it's just whether or not you give in to them. Obesity levels in the United States and fast food consumption go hand in hand for children over the past twenty years.

The flavors you taste for the most part in fast food restaurants are not natural, rather artificial. Flavorists, found right here on the New Jersey turnpike, make the flavors found in almost every processed food. The beef and chicken taste you recognize while eating is just an imitation made up in some laboratory. I mean how could a cheeseburger taste like ground beef when as Schlosser puts it "there is shit in the meat." Now I know artificial flavors should obviously make a food taste better, but how can I say that "shit" with any flavor taste good. Schlosser studied one of these flavor factories that made chemicals such as colognes, as well as simulations of bananas, cherries, and shrimp. In one instance Schlosser sampled one of the aromas in one of the testing bottles and was almost positive that someone was cooking up burgers. The additives make it so that when you chew the food or when you drink it, it releases the smells in the chemical that make you think that you are eating the food that you are eating. It is not dangerous, Schlosser states, but just interesting how what you are actually eating is covered up by scents of what you think you are eating.

Another thing that is hurting the American people besides their health is the way the fast food chains are altering the agriculture. Fast food chains are the largest purchasers of meats, but there are only select few companies that supply them with it. Private farmers and small business ranchers are disappearing (Roe 2).

After reading this book my opinion of fast food has changed dramatically. I came into reading this book thinking that I was just reading it for a grade. Now after completing it I have realized a lot about the fast food industry. I would recommend this Fast Food Nation to anyone thinking about having a fast food restaurant employ them. The findings in here might make you look elsewhere for your minimum starting salary. I would also strongly recommend this book to anyone in question of what they think they are eating at fast food restaurants. I do not think Eric Schlosser is trying to make you take a side either for or against fast food; he is just trying to inform you his findings through his research of the fast food industry. You can base your decision on his informative descriptions of what goes on in the fast food industry.

Eric Schlosser's studied polemic against the global fast food industry is a welcome contribution to many high profile issues currently being debated in the Western democracies. Its focus on the deleterious long-term impact of fast food on US society, health and working conditions is well written and symptomatic of the current public agnosticism over the benefits of unregulated corporatism and global capitalism in general.

Schlosser's narrative begins in developing California with an analysis of the dynamic impact of the McDonald brothers' new fast food preparation techniques and their rapid adoption throughout the US. His history of this much-maligned corporation moves on to cover its impact on the potato-growing, beef-grinding and slaughterhouse industries. However, he does not focus purely on the noxious habits of the Golden Arches but broadens his discussion to explain how the artificial flavoring industry ensures that much fast food actually tastes good, whatever the quality of its ingredients, and to debate the hotly talked about issue - at least in the UK - of public health and general food regulation.

The guilty parties in Schlosser's analysis are clearly identified. They are the corporations that lobby governments to loosen the regulatory framework against the public interest and that routinely practice unsafe and unfair employment policies. The laissez faire Reagan administrations are lambasted for their faith in the self-regulating industry they encouraged and for capitulating to the deep-pockets of the food company lobbyists who funded many a Republican campaign. It was the combination of these dynamics which, for example, allowed ground beef companies to distribute E. coli-infected produce across Central America and not inform the public when infected goods were withdrawn from sale. The law does not even require them to follow this withdrawal process, nor can they even be forced to do so by Federal authorities.

Schlosser's book is not an angry diatribe, but an analysis designed to aid informed consumer choices. This reviewer in particular has nothing against corporate profit-making and is not inherently concerned when small agricultural operators go out of business when no longer profitable. Production methods change and people must change with them. Moreover, if people want cheap and homogeneous fast food then there's nothing wrong with market responses to this demand. However, when the market is skewed in favor of the corporates such that the public cannot make informed decisions and health is threatened, then something is clearly wrong with public regulatory processes.

'Fast Food Nation' is a sweeping history of post-war US consumerism and offers a vision of a nightmare America juxtaposed against the traditional American dream. The flip sides of untrammelled prosperity are the slaughterhouse workers whose injury compensation claims are vetoed by their employers' 'independent' doctors and the numerous food poisoning cases caused partly by the lack of independent inspections of meat production facilities and partly by the lack of food tracking processes in the distribution firms. This book will be an eye-opener for anyone who wants to know why their lifestyle is what it is.

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Thursday, April 28, 2011

Essay on Eavan Boland

Eavan Boland Sample Essay

The theme of this poem is the exclusion from history of those who have been voiceless and forgotten, the casualties of war, colonization and, of course, women who for so long were denied status and recognition because of their gender. Boland rebelled against the mythisation of Irish history: the songs , the ballads, the female icons of the nation, the romantic images. Myth obscures the reality, manipulates history. It is outside real, lived history, a remote, unchanging image, a false construct. Outside History begins with a recognized truth:

There are outsiders, always.

Boland sees the stars as outsiders, they are at a great remove:

There are outsiders, always. These stars
These iron inklings of an Irish January,
Whose light appeared.

Thousands of years before
Our pain did: they are, they have always been
Outside history.


What is clearly established in these opening lines is a sense of the cosmos and the planet earth, the universe and the little world of human nature. Poem seven in the Outside History sequence is called "We Are Human History. We Are Not Natural History" and Boland is making such a distinction here. The life of the stars is immense. They are natural history. Paradoxically though they appear unchanging and are symbols of eternity, their illumination is thousands of years out of date when it reaches us. Ironically it is the light that is an illusion: the darkness is real. Their presence now is conveyed in images, "iron", "Irish January" which suggests cold and distance presences, which contrast with the human history, the particular, "our pain". Pain may refer to human suffering in general or how the Irish have suffered throughout history.

Boland's voice here is a collective voice; she is speaking for the Irish people. As a woman also Boland may see herself as someone outside history, but here she is also saying that she has chosen to become part of human history. The stars are outside history, they do not get involved:

They keep their distance. Under them remains
A Place where you found
You were human, and

A landscape where you know you were mortal.

The "you" of line eight would seem to refer to all of us beneath the stars, but perhaps more significantly it refers to the people of Ireland, the Irish in their landscape. It could also refer to the mortal, the individual, the woman who knows pain and suffering.

In the central stanza, Boland speaks of "a time to choose" and what it seems she is choosing between is the stars on the one hand and the human story or history, on the other. The decisive line, "I have chosenт", marks a turning point in the poem. Boland explains the direction she is taking:

Out of myth into history I move to be
Part of that ordeal
Whose darkness is

Only now reaching me from those fields
Those rivers, those roads clotted as
Firmaments with the dead.

The choice presented to the poet "between them" refers to the choice between the mythic world of the stars [traditionally used as symbols of timelessness] and the real painful world of history.

In this poem, Boland is possessing a past which she did not know. It is her past, a painful ordeal, and, in the act of writing the poem, she is finding a voice to honour the silent voices of the past.

The imagery of the stars and their light, which has been travelling for thousands and thousands of years becomes an image of darkness travelling through time from Ireland's past. Boland sees the light of the stars and is aware of the darkness of ordeal and pain; she has chosen to write about human history, not natural history.

The details of "fields", "rivers", "roads", suggest countryside and the clusters of dead on the road suggest the Irish famine. Boland, in the lines " clotted as /firmaments with the dead", has effectively taken the language associated with the stars of stanzas one and transferred the image to the human story which is of greater interest to her now.

The closing stanza once again uses "we":

How slowly they die
As we kneel beside them, whisper in their ear.
And we are too late. We are always too late.

The poem began with a reference to "our pain"; then Boland spoke of how "I have chosen" and "I move to be part of that ordeal." She returns to an inclusive voice at the end, indicating perhaps that she herself may once have felt that, as a woman and a woman poet, she was outside history, but that she has now entered into history. The poem has focused on Irish history and on the need to know and remember it.

The tone in the final lines is one of pity, helplessness and deep regret. The poem remembers "that ordeal", those dreadful deaths on the roads. They are dead and dying and cannot be saved. This is coupled with a sense of collective responsibility, indicated by the shifting from the singular "I" to the plural "we". It is as if the poet has accepted a responsibility, metaphorically speaking to the dead, by recognizing that there is a need to redress the wrong that has been done to all the countless dead whose lives have somehow been forgotten and unexpressed., All Boland can offer are words of comfort when it is too late, and the repetition in the poem's last line.

And we are too late. We are always too late.
Highlights in an elegiac way the idea contained in the poem's title.

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The Stroop Test Essay

The Stroop Effect Essay

The Stroop Test was comprised in 1935 by J.R. Stroop, and it theorizes how automatic processes can at times interfere with the thinking needed to complete a task. After subjecting myself to this test I discovered the purpose and summary of the simulation; as well as psychological terms and theories that were used.

First, the hypothesis of the Simulation Exercise was that it is easier to name the color patches than to name the color of words. This further leads to the Simulations purpose which is to prove whether or not automatic processes may at times interfere with ones thinking. This means basically, relating to the Stroop Test that when color patches are presented to a subject they have no problem naming the color in a very short period of time. However, when you put color words in front a subject it takes them longer to name the color, simply because they feel the need to actually read the word first. This adds to the time it takes to name the color, and also shows that reading can be considered an automatic process.


This Simulation Exercise introduced several psychological terms and helped to give me a better understanding of them. The first term that I noticed was hypothesis, or an educated guess about a phenomenon that is stated in concrete details to rule out confusion in it's meaning. Second, independent variable, which is a condition that an experimenter varies so he/she is able to see its impact on another variable (controls or manipulates). For this Simulation the independent variable was manipulating the nature of the stimulus materials in a color naming task. Third, the dependent variable, definition: a variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable, and it usually measures an aspect of the subjects behavior. In this case the dependent variable was the length of time it takes to name the colors. There was a variation to the Stroop Test compared to other experiments, and that was that they only used a control group; instead of both a control and experimental group. This proved to be positive though because it lead to being able to use two conditions in the place of one which related directly to the types of stimulus materials. First, the control condition, which was the color patches. Second the experimental condition, represented by the stimulus materials being color words printed in incongruent colors. This condition was created for the experimenter to look for interference effects in naming the colors.

Finally, my results and the summary of the Simulation Exercise. Unfortunately my results went against the hypothesis seeing as both tasks were equally easy for myself. This lead to my T test being 1.07, and my statistics being insignificant. However, going against my own results I still feel that J.R. Stroop was correct with his previous research. Stroop felt that reading was an automatic process for adults. So, when faced with a stimuli consisting of words they cannot help but read them. This in return would slow down the naming of the color when the word being read has a different color name than that which it is printed in. Going along with his view, the Stroop effect does not seem to occur until after children start to read.

In conclusion, from my interaction with the Stroop Simulation Exercise I acquired a new and far better understanding to the scientific method as well the terms that went along with the Simulation. Also I now possess a different view on principles and theories behind automatic processes, and find my results from the experiment slightly off base.

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Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Essay on Facial Expressions

Essay on Facial Expressions

The aims of this research study are to determine whether an emotional facial expression is more rapidly located in an array of neutral faces, than the location of a neutral face amongst emotional faces. It endeavors to discover which kind of facial expression in particular is most readily located in an array of neutral faces, as well as determining the influence of the overall number of distractor faces present on the efficiency of target face location.


Human facial expressions across cultures appear not to vary, and the facial muscle movements that signify happiness in one area of the world seem to be the same on the other side of the globe, regardless of levels of isolation (Ekman & Friesen, 1971). Darwin proposed that our facial expressions are an unlearned, innate response that has developed from similar expressions in other animals.

Recent studies of the human limbic system have revealed that particular individual emotions like fear and disgust, are processed by certain neural substrates (Calder, Lawrence & Young, 2001). A small almond-shaped structure buried deep in our temporal lobe has a significant role in emotional processing and deficits to it have resulted in an impaired recognition of facial expression (Grossman, E., 2000). It is intriguing that through MRI scans an increase in the amygdala's activity is evident when participants view fearful facial expressions, more so than expressions of happiness, disgust, anger or neutrality (Kassin,K., Heider & Simmel, 1982). Conversely, patient-based studies show that when participants view facial expressions of disgust in particular, brain imaging identifies the insula and basal ganglia to be extremely active during processing (Uller, C. & Nichols, S.).

It has been suggested that emotional facial expressions do not have to be attended to for them to be perceived; it is an involuntary process (Hansen & Hansen,1994., Stenberg, Wilking & Dahl, 1998). In fact Pratto & John (1991) argue that negative expressions attract attention more so than positive or neutral expressions due to an adaptive, automatic recognition of danger that is part of the human biology. One study indicated that angry faces amidst a happy crowd were found more rapidly than a happy face amongst angry distractors (Hansen & Hansen, 1988).

Previous research has also concluded that as the number of distractor faces increase, little or no change is seen in the time it takes participants to locate the target face. This is only true when all the distracter faces have a constant expression.

If facial emotion can be perceived without conscious perception, as suggested by previous studies, then a target face with a unique emotion should summon attention to its location, and should therefore be relatively easy to find amongst neutral distractor faces.

Adding more distractor faces should not substantially increase the difficulty of searching for an emotional face amongst neutral faces, because emotional faces capture attention automatically.

Conversely it should be more difficult to find a neutral face amongst emotional distractors, because the distractor faces are more likely to capture attention than the neutral target.

Participants: All students who are undertaking Laboratory classes for Psychology 512120 at the University of Melbourne.

Face stimuli were taken from Ekman & Friesen (1971) set and presented on a computer display. Half the visual search displays had 3 faces and the rest consisted of 6 faces arranged around a central point in a circle. 50% of the trials contained the target face and the specified target was absent in the other 50% of trials.

Neutral stimuli and four emotional stimuli were present in the search tasks: happiness, sadness, anger and fear.

Participants underwent 160 trials in each of the two experiments.

Before participants underwent the experimental trials, practice trials were given to provide feedback and familiarize them with the procedure. Each participant performed two experiments involving one emotion only. 25% of the group were allocated one of the four emotions; happiness, sadness, anger or fear. Experiment 1 involved searching for an emotional face amongst neutral distractors, while Experiment 2 involved searching for a neutral face amongst emotional distractors. The particular order that each 25% of the group undertook Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 was randomized.

When the target was present, participants responded using the left mouse button, or the right button when they perceived the target as absent. They were instructed to respond as rapidly and accurately as possible; feedback was provided after each response. The computer measured the speed and accuracy of each participant.

Before the correct reaction times were analyzed, participants who made 30% errors, who had response times 200 ms or who had results & standard deviations above the condition mean were excluded.

The Figures that follow firstly show the mean search times for emotional and neutral target faces, note that Display Set 1 involves 3 faces while Display Set 2 involves 6 faces. The Figures also graph the standard deviation for each response; both neutral and emotional in each Display Set situation.

The results indicate that while searching for all four emotions studied, the reaction time for participants to locate an emotional target face is more rapid than the location of a neutral target. Reaction times were quickest for the group who were instructed to locate a happy face in the crowd of neutral faces; 839 milliseconds (3 faces) and 912 milliseconds (6 faces). The slowest reaction times were recorded from participants searching for sad facial expressions; 1268 milliseconds (3 faces) and 1616 milliseconds (6 faces). Overall reaction times grew as the number of distractor faces increased in the case of each separate emotion.

The results indicate participants found it easier to locate emotional faces amongst neutral faces, than a neutral face amongst emotional ones, supporting the hypothesis. It appears happy faces drew attention most rapidly out of all the emotions. These results are inconsistent with Hansen & Hansen's previous research (1989). Unexpectedly, the size of each display seemed to influence the reaction time of participants; slowing down as the overall number of faces grew, which rejects the original hypothesis.

Although the results provide insight into the nature of human emotional processing, interpretation is difficult. There is no clear evidence available to confirm that the speed in which we automatically attend to and locate emotional faces is due to the actual emotion. It has been suggested that humans are drawn to faces expressing emotion because of distinct facial features or components (Byrne & Eysenck, 1995; Nothdurft, 1993; Purcell, Stewart & Skov, 1996; White, 1995).

A trend is present in the results supporting one hypothesis and indeed rejecting one, but only to a certain extent. The difference between reaction times cannot be considered significant. It must also be considered that the participants were a convenient sample of Melbourne University students, learning about psychological research methods and were well-informed on previous research and the predictions for this experiment. A self-fulfilling prophecy may have occurred and students possibly unconsciously slowed their reaction times when locating neutral targets. Each group of participants were instructed by 4 different experimenters (tutors). The conditions may not have been constant in each group therefore the results for each individual emotion may be affected.

It is important to note that in light of the results no clear conclusions or inferences can be made due to their statistical significance. Interestingly faces displaying happiness were attended to faster than those displaying sadness, anger and surprisingly fear. Changing the overall number of distracters did appear to change the speed of reaction time, which was not originally expected. However, the trend in the data gathered is also indicative that emotions are rapidly attended to; they play a functional role in guiding our focal attention, perhaps an important adaptive human element.

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Research Paper on Atoms

Research Paper on Atoms

Ancient Greek Philosophers suggested that matter was composed of individual particles, which was proved by the theory of John Dalton.

The main provisions of his theory are:
1. All matter is composed of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms.
2. All atoms of a particular element are identical but the atoms of one element differ from the atoms of other element.
3. Atoms of different elements combine with each other in certain whole number proportions to form compounds.
4. In a chemical reaction, atoms are rearranged to form new compounds which are not created, destroyed or changed into atoms of any other element.


Three fundamental laws give the idea to support the atomic theories which are:
The law of conservation of mass, which says that in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed, was developed by French scientist Antone Lavoisier. The law of definite proportions states that different samples of any pure compound contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass. This law was established by Proust. The law of multiple proportions state that the masses of one element can combine chemically with a fixed mass of another element in a ratio of small whole numbers. Cathode-ray tube experiments shows that atoms contain negative particles which are called electrons. Thomson and Milikan established the idea that the electron has no mass. Atoms contain positive particles named protons.

Rutherford discovered that there is a minute, dense, positively charged nucleus at the center of atom. He was awarded the noble prize for his work. The nucleus of an atom is comprised of protons and neutrons. Protons have +1 charge and neutrons have no charge but it has the same mass as the protons. Electrons have -1 charge and its mass is very small which is easily negligible. The positively charged protons in an element are balanced by the negatively charged electron, that's why the atom of that particular element has no charge. The atomic number is the number of protons present in the element. The sum of the protons and neutrons is termed the mass number of an element. Atoms of an element that has the same number of protons but different number of electrons are called the isotopes. The AMU (atomic mass unit) of a particular element expresses the mass of an atom of that element relative to the mass of the most common isotope of carbon which is 12. The average mass which takes into account the relative abundance of the different isotopes is called the atomic mass or atomic weight. Periodic table was made by Russian scientist Mandeleev. He arranged the known elements in order of increasing atomic mass in horizontal rows and the elements with the similar properties in the vertical columns. The horizontal rows are called the periods and the vertical columns are called the groups. Each element in the periodic table is represented by its symbol along with its atomic number and atomic mass. The first 92 elements occur naturally and the rests were synthesized in the lab.

Elements are classed into metal and non-metals. Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity and they are ductile and malleable. At room temperature, metals are solid except mercury. Non-metals are not electric conductor and neither it is ductile nor malleable. At room temperature, many of the non metals are gases except the bromine. Semi metals lie between the metals and the non metals. They conduct electricity well only at a high temperature. Semi-metals are also called the metalloids.

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Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Research Paper on Erik Eriksson

Research Paper on Erik Eriksson

Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany on June 15th, 1902. His biological father was an unnamed Danish man who abandoned Erik's mother before he was born. His mother, Karla Abrahamsen, was a young Jewish woman who raised him alone for the first three years of his life. Erik's mother married Dr. Theodor Homberger, Erik's pediatrician and moved to Karlsrune in southern Germany. The development of identity seems to have been one of his greatest concerns in Erikson's own life as well as in his history. During his childhood and early adulthood he was known as Erik Homberger, his parents kept the details of his birth a secret. Erik was a tall, blonde, blue-eyed boy who was Jewish. At school, Erik was teased for being Nordic, but at grammar school kids teased him for being Jewish.


After graduating high school, Erik was really concentrating on becoming an artist. When Erik wasn't in art classes, he would be wandering Europe while visiting museums and sleeping under bridges.

When Eric was twenty five, one of his friends, Peter Blos (an artist and later a psychoanalyst) gave him the idea of applying for a teaching position at an experimental school for American students run by a friend of Anne Freud's. Erik received a certificate in Montessori education and one from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Anna Freud psychoanalyzed Erik. While teaching there, he met Joan Serson, a Canadian dance teacher. They had three children and one of those children became a sociologist. Erikson was offered a job at the Harvard Medical School and was able to practice child psychoanalysis privately.

Later on, he taught at Yale, and later at the University of California at Berkeley. During this time, he did his famous studies of modern life among the Lakota and the Yurok. When Erik became an American citizen, he officially changed his name to Erik Erikson. It is still unknown where he got the name from.

In 1950, Erikson wrote Childhood and Society, which contained many summaries of his studies among native Americans, analyses of Maxim Gorkiy and Hitler, a discussion of the "American personality", and the basic outline of his version of Freudian theory. These themes won him the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award. Erik Erikson is a Freudian ego-psychologist (he accepts Freud's ideas as partially correct, but he includes the more debatable ideas). Erikson often pushed the instincts and the unconscious practically out of the picture.

Erik is most famous for his work in refining and expanding Freud's theory of stages. He believed that functions by the epigenetic principle (this principle says we develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in eight stages). Our progress through each stage is determined by our success, or lack of success in all the previous stages. A great analogy of Erikson's stages is it is like an unfolding rosebud, each petal opens up at a different time, and in a certain order. If we interfere in the natural order of development by pulling a petal forward too early, or out of order, we will completely ruin the development of the flower.

Each stage has developmental tasks that are psychosocial in nature. The different tasks are referred to by two terms. The infants task is called "trust-mistrust". Erikson made it quite clear that there is a balance we must learn which is "certainly, we need to learn most trust, but we also need to learn a little mistrust, so as not to grow up to become gullible fools!"

Each stage has a certain optimal time. There is no use trying to rush a child into his/her adulthood (which is quite common among parents who are obsessed with success). It is not possible to slow the speed or try to protect kids from the demands of life. There is a certain time for each task. If a stage is achieved, you carry a virtue or psychological strength which will help you through the stages. If you don't achieve anything, you may endanger your future development. If you are successful at each stage of development in Erikson's model, our lives later on will be full of self-confidence, having led a complete life, and a sense of satisfaction. If we are not successful at each stage of development in Erikson's model, our lives will be full of depression, lacking fulfillment, and having a sense of failure. Erik Erikson died in 1994. He was a very successful theorist!

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Essay on Aim

Essay on Aim

"The aim of theatre should be to give pleasure and not to make men better, but to make them happy." - Harold Hobson

In response to the quote above by Harold Hobson, I don't think theatre should be just about entertainment. Therefore, I disagree with Hobson on this issue but out of respect of course.

Theatre in Britain has in a way been a political arena ever since the Edwardian period. It is without doubt that the writer's and playwrights have "passed on" their ideas of politics through their creative works in their plays. Though they did not make it as obvious as it should be, the message that lies within their plays are rather more subliminal. The use of comedy eases out the serious issues that the playwright's wanted to tell the world. Approaching the year 1914, Britain may have seemed to be in prosperity but in reality the rich are getting richer and the poor even poorer. There were great conflicts amongst the working class. Furthermore, the issue of the women's rights also started to stir up around 1914 which led to the Women's Suffragette's Movement. Britain was clouded with problems but nevertheless they still had plays to watch. Thanks to the writer I am about to introduce, people actually were aware of what is going on and hopefully got the idea that the writer intended for them to get.


George Bernard Shaw, the author of the play Pygmalion or later changed into a musical and was known as "My Fair Lady" wrote about those social issues that troubled Britain. Throughout his play, he shows the audience two important things. He shows Britain as it is and how Britain ought to be. "Britain as it is" is showed at the beginning of the play where there are men of high class who seem to control the whole world and a poor uneducated flower girl who hangs around those high class places just to make a pence or two. We are then exposed to the fact that that poor flower girl wasn't able to make her decision at all in the beginning of the play. She was just plain arrogant, uneducated and uncultured. However, the second half of the play shows the transformation of the flower girl into becoming a well-mannered, well-educated and well-cultured dame through the good works of education which was offered by one of the high class men. I believe Shaw was trying to convey to the audience that through education one could make something out of oneself. We could change our destiny from poor to not so poor to wealth. Education gives us the ability to think correctly and with the correct way of thinking, we could achieve anything.

You may laugh at the play with it's comedy but you also might be enlightened about the facts that education changes one's life, one has the right to choose their destiny and another thing we get from this is that all people are equal. Entertaining or Edutaining? I believe we become better people from watching Shaw's Pygmalion.

Later in the course, we were introduced to Noel Coward who is the master of comedy and music. During Coward's time, it was a time of depression both in the economy and the people's well being. It was the effect of war on people. People were dying and suffering from the wounds of war and it was just not a time for laughs. However, Coward was sympathetic to the situation and to human life. He then wrote a play called "Blithe Spirit." The story is about a man, Charles, who was once married to his lovely wife, Elvira, but then she dies young. So Charles remarries to his second wife, Ruth. Charles is a writer and wanted to write a book about mediums. He therefore, invites his friends and a Madame Arcati who is a medium for dinner. Charles wanted to prove that all the hocus pocus of Arcati was really just an act and a hoax but he later found out that Arcati is no joke when he sees the spirit of his first wife Elvira. Elvira doesn't like Ruth and tries to get rid of her. She successful does. However, Ruth's spirits appears before Elvira for revenge but then both Elvira and Ruth wanted Charles for themselves so they decided to devise a plan in order to get Charles killed so that he could live with both of them happily ever after. Both Ruth and Elvira succeeded.

The story basically talks about the death of this and that person. However, what Coward is trying to say to his audience is that death is okay. Death is something which all of us must face at the end. It is the inevitable. None of us humans can escape death. However, with Coward's farch comedy in the dialogue it comforts the audience about the issue of death and makes it look okay to die. It tells the audience that when we die, we move on to a better place but the spirits will always be with us.

Entertaining or Edutaining? Death is a serious issue. One just does not walk into a theatre and sit back on a play like this and come out with nothing. We come out with a comforting thought that maybe death isn't all that horrific. It's pure entertaining with morals. It's unique and Coward is absolutely a genius for having thought of it.

Last but not least, we have Samuel Beckett whom I mentioned last but should have mentioned before. However, I think Beckett was born at a wrong time. His timing wasn't right that's why I mentioned him last. The reason behind this is because his play "Waiting for Godot" is like a Christian Allegory although Beckett denies it isn't. Godot symbolizes death. "Waiting for Godot" is like we are all waiting for death. In the process of our waiting, we tend to entertain ourselves just to kill time. Gogo says at one point that "we always find things to do". I believe it is so true that we humans always find something to do. Whether it's of great importance or not, we still have something to do. It is shown rather clearly in the play that Gogo and Didi have absolutely nothing important to do but to waste time. Their daily activities are routine. They fight, make up, fight again and it goes on and on. The play also suggests that time is an illusion. It is the human mind that believes that we are all on a journey through time. Beckett also stresses but I think he's just trying to be modest that he's not a philosopher, he does not want to lure us into believing anything and that the play means what it means.

The meaning of this play to me is very philosophical. I don't know if it's because I like to dwell on my thoughts but it really reflects on the human way of life. We do walk around in circles like Gogo and Didi, we do meet strange people along our lives like Pozzo and Lucky, we do see the violence in our society and yes we do see death of other people. Should we be scared? The play does not say but it gives us a drive to better our lives than just to sit around and do nothing.

"The aim of theatre should be to give pleasure and not to make men better, but to make them happy." - Harold Hobson

In response to the quote above by Harold Hobson, I object. Theatre should enlighten us about life and society as well as fascinate us with its creativity.

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Monday, April 25, 2011

Research Paper on ERP

Research Paper on ERP Implementation

1. The ERP implementation process provides several examples as to why Cisco is Information Age company as opposed to an Industrial Age company. Although Cisco's ERP vendor selection was driven by the manufacturing groups needs, this does not qualify them as an Industrial Age company proving that even a manufacturing focused company can still categorize itself as an information age company because of factors such as structure, resource allocation, and communication across functional groups.


One key difference in the two types of companies is structure. In Industrial Age companies, a hierarchy was the dominant business model with power very centralized among top management. While John Morgridge, CEO, "maintained a centralized functional organization," at Cisco, the structure of the ERP task force team was nearly the opposite of a hierarchy and in fact drew key people out of many business units. The leaders of the project, Peter Solvik and Randy Pond collaborated with all levels of management from Board Members, to Vice Presidents to Directors of business units to team managers to create a team that would evaluate, select, refine and implement the project. So although the overall company structure was reflective of an Industrial Age company (according to the CEO's observations) The ERP project team and the way it was comprised was more representative of an Information Age company, which was decentralized with authority and power distributed across many different units and down several lines of command as a result increased communication capabilities.

Second, the way in which the Cisco solves its ERP problem is indicative of an Information Age company. Industry Age companies characteristically stood very much alone and relied on internal support for technology and improvements. They were limited in growth and scope by their own competencies and capabilities. But, in the Information age, economies of scale are achieved by networking, sharing, and looking at other firms core competencies to achieve more value. Outsourcing in the Information Age allows a firm, like Cisco, to have access to better, faster, cheaper - in this case being an ERP solution. So, by outsourcing first the firm that evaluates their needs (KPMG) and then determining that Oracle would provide a new ERP system, Cisco shows that they are not an Industrial Age company. An Industrial Age company would have been limited by their own capabilities - but now, companies like Cisco realize what their competencies are and look elsewhere for solutions to problems that fall outside this realm.

Finally, the testing stages that Cisco went through to implement its new ERP system show that it is an Information Age company because of the process of evaluating information to make changes rather than being constricted to the original implementation which would seem more apparent in an Industrial Age company. The ability to document, use, and make changes from the communications from the testing teams would not have been done in an Industrial Age company because of the lack of communication across functional teams. The ERP implementation went through several stages, with changes made and inputs given by many people from many departments.

2. The source of IT solution, the amount of money and the resources allocated to make the IT decisions, and the placement of IT implementation on the list of company goals all are proof points as to how important IT is to Cisco's strategy.

IT proves to be so important to Cisco's strategy that they turn to Oracle for solutions. Rather than fixing their current UNIX-based software, Cisco's "significant growth prospects convinced" the CIO that they needed a change and they look to outsource to another company that specializes in IT solutions. Although no company had ever solved a problem the size of Cisco's, IT solution provided by the outside vendor needed to be in line with the growth (80% annually at that point) that Cisco was experiencing and projecting.

The amount of money spent on the Oracle package selected also proves the importance of IT to Cisco's growth strategy. Not only did Cisco "pull people out of business that they absolutely did not want to give up" for the first round of developing an ERP project team, they went back a second time and "again the team sought out the best for inclusion in the project." This shows that Cisco dedicated its best employees and took them away from their "real jobs" to be part of the IT department for a while therefore reallocating is most valuable resources. The amount of money ($15 million) that the team asked for was almost frightening to ask for. It would not have been requested if IT were not critical.

Third piece of evidence that IT is one of the most, if not the most, important contributions to Cisco's Strategy is the placement of the ERP Implementation on the Company Goal List. The first year, it was in the top 7 company wide goals. By year two, it was the number one priority, as "ERP project status became the number one agenda item for weekly executive staff meetings."

3. Pete Solvik's role as CIO was actually more similar to a CEO as he had to manage all areas of the company as they pertained to IT. Rather than just look after the Information department of Cisco, Solvik was responsible for the finance, marketing, manufacturing, etc areas response to the new ERP system. Solvik approached the problem of the ERP implementation with caution, but as soon as the failures in the current system were apparent, the approach became much more aggressive. Managing this project involved managing consultants, outsourced vendors, and internal teams of managers and superiors. He took a very decentralized approach to the role as evident in his choice of team members.

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Essay on Afghanistan

Essay on Afghanistan

Afghanistan, Land of the Pushtun, is a mountainous land-locked country in Central Asia with a history and culture that goes back over 5000 years. Throughout its long, splendid, and sometimes chaotic history, this area of the world has been known by various names. In the ancient times, its inhabitants called the land Aryana. And in the medieval era, it was called Khorasan. Modern life in Afghanistan is much different than life in the west. This report will illustrate some of the key differences and similarities to other parts of the world. This information was made possible by several sources listed in the endnotes.


The Pushtun are a nomadic people that primarily congregate in Afghanistan, although they are gradually being incorporated into Afghanistan's larger cities. The exact population of the Pushtun is unknown because of mountain villages and such, however, it is estimated to be around seven to nine million.

One of the first significant pre-Islam events was named "Alexander the Great invasion" in 328 BC. This was one of the many conquests of Alexander the Great. The first Muslim-Arab Conquests began in 652-664 AD. These people were likely the ancestors of most ethnic afghans currently living in Afghanistan and the surrounding area.

In 1504 - 1525 AD, Babur invaded Afghanistan and established the capital in Kabul.
The Russians Occupied Panjdeh in1885. Following that, the Russians occupied Zulfiqar and Aqobat and took Panjdeh. This was the first, and not the last act of aggression by the Russians.

In1919, Amir Amanullah Khan declared a holy war against British Imperialism for Independence of Afghanistan. The treaty of Rawalpondi on August 8, 1919, Recognized Afghanistan's political independence. The Afghan-Russian treaty was signed on February 28, 1921 A treaty of friendship signed by Afghanistan and Soviet Union and completed the establishment of diplomatic relations. The first president of Afghanistan was Mohammed Daoud Khan who was in office between July 17, 1973 and April 27, 1978. On August 20, 1998 The United States of America assaulted Afghan territory Khost to target the terrorist centres with cruise missiles. Approximately, 80 missiles were launched into the Afghan territory. The main target of the attack was to destroy Osama Bin Laden's headquarters.

On September 9, 2001 Two Arab journalists in Panjshir injured the legendary Ahmad Shah Massoud, the leader of the Northern Alliance political party, after a plot organized by the Taliban.

On September 11, 2001 America was attacked. Hijackers crashed planes into the two World Trade Center towers and The Pentagon. More than 6,000 people died as a result of the terrorist acts. The USA declared Osama Bin Laden the prime suspect of the terrorism.

On September 15, 2001, Ahmad Shah Massoud died as the result of an explosion and injured General Fahim who was named the replacement for Ahmad Shah Massoud. On September 20, 2001, President Bush demanded that the Taliban regime hand over the suspected terrorist Osama Bin Laden without any conditions.3

Music and dance, although banned under Taliban rule, was, and is an essential part of Afghani tradition. Music would only be played at joyous occasions such as weddings, but not at funerals. Most women play a drum-like instrument named the daireh. While men play the armonia an instrument resembling the lute. The national dance of Afghanistan is called the Atan, and is usually performed at receptions.

One major Muslim event is Ramadan. It is a fast lasting one month, followed by a feast to commemorate Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son Ishmael to God. Another holiday is Noruz celebrating the New Year on March 21. Other holidays include: Loss of the Muslim Nation on April 28, Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled on May 4, Independence Day on August 19 and Pashtoonistan Day on August 30 or 31. On the Muslim calendar there are five feasts. All of the dates of the feasts have something in common with the prophet Muhammad.

1. Traditional
The national sport of Afghan, Buzkashi, involves a headless carcass of a goat being put into a ring and is being sought after by men on horseback. The object of the game is to bring the carcass back to the player's own side. The winner of the match gets to keep the goat as food. This is a very difficult game and is much too challenging for the younger men. Other sports include tent pegging, Topay danda, a game that is similar to stickball, and kitefighting, a youth's game. The object of kitefighting is to break the opponent's string by gluing shards of broken glass to the player's kite string and flying it into the opponent's kite string.

2. Universal
Afghanistan participates in many universal sports such as: wrestling (palwani), boxing, martial arts, basketball, soccer, bicycle racing, archery, shooting competitions, running etc.5

Afghanistan's Pushtun culture is a culture of vigor and mystery. Not much is known about it. But what is known is that the people that live there may pray differently, cook differently, or even live in different kinds of houses, but we are really aren't that different.

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Sunday, April 24, 2011

Research Paper on Euthanasia

Research Paper on Euthanasia

The question, should euthanasia be legalized can be put into a category with should we go to war with Iraq? Or should we continue to use capital punishment? Only an individual can answer these very emotional questions for himself or herself based on whatever factors he or she chooses to use. I feel life is very sacred and should not be taken lightly, but I also understand life is different for every person. It can be painful beyond belief; it can be extremely depressing; therefore, I believe people should have the choice to end life, under certain guidelines.

If euthanasia were to be legalized there must be laws to regulate the use of it. A main part in the process of getting euthanized would be the determination of why the person wants to be euthanized. This determination would be made by a group of physicians and psychologists, to determine if the person wanting the euthanasia procedure is terminally ill or in great pain. They would also have to determine if the person is of sound mind to make this decision.


In addition, I don't think regular doctors should be the ones using euthanasia on people. There should be specially trained individuals working at some sort of euthanasia clinic. They would be highly trained doctors who would take a new oath to help end the suffering of people in need. These doctors and psychologists would be required by law to make sure a person knew about any alternatives to relieve the pain of their sickness and the chances of recovery. These doctors and psychologists would also be required by law to make the person understand the consequences of their actions. I don't say this because I am uncertain on my position of euthanasia. I just feel people need to be aware of what euthanasia is and what obvious effects it will have on them and their families. Another benefit of euthanasia clinics would be the relief of pressure on doctors who don't want to perform euthanasia. Some doctors wouldn't want to actively or passively kill anyone, and that's understandable. Also some people I'm assuming would complain about being treated by someone who takes life instead of preserving it. More laws would be made on the different distinctions of euthanasia, voluntary, involuntary, nonvouluntary and passive or active euthanasia; assisted suicide would also need laws to regulate it.

Through my research I found three types of consent for euthanasia. Voluntary is when a person wants to be euthanized; involuntary is when a person doesn't want to be euthanized, and nonvoluntary is when the person is unable to consent to euthanasia, so others such as family consent for him or her. When a person volunteers to be euthanized and fits in the correct protocol, i.e. has a terminal illness or is incurably depressed in some cases which I talk about later, then that person should be granted the right to end his or her life because it belongs to that person.

With regards to involuntary euthanasia, a person should never be euthanized against their will no matter what the circumstances. An example of involuntary euthanasia can be found in the case of Christine Malevre (Skynews), a French nurse, who helped six terminally ill patients die. The problem is that it isn't clear whether the people wanted to be euthanized or not. The victim's families even said the victims had never spoken about wanting to be euthanized before.

However I do agree with nonvoluntary euthanasia in some cases like in the article "The complex Issue of Euthanasia" by Washburn (Washburn 258). He gives an example of "Baby Boy Houle", a boy who was very deformed and not expected to live. In this case, the parents of the baby involuntarily decided to end its life. This in my eyes was the right thing to do, and they should have the choice to do it. But the doctors in this case decided to take the case to court and get an order to try and save the baby. They won the court decision and worked hard to save the baby's life, but in the end no miracle was performed and as predicted the baby died, after what must have been 15 very painful days of life. I agree with the parents decision to end the baby's life because there was proof this baby would not live long and for the time it did live in would be in great pain.

While I do agree with nonvoluntary euthanasia in cases like "Baby Boy Houle", I don't agree with nonvouluntary euthanasia in cases where people don't specify that they want to be killed i.e. no living will. And aren't in a position to make the determination. The reason I agree with the parents decision in "Baby Boy Houles" case and not a family member giving permission to say a 35 year old man who is brain dead from a car accident, is mainly the fact that it was proven after this child was born he wouldn't live long even if they did fix some of his problems. The way it was explained seemed he was already dead; it was just a matter of time. Whereas the 35 year old man had time to have his wishes expressed, and maybe he wanted to hope he would recover; Baby boy never had the ability to make that choice, and therefore it was correct for his parents to do so for him.

I don't think there is much difference between active and passive euthanasia. If a doctor feels comfortable in directly ending someone's life, then that is fine; if a doctor doesn't, I don't think it should be a requirement. And most likely, if euthanasia was legalized, there would likely be euthanasia clinics created to deal specifically with euthnizing patients. Passive euthanasia seems much like active. What is the real difference between giving a lethal injection or withholding a life sustaining one? Passive seems to be the way most doctors choose to help their patients end their lives.

I think assisted suicide should follow the same laws as euthanasia. There is a problem that people who want assisted suicides aren't always terminally ill. They could just be in great amounts of pain or even very depressed and unhappy about life. I remember watching a video about Dr. Jack Kevorkian where he helped a woman die who wasn't terminally ill or in great physical pain. She suffered from severe depression for which there was no medical treatment available (The Kevorkian file). For along time I wondered if it was right for Kevorkian to help her commit suicide. The article by Phil Washburn called Hedonism (Washburn 189) Washburn defines Hedonism in these words, "Hedonism rests on two beliefs. First, pleasure is good. And second, pleasure is the only good." And I find that statement to be true in my life. Therefore I believe in the case of Kevorkian helping a mentally disturbed woman, who finds no happiness in life, and cannot be helped to get over this depression. It is just as valid to help her commit suicide as to help someone who is in physical pain. I feel the laws for assisted suicide should be very similar to the laws for euthanasia with the exception that a person doesn't need to be terminally ill or in great physical pain. If a person is showing signs they are suffering in a way that makes them want to end their life; they should have the option to get help in their death. The choice is theirs.

The term agnostic does a good job explaining how I feel about a higher power (I think there must be a higher power something more powerful than humans). In addition to that belief I've also learned from Philosophical Dilemmas by Phil Washburn that I agree with the moral theory of Utilitarianism (Washburn 227). The way it is described in the book seems to agree with how I feel about what's right and wrong. And that is to say "If you want to do the right thing in any situation, you should ask what would lead to the greatest happiness for all concerned, and do that." These factors have shaped my idea on euthanasia so that, I don't believe in any specific god or that my higher power would care if someone ended their life when they saw fit. And I believe morally people should do what brings the most happiness to those concerned, and the only people of any real concern when dealing with euthanasia is the person considering dieing.

As I stated before, euthanasia is a very sensitive subject that when sparked can ignite great discussion. These are just my ideas based on what I know and feel to be right. They are fueled by the concept that if I was in a situation where I was in great pain or terminally ill, I would want the option of euthanasia; I find it a better way to die than many others. I feel similar about assisted suicide even though I have never contemplated a suicidal act; a person should be able to end their life when they want. And if they want help in the act they should not be alone. It all comes down to having the freedom to choose where you want your life to go.

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Friday, April 22, 2011

Research Paper on Football

Research Paper on Football

Most people in Germany enjoy watching football on television or live in the stadium. Football is not only sport number one, but also the number one topic of conversation. Although it is so popular, many people, fans or not fans, discuss whether the football players are good value or not. So, is it fair that they earn so much more than others?


Of course stars like Ronaldo, Zidane or Beckham, but also all the other professional football players have a high training intensity with a minimum of two trainings per day and additional duties like for example meetings with sponsors or fan clubs. Many of them are engaged in social organisations and do a lot for poor and disabled people. They do a lot for the money they get.

On the basis of the high number of trainings and at least one game per week during the season means a high strain for the players. They get injured " often seriously " because of this high strain and the fact that their body is their capital. They have to give everything for the money, even their health.

These are arguments why professional football players are good value. The training intensitiy, the strain, the injuries that result from the strain and of course the age lead to the realization that the players are not able to do their sport for such a long time. They need the money because they have to built reserves for their later life.

The players deserve the money they get, for the clubs make huge profits with the player. Real Madrid for example expands - or at least wants to in the market of merchandising products in Asia because of the engagement of David Beckham. Madrid had to pay тВм 35 million, but experts say, that only the sell of the jersey with Beckham's number brings at least тВм 50 million back to Madrid. So the club has great economic advantages.

In the case of the most famous players, who are always in the spotlight, it is fair that they earn so much. They really have no private life because of their popularity. They are accompanied by photographers and journalists all the time and do not have a single moment for themselves or their families. They have to bear a lot. In the worst case, they are even blackmailed. "Nine people have been arrested in connection with an alleged conspiracy to kidnap Victoria Beckham and seek a 5m ransom." This happened to David Beckham in 2002 and is an evidence for the great pressure the players have to stand. The money compensates them for this pressure.

On the other hand you could say that the "work" of a football player can not be compared with the "real work" of a factory-worker or a manual worker. For the football player it is a hobby with a maximum of three to four hours of training per day, which is not too hard. For the factory-worker it is at least eight hours of hard physical work per day.

You could also say that not only football players get injured. Manual workers can be seriously injured in their jobs too. They could fall down from a scaffolding and break their bones or

Another fact is that professional football players get so much more than for example a professional handball player, although the handball player trains as often and as hard as the football player. He just gets more because football is the number one sport in Germany and not because he does so much more.

Some people say that the stars bring a lot of money for their clubs or even a whole region. But many people criticize, that the players ( and not only the best ones)still get contracts, that guarantees them millions of euros, despite the fact that the current economic situation is not the best.

The point that football players have no private life because of their celebrity and the permanent presence of media that is closely connected with it, could be invalidated by the fact that this happens only to the most popular players. "German football captain...has had to tell his pregnant wife he had a mistress" wrote "The Mirror". It is only interesting when the 34 year-old and very famous goalkeeper Oliver Kahn leaves his wife and his daughter for a 13 years younger party-girl, and not when an unknown player from Energie Cottbus does the same. So most of the players can still enjoy a calm private life and nevertheless get plenty of money.

In this discussion you have to take into consideration, that football players have much more free time than anybody else. The worker has about 4 weeks holiday per year, while the season of a football player lasts only for about 7 months. That means that they have about 5 months holiday. Ironic people would say that they need so much money because they have so much time to give it out. The majority however, thinks, that it is just unfair with regard to the rest of the working people.

So for both sides you can find several arguments. Everybody should decide for himself whether it is just that they earn so much or not. In my opinion it is not. "Beckham said he was delighted to be moving to Spain, though most people believe he's delighted to be cashing cheques for тВм 6 million a year in salary." That means he gets about 500,000 тВм per month, 125,000 тВм per week, 17,800 тВм per day and 740 тВм per hour. I think that is unfair with regard to the hard working people. Nobody is worth so much.

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Essay on Accomplishment

Essay on Accomplishment

What is the nature of this accomplishment?
The first step was to see that all students enrolled in physical education had a school agenda. Students were asked to bring their agenda twice a week, on Friday and on Monday. Each Friday, I, the teacher, would write the date and state the student's weekly progress. Statements in the agendas would include; Pass/failing grades, missing assignments, days of absences, participation in class activity and the unit we are presenting. The students are to take back this information to their parents and share their accomplishments for that week. There is a place for the parent to sign off after reading the agenda and a space to write in their comments if any. Being in a rural setting, I have found this to be a good way of communication tool. In most cases, both parents work full time and telephoning them at work is not a good idea. This makes it really hard for teachers to communicate with the parents. Since the students see their parents at home this would be a good time to address the agenda. This makes the students responsible for taking and bringing back information that is given in their agenda.


Why is this accomplishment significant? My classes are successful because of the structure of each class. One of the tools that make my profession significant and successful is using student agendas. All students here receive the first agenda free and are charged five dollars for second agenda if lost. This agenda is the tool I use to communicate with family. I've tried many ways to communicate with family on the progress of their child. I've discussed this with my colleagues about communicating with parents and this seems to be the best means of communication and thus far has been very worthwhile and has worked very well. The main point is communication with families, this was using the schools agendas to relate and interact with their child's education.

When students come back to school on Monday, they are to return their agenda with the parents signatures and any comments that I may need to address. Consequences follow when an agenda is not signed and /or turned in. Two consecutive agenda's not turned in will result in a phone call to parents. It is very fortunate that I am bilingual. Every day of each year I learn more by conversing with students and my colleagues. Instruction is given in English and Spanish languages. This has given me the confidence to become a better teacher. It has strengthened my knowledge, skills and my teaching practices through my professional growth.

It has been a learning experience for me. It has been a great tool for an interactive, two-way communication, with the emphasis on student learning.

How has what you described had an impact on students learning? School agendas have made a big impact on student learning. Students stay focused on keeping in touch with their progress and parents are aware of their child's education.

On one occasion, one student was signing his own agenda, knowing the student, I felt very suspicious about the signature on his agenda, and I did a follow-up with a phone call to the parent. The parent had no idea that his son was forging his signature. The student was doing poorly in class. The student failed the first grading period.

Now with the parent more aware of the agenda that same student became one of our better students.

What is the nature of this accomplishment?
I would like to acknowledge is my homebound teaching. Students who fall into this category have reasons ranging from physical health to mental stability disabilities. Such placements must be approved by the central administration office. Services range from full to part time status depending on the need of each individual. A part time student may attend school A.M. or P.M. and home bound the other half of the day. I teach the student who is on a full time status. The place of learning takes place in their home most of the time. Student stays on task because of the individual help they are receiving. Academic subject areas are covered according to credits needed for graduation. Assignments are taught in brief because of the time frame and I am responsible for getting the assignments to the appropriate departments. I collect all assignments and discuss with the teachers exactly what is to be accomplished.

The people involved include; student, parents, colleagues, other homebound teachers, counselors and administrators.

Why is this accomplishment significant? Implementation under my supervision is administered individually outside the classroom. I make my home visit and instruct the student of his responsibilities and when the assignment is due. Communication is instructed at the student's level of learning. As I teach in the home bound surrounding, I search for ways on how to inspire students to achieve the best of a situation they chose or were chosen for them. I came to the conclusion that by being honest, fair and respectful of all students maybe this will give the student the ability to achieve under the extremes of the homebound environment. I learned to develop the student's cognitive capacity and their respect for learning by giving immediate positive and constructive feedback. For example, praising the student for correct answers and for wrong answers giving student constructive feedback by giving possible problem-solving choices to assignment problems. Most and equally important, foster the students self-esteem, motivation and apply all teaching strategies in a real world setting. As a homebound teacher I try to capture the interest of the student and make the most effective use of my colleagues knowledge and expertise to become a better instructor to convey their message across to the student. I can recognize the individual difference that distinguishes one student from another and take into account of these differences in my teaching of homebound students. I adjust my practice based on my observations and knowledge of my homebound student, abilities, skills, and knowledge and family circumstances.

Different teaching strategies are incorporated, accordingly, due to the different homebound status. Observing students who feel they are failing takes a different kind of strategy, a strategy of motivation which is hard to teach. I will use and consult with my fellow colleagues on approaches that may have worked for them and I keep in mind that I might have to come face to face with failure at some point in time, but I will never give up on that student.

As a homebound teacher I found it difficult to measure the growth of performance and relate that growth to the classroom teacher and also explain the student's performance to the parents. What I learned as a homebound teacher is to implement instructions individually. I do not make the assignments, teacher's in their respective subject area make the assignments. But I am responsible for modifying assignments and tests, I return the assignments and/or tests to respective teachers.

How has what you described had an impact on students learning? For example, homebound made a major impact on one student, his name is Jonathan. Jonathan was diagnosed with leukemia in his junior year. Homebound gave him the convenience to continue his education. I was his homebound teacher for two years. In those years, instruction was based on his physical needs as well as his mental needs. This, however, was not a simple task. I could not treat Jonathan like any other student. Yes, I was firm when necessary. Every day was a challenge, he would be physically fit to do the assignments and then the next day he would be totally incapable. He was not ready the first day of homebound. Jonathan was very fragile. Understanding his needs at that time was taken into consideration. I had to work with what I knew and that was very little because I had never been in a situation like this before. Instruction could not be rushed, therefore, understanding and time and much instruction gave Jonathan the courage to help him see his limits as student with a disability.

I strongly feel that without homebound instruction Jonathan would have not been able to accomplish his goals. He graduated with his class and now attends a university.
A second example of my accomplishment is a student by the name of Maria T., a full time homebound student with ailments to her legs. She was on home bound for half a year and was an excellent student with passing grades. At second semester no one knew what became of her so she was considered a dropout, another statistic.

I strongly feel that if Maria T. would've stayed in the homebound program, she would have been another success story.

What is the nature of this accomplishment? #3
As Parks and Recreation Director for Isleta Pueblo I carried a great deal of responsibility. One reason I chose this position was to learn about our surrounding community. The population of Isleta Pueblo consists of Native American Indians. I took the challenge in this job to learn about their culture and to be able to understand their way of life. This type of people is part of our school enrollment and our outlying community. As director with an eight thousand dollar budget, forty employees, I was under the direction of the Governor of Isleta.

Responsibilities of being the director were enormous in the sense that every activity planned had to be approved by the governor and his staff. This made my decisions difficult because I made choices first hand then it was overseen by the administration. So in other words my judgments had been tested, in which most were favorable.

Why is this accomplishment significant? Most of the activities for the youth of Isleta were educating each child to achieve success and enhance learning by utilizing community resources. I worked closely with the governor and his staff and was able to grow in this profession. I was able to grow because I was given an opportunity to attend tribal council meetings which included tribal members in the community.

The facility was a five million dollar center which included an Olympic size swimming pool; weight room, full size gymnasium, kitchen, locker rooms, and a jazzercise room. The Pueblo even had their own personal masseuse for community and employees! Men and women saunas and therapeutic whirlpools were available. The facility was only for Isleta tribal members.

How has what you described had an impact on students learning? Dealing with the community on a daily basis was good practice for me because I dealt with individual personalities and differences.

Teaching experiences had come in handy in some situations. I listened to the community, I observed by watching them interact among their peers at meetings. Monitoring and learning was no easy task. I was responsible for three hundred children. I had to oversee small cooperative learning groups. Most of the instruction was done by group leaders. The group leaders were students in college that were home for the summer. As a mentor to the group leaders their main purpose was to commit themselves to the students and instruct learning. Group leaders had to have the knowledge to teach and how to teach physical education activities to the students. It was also my responsibility to see that my group leaders were responsible in managing and monitoring student learning. Students learned to adapt appropriate roles and responsibilities for their own learning and that of their peers. This included teaching students to work independently without constant direct supervision by a teacher. To facilitate student learning, we would place the children in a safe and proper environment. Group leaders worked collaborating with parents informing them of their child's development and progress. Group leaders also communicated regularly with parents informing of their child's accomplishment and successes. Group leaders also disseminated information to parents about programs being offered at the center by making phone calls and sending flyers with students to pass around within their immediate surrounding.

This was a tremendous growing experience. The different forms of organization and being able to grasp and reach out into my experiences had played an important role as a director.

Reflective Summary
What patterns do you see emerging from the accomplishments that you chose to describe and document? A pattern I saw emerging is that I was learning from my experiences by listening to my students from watching them interact with me. Another emerging pattern I experienced was that I had to understand my student's needs and their surrounding environment and recognizing student behaviors in general. Another pattern that I experience is most students whether they had a disability or not, social, cultural, language, religion or gender, it didn't matter, they all wanted a fair share of attention. This pattern showed that certain students in certain groups had the same strengths and weaknesses. Recognizing these types of behaviors help me in grouping for different activities.

In your work outside of the classroom, what was most effective on student learning? Why? What would you do differently if you had the opportunity? Student learning outside of the classroom environment was quite an effective experience. In teaching in the homebound program helped me adjust to some of my teaching style. In this experience I learned to individualize for student learning. I've had the opportunity to teach students with special needs and that all students have different levels of cognitive and motor skills and modified instruction with accommodations needed for student learning. I saw as a teacher I had to decide to altar my plans with individual students to help and enrich learning in daily activities.

What I would do differently is to try to have a better system of a two way communication to follow up on students who are not succeeding. I would seek out more information by collaborating with my colleagues, students family, and community. When working with students, an instant positive feedback from me would be most encouraging for these students who need that type of assurance and incentive.

When you look at your completed set of Description and Analysis and documentation, what does it suggest about your work as a learner, within the profession, and with students families and community in support of student learning? Overall, as a learner, I feel that I am growing along with my students, family and community. I feel that we are all learning together. I was facilitating student learning in always seeking new ways to motivate the students and making learning fun. This can be a difficult task as I learn to encourage students even if for a moment they temporarily fail.

As a professional, I am always seeking new ways and ideas to become an outstanding teacher. I find myself adapting to new strategies and increasing my organizational structure that will best enhance student learning. With constant communication between myself, parents, students, community, colleagues and with the support from the administration would be most beneficial to student learning.

I have grown from these experiences to improve on my teaching skills, find solutions to problems that seem unsolvable. Use creativity to adapt to situations that may or might occur and use problem-solving skills to achieve in student learning. My accomplishments might seem a few but it helped in large doses to remedy my needs to learn more as a teacher and a person.

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