Monday, May 9, 2011

Essay on Chemistry Reactions

Essay on Chemistry Reactions

In living organisms and in our environment many extremely crucial aqueous reactions occur. In these reactions water acts as the solvent and the dissolved molecules or ions are the solutes. These make up the reactants involved in the reaction. One of the most important elements of chemistry is writing the equations for these reactions, this laboratory will not only help us to learn and improve upon writing chemical equations but it will also allow us to observe chemical reactions as they occur.


I. Double Replacement (Metathesis) Reactions
A. Reactions between solutions of electrolytes producing precipitates
B. Example: NaCl(aq)+AgNO3(aq)= AgCl(s)+NaNO3(aq)
1. 3 strong electrolytes (aq) and 1 solid (AgCl, solid)
C. NaCl(aq)+KNO3(aq)= NR (no reaction, no precipitate formed)
D. Net Ionic Equation
1. Is written after you eliminate the ┬б┬зspectator ions┬б┬и in the molecular equation, these are the ions not involved in the reaction.
2. Ag+ + Cl- = AgCl (s) is the net ionic of the first example above
E. Acid Base Reactions
1. Example: HCl (aq)+ NaOH(aq) = NaCl(aq) + H2O (l)
2. They forma weak electrolyte (water) and a salt (NaCl)
F. Gas Formations are also part of the metathesis reaction
1. Example: H2CO3

II. Single Replacement (Substitution) Reactions
A. Type of oxidation-reduction reaction (Redox)
1. Example: 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l)= 2NaOH+H2(g)

III. Combination and Decomposition Reactions
A. Combination Example: 4Na(s)+O2(g)= 2Na2O(s)
B. Decomposition Example: HgO(s)= Hg(l)+O2(g)

IV. Procedure
A. This experiment is performed on a microscale level
B. The products are to be removed using a pipette and than deposited in the proper waste container.
C. Use distilled water to clean

V. Demonstrations (record results on data sheet)
A. Under the hood, 1 gram of mercuric oxide is heated in a test tube. The gas released is tested using a wooden splint.
B. Under the hood, a piece of steel wool is stretched to maximum surface area and than held to a flame.
C. A piece of sodium metal is placed in a beaker of water with dissolved phenolphthalein and covered with wire gauze. Determine whether its acidic (pink to purple) or basic (purple to pink).

VI. Microscale Reactions
A. Mix the reagents in the table in the separate wells of the well plate and record the results.
B. Use 5 drops of each reagent or if it┬б┬жs a solid use .05 grams, use a clean toothpick to mix
C. The concentrations of the reagents are all .10M except HCl which is .50M.

Well Reactant A Reactant B
A1 Potassium Carbonate Soln Calcium Nitrate Soln
A2 Silver Nitrate Soln Sodium Chloride Soln
A3 Ammonium Chloride Soln Sodium Sulfate Soln
A4 Potassium Iodide Soln Plumbous Nitrate Soln
A5 Sodium Carbonate Soln Hydrochloric Acid
A6 Potassium Carbonate Soln Acetic Acid soln
B1 Solid Sodium Bicarbonate Vinegar
B2 Zinc Strip Cupric Sulfate Soln
B3 Copper Strip Zinc Sulfate Soln
B4 Magnesium Metal Hydrochloric Acid
B5 Magnesium Metal Acetic Acid Soln
B6 Copper Metal Acetic Acid Soln
C1 Sodium Hydroxide Soln w/ 2 drops of phenolphthalein 10 drops of sulfuric acid soln
C2 Sodium Hydroxide Soln w/ 2 drops of phenolphthalein 10 drops of acetic acid soln

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