Monday, April 25, 2011

Essay on Afghanistan

Essay on Afghanistan

Afghanistan, Land of the Pushtun, is a mountainous land-locked country in Central Asia with a history and culture that goes back over 5000 years. Throughout its long, splendid, and sometimes chaotic history, this area of the world has been known by various names. In the ancient times, its inhabitants called the land Aryana. And in the medieval era, it was called Khorasan. Modern life in Afghanistan is much different than life in the west. This report will illustrate some of the key differences and similarities to other parts of the world. This information was made possible by several sources listed in the endnotes.


The Pushtun are a nomadic people that primarily congregate in Afghanistan, although they are gradually being incorporated into Afghanistan's larger cities. The exact population of the Pushtun is unknown because of mountain villages and such, however, it is estimated to be around seven to nine million.

One of the first significant pre-Islam events was named "Alexander the Great invasion" in 328 BC. This was one of the many conquests of Alexander the Great. The first Muslim-Arab Conquests began in 652-664 AD. These people were likely the ancestors of most ethnic afghans currently living in Afghanistan and the surrounding area.

In 1504 - 1525 AD, Babur invaded Afghanistan and established the capital in Kabul.
The Russians Occupied Panjdeh in1885. Following that, the Russians occupied Zulfiqar and Aqobat and took Panjdeh. This was the first, and not the last act of aggression by the Russians.

In1919, Amir Amanullah Khan declared a holy war against British Imperialism for Independence of Afghanistan. The treaty of Rawalpondi on August 8, 1919, Recognized Afghanistan's political independence. The Afghan-Russian treaty was signed on February 28, 1921 A treaty of friendship signed by Afghanistan and Soviet Union and completed the establishment of diplomatic relations. The first president of Afghanistan was Mohammed Daoud Khan who was in office between July 17, 1973 and April 27, 1978. On August 20, 1998 The United States of America assaulted Afghan territory Khost to target the terrorist centres with cruise missiles. Approximately, 80 missiles were launched into the Afghan territory. The main target of the attack was to destroy Osama Bin Laden's headquarters.

On September 9, 2001 Two Arab journalists in Panjshir injured the legendary Ahmad Shah Massoud, the leader of the Northern Alliance political party, after a plot organized by the Taliban.

On September 11, 2001 America was attacked. Hijackers crashed planes into the two World Trade Center towers and The Pentagon. More than 6,000 people died as a result of the terrorist acts. The USA declared Osama Bin Laden the prime suspect of the terrorism.

On September 15, 2001, Ahmad Shah Massoud died as the result of an explosion and injured General Fahim who was named the replacement for Ahmad Shah Massoud. On September 20, 2001, President Bush demanded that the Taliban regime hand over the suspected terrorist Osama Bin Laden without any conditions.3

Music and dance, although banned under Taliban rule, was, and is an essential part of Afghani tradition. Music would only be played at joyous occasions such as weddings, but not at funerals. Most women play a drum-like instrument named the daireh. While men play the armonia an instrument resembling the lute. The national dance of Afghanistan is called the Atan, and is usually performed at receptions.

One major Muslim event is Ramadan. It is a fast lasting one month, followed by a feast to commemorate Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son Ishmael to God. Another holiday is Noruz celebrating the New Year on March 21. Other holidays include: Loss of the Muslim Nation on April 28, Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled on May 4, Independence Day on August 19 and Pashtoonistan Day on August 30 or 31. On the Muslim calendar there are five feasts. All of the dates of the feasts have something in common with the prophet Muhammad.

1. Traditional
The national sport of Afghan, Buzkashi, involves a headless carcass of a goat being put into a ring and is being sought after by men on horseback. The object of the game is to bring the carcass back to the player's own side. The winner of the match gets to keep the goat as food. This is a very difficult game and is much too challenging for the younger men. Other sports include tent pegging, Topay danda, a game that is similar to stickball, and kitefighting, a youth's game. The object of kitefighting is to break the opponent's string by gluing shards of broken glass to the player's kite string and flying it into the opponent's kite string.

2. Universal
Afghanistan participates in many universal sports such as: wrestling (palwani), boxing, martial arts, basketball, soccer, bicycle racing, archery, shooting competitions, running etc.5

Afghanistan's Pushtun culture is a culture of vigor and mystery. Not much is known about it. But what is known is that the people that live there may pray differently, cook differently, or even live in different kinds of houses, but we are really aren't that different.

Warning!!! All free online essays, sample essays and essay examples on the Afghanistan topics are plagiarized and cannot be completely used in your school, college or university education.

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