Monday, July 23, 2012

Research Paper on Pakistan

Research Essay on Pakistan History

Pakistan, which used to be a part of Indian colony under the British domination, got its independence in 1947, when India became independent from the Great Britain. Indian military did not interfere with the changes, which occurred in the political sphere of the country. When London changed its course and India became independent, the Indian army did not show any signs of discontent and obedience shifted to server new authorities. Relations between military and newly-formed nationalistic government of India were tensed in the beginning. Jawalharlal Nehru, the first prime-minister of independent India limited power of armed forces because he wanted to avoid an extreme militarization of the country. He turned to such a measure in order to escape a threat to newly created democratic state from the side of the military. 

The situation was different in Pakistan. The army of Pakistan became an active participant in the process of formation of new Pakistan state. In contrast to Indian counterpart, Pakistani soldiers did not became separated from the population of the country. “Because India is more populous and more powerful in military terms, the Pakistan Army easily assumed, a crucial role in defining and defending the nation and the state”.


Punjab, a centre of army recruitment, became the heart of Pakistan and army was called to defend national interests created from the side of so called “Hindu India”.

The Pakistani Army had very strong political positions and it was not regarded as something, which contradicts state power. Despite it had good political positions, the Pakistani army had not very good technical basis. “Muslims had been significantly underrepresented in the Indian officer corps, and when partition occurred, there was a severe shortage of personnel. To lead the planned army of 150,000 men, 4,000 officers were needed, but there were only 2,500, and many of those, especially in the technical services, were underqualified.” By the moment the great changes took place, the Palistani army had only one major general, two brigadiers and six colonels. The situation was also bad with middle officer ranks. Two main commanders of the Pakistani army were the British. This situation had not change until 1951, when first Pakistani chief commander, General Mohammad Ayub Khan, became the commander of the Pakistani army. In addition to the problems mentioned the Pakistani navy and air forces also had great problems. The Pakistani navy of those times had only nine regular officer and air forces, which consisted of sixty five pilots. Both, navy and air forces had been under the command of the British officers. This situation lasted till 1953 in the navy and till 1957 in the air forces. During the transitional period the British army sent 500 British officers to Pakistan in order to help the country to create and develop its own qualified army. Military trainings had become the task of primary importance for Pakistan because it needed qualified officers. Lack of the equipment and low quality of the existing one created additional problems. Most of the military production factories and plants were situated on the territory, which now belonged to India. Despite military materials should have been divided between India and Pakistan, India showed little initiative in keeping promises. Pakistan received only several ships and ten squadrons of Royal Indian Air Force. As states Fazl Muqeem Khan, a Pakistani historian: “It is no exaggeration to say that for its first few months the infant state of Pakistan was without an organized army.” Muslim units, situated on the territory, which became the part of India, had to look for the ways to get to Pakistan.

The conflict between India and Pakistan because of state of Jammu and Kashmir became the first challenge for the Pakistani army. The maharaja of Kashmir and Jammu had a precarious position on his territory so he had to do something to take the situation under his control. He singed an economic agreement with India and Pakistan, hoping to receive goods and people from both these dominions. The conflict in Kashmir broke out when Hindu ruler of Kashmir did not announce the allegiance of his state to one or another nation. At this time the North-West Frontier Province entered the territory of Kashmir and maharaja asked India for help. In response Muslims from Pakistan invaded the state in October, 1947. Many volunteers from the Pakistani army joined them. Muslims, who composed an extensive part of Kashmiri population, also joined them and all together they created such an immense force, which created a threat to Kashmir army forces. The price for the help of India was very high.

Kashmir had to accede to India but the ruler of Kashmir had no other way out and agreed on such conditions. The Pakistani government did not want to recognize this fact and decided to fight for this territory. It launched military and diplomatic actions in order to resolve this conflict. The Indian army entered Kashmir on October 27. The army quickly defeated Pakistani irregulars and moved further to take control over the entire state. “Pakistan committed regular military formations to combat in May 1948 to ensure its borders and stabilize the situation. Fighting continued until January 1, 1949, when a United Nations-sponsored cease-fire took effect. The cease-fire did not, however, settle the underlying conflict.” Both, the Indian and Pakistani armies remained on the same positions, as in the beginning of the conflict. During 1947-1948 of the last century the Pakistani army performed the series of successful manoeuvres.

After Pakistan got its independence in 1947 it had to deal with a number of complicated issues. Some problems were resolved shortly after the proclaiming of independence and others have had long-time effect. Islam created many problems for the young sate. Conflicts between Muslims and Islamists have sharpened all the history of the state. The question of division of power between central and local government has also became the reason of big conflicts. This conflict has even led to separation of East Bengal, which became a separate state called Bangladesh in 1971. The conflict of separation of power between local and central authorities was not resolved until the middle of the 1990s.

After the proclaiming of independence Pakistan was divided into two parts. These two parts were divided by the Indian territory. “The 1940 Lahore Resolution had called for independent “states” in the northwest and the northeast. This objective was changed, by a 1946 meeting of Muslim League legislators to a call for a single state” After the proclaiming of independence Pakistan was on the very low level of technical development. Newly created country lacked equipment, machinery and qualified personnel. The choice of capital has also become a subject of controversy. Lahore, the first choice was rejected because it was situated to close to the Indian border. Finally Karachi was chosen for capital despite it did not meet all the necessary requirements.

Separation from India brought bit damage to the Pakistani economy. Electricity was also delivered to Pakistan from India.

Violence and refugee problems also created serious threat to Pakistan state. After separation from India Muslims from India moved to Pakistan and Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan moved to India. Communal rioting and mass movements, which followed the announcement about independence, took lives of 250.000 people. The boundaries of India and Pakistan were not distinguished until the August 17, 1947, until the commission headed by the British judge distinguished these boundaries. Despite the governments of both countries were not satisfied with the boundaries distinguished they remained in the limit distinguished during certain time. After the flow of Sikhs and Hindus Pakistan felt economical misbalance because these people managed great part of commercial activity in West Pakistan. Muslims who emigrated from India replaced Sikhs and took jobs left by departed Hindu and Sikhs.

By the middle of 1951 immigrants composed more than half of the population of all big Pakistan cities. They got the name muhajirs, which was used to describe refugees from India and their children. “The aspirations for Pakistan that had been so important to Muslims in Muslim-minority provinces and the goals for the new state these urban refugees had fled to were not always compatible with those of the traditional rural people already inhabiting Pakistan, whose support for the concept of Pakistan came much later. Pakistani society was polarized from its inception."

The presence of a Congress government in the North-West Province was a constant source of problems.

Constant threat from the side of Afghanistan made Pakistan develop the course of actions on this field. Aiming to make Pakistan its part, Afghanistan appealed to the ethnic unity. It also appealed to Pakhtuns, who live along the border. Nevertheless, Pakistan supported the agreement signed between Britain and Afghanistan concerning the Durand Line. Relations between Pakistan and Afganistan became hostile, which finally resulted in Afganistan voting against Pakistan’s admission to the UN in 1947.

After the Independence Act proclaimed by India, provinces got the chance to accede Pakistan. Such states as Dir, Chitral, Amb and Hunza quickly used this opportunity and acceded to Pakistan under the conditions of substantial autonomy. Kalat declared its impendence in August 15, 1947 and signed a number of documents proclaiming special relations with Pakistan. A number of other states have also declared about their desire to become independent. Pakistan turned to military actions, which finally resulted in the accession of these states in 1948. Bahawalput, a Muslim state with Muslim ruler acceded to Pakistan after Khairpur. The ruler of Jammu and Kashmir could not decide on accession to any state. First of all maharaja of Kashmir has signed a number of deals with Indian and Pakistani authorities. These deals proclaimed economical cooperation.

It goes without saying that Pakistan and India faced a number of economic challenges too. Here can be give a simple example: West Pakistan always produced wheat and produced much more wheat than Pakistan required because one of its main task was to supply India with this product. With the split of two countries there was no need for this wheat. West Pakistan also had plantation of cotton, which then was spread in numerous Indian cities, especially in Bombay. After parting Pakistan had no markets more its goods. Pakistan immediately felt short in sugar, coal and some other products, because their most part came from India.

Both countries used to have one economy and infrastructure and sudden division ruined this stable economy and made countries’ position on the international trade market questionable.

Pakistan also experienced a great transport problem. It appeared to be that four major ports came to India and only Karachi belonged to Pakistan. It meant that there was no free and easy access to the international market. This logistic problem led to the additional economic problems.

Another kind of problems was tight relations between two parts of Pakistan and their little economic cooperation while Pakistan and India were one country.

Both India and Pakistan were in a difficult situation after the division, so they signed an agreement for one year for free movement of capital, people and products on the territory of both countries. Nevertheless, this agreement failed. “In November 1947, Pakistan levied export duties on jute; India retaliated with export duties of its own. The trade war reached a crisis in September 1949 when Britain devalued the pound, to which both the Pakistani rupee and the Indian rupee were pegged.” India accepted Britain’s policy, while Pakistan denied it and trade relation between two countries became more strained.

The way out from the possible economic crises for Pakistan became the Korean War in 1950-1953, when the prizes on cotton, wool, leather and jute increased because of the war. Pakistan used this opportunity and did its best to reconstruct jute and cotton mills on the territory of the country. It was the period for the formation of new trade relations and Pakistan used it.

In June 1947 the Viceroy’s Council announced its decision about the asserts of British India. According to it they were divided in the ration five for Pakistan and seventeen for India. Certainly, Pakistan was not satisfied with such division and only in 1948 a financial agreement was singed. It was only an official agreement, while disputes about this ration lasted till the 1960s.

The division of the Indian Police Service and the Indian Civil Service was even more difficult. Of all 1,157 Indian officers 101 were Muslims and of these 101 officers 95 served for Pakistan; “they were joined by one Christian, eleven Muslim military officers transferring to civilian service, and fifty Britons, for a total of 157. But only twenty of them had had more than fifteen years of service, and more than half had had fewer than ten years.” These officers formed the so-called Civil Service of Pakistan, which all in all led to the formation of one of the most elite bureaucracies in the world. The Civil Service controlled administrative, diplomatic and judicial branches of power. The members of the Civil Service ran the whole country during first twenty years of Pakistan’s independent existence and made it rather successfully. Their contribution to the economics and internal and external policy of the country during Mohammad Ayub Khan’s ruling is indisputable. The policy of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in the government reorganized and simplified the bureaucratic service and so changed the standards of the bureaucracy in Pakistan and, as a result, the status of the Civil Service. These changes have had a great impact on the further economic, political and social development of Pakistan and its position on the world arena.

In addition to the military conflict between Pakistan and India Asia decided to force in the Cold War between the USSR and the USA. America insisted on cooperation with Pakistan because its military resources and air force were very strong and so necessary for the USA. Pakistan became of the major American allies and provided the States with military and economic aids. The USA, in its turn, helped to increase the seize of the country, provided Pakistani officers with the necessary equipment and organized special military trainings for them.

The US influence on the economic and military policy of Pakistan grew; US government even participated in the assignment of positions in Pakistani administration and government. “What emerged in the 1950s was basically a double conversion of interests and subsequent acculturation of elites: within Pakistan and between Pakistan and the United States.”

Such military alliance between the USA and Pakistan became the basis for the “pro-state alliance”. Officers were on leading positions at that time but, nevertheless, military intervention in the economic and trade sphere was rather limited.

Pakistan became a republic in 1956 and the first president of that republic became Maj. Gen. Iskander Mirza. It was this time when military officers took key positions in administration and government. At that time increased tensions between two separated regions of the country – East and West. At early 70s the Western region gained most positions in administration and so monopolized economic and political spheres of the countries. In 1970 Awami League, leader of East Pakistan, organized a strong resistance to West Pakistan and so got the majority in the national assembly. East Pakistan also insisted on greater autonomy and it goes without saying that it could lead to the civil war inside the country. In 1971 there was proclaimed an independent state of Bangladesh. All in all, there was armed conflict between two regions. India decided to support Bangladesh and so entered the war in the last weeks. Pakistan could not resist the united forces and on the 16th of December in 1971, President Yahya Khan refused to be the president. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became the president and accepted Bangladesh as an independent state.

First civil Pakistan’s elections were in 1977 and on these elections Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party won a victory but there was announced that the elections were falsified. The tension in the country led to the armed conflict in the country, which was organized by Gen Mohammed Zia ul-Haq. Bhutto was caught and despite all protest he was executed in 1979. Mohammed Zia ul-Haq usurped power in the country and became the president in 1978. He ruled until the year 1985, when the government was restored. Daughter of Zulfikar Bhutto, Benazir Bhutto, won the election in 1988 and became the prime minister of Pakistan.

The 1990s were successful years for Pakistan – Benzir Bhutto was the prime minister of the country twice and Nawaz Sharif – three times. “The Pakistani public, familiar with military rule for 25 of the nation’s 52-year history, generally viewed the coup as a positive step and hoped it would bring a badly needed economic upswing.”

To sum up, Pakistan has a very disputable history. It got its independency only in 1947. Before this year Pakistan and India were one country, so they used to have one political system, one infrastructure, including economic and agricultural sectors. After departing it was a difficult period for both, Pakistan and India. On the one hand, two countries could not find a compromise in division of the territory of the former state. One of the greatest disputes was about the territory of Jammu and Kashmir after partition. This territory led to a number of army conflicts between India and Pakistan and even now this problem has not been resolved.

On the other hand, the economy of both countries was ruined after partition. West Pakistan, for example, produced what, cotton, jute and coal for both India and Pakistan and now Pakistan did not now what to do with these products. All in all, that was a difficult time for Pakistan. Only due to its powerful military it was able to overcome all the difficulties, start cooperation with the United States and find the way to the international market. Nowadays Pakistan is a young country with great possibilities, unlimited military forces and promising potential. Its position in the world depends only the government’s choice of the country’s policy, so it is extremely important to bend every effort on the harmonized national development and at the same time take a propitious position on the international market.
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