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Sunday, October 31, 2010

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Essay on Rebecca

The Use of Characterisation in ‘Rebecca’ Essay

Daphne Du Maurier wrote Rebecca in 1938. It is a timeless saga of love and power that has some similarities with Du Maurier’s life, such as the modelling of Maxim (a main character) on her husband. Authors use characterisation in texts to manipulate readers to respond to a particular theme. There are many themes present in Rebecca, but through characterisation, Du Maurier encourages the reader to respond to her theme of power. Throughout the text, Du Maurier demonstrates to the reader, how power creates fear, how power can remain after death, how money creates power, how relationships can fail if one person holds the majority of power, how first impressions can set up the power balance in a relationship and how people can abuse their power. Through the actions and dialogue of characters Mrs De Winter, Mrs Danvers, Favell and Maxim, Du Maurier presents to the reader certain aspects of power.

In Rebecca, Mrs De Winter’s actions show the reader how power can create fear. Mrs De Winter accidentally knocks over a vase in the morning room, causing it to break. She then quickly hides the pieces, like a child. Through this characterisation technique, the reader can see that although Mrs De Winter is the mistress of the house, she is scared of one of the servants, whom is supposedly below her. Du Maurier manipulates the reader to relate to the anxiety Mrs De Winter is feeling. It is apparent that Mrs De Winter feels inferior to Mrs Danvers and she, like the reader, is fearful of her reaction. Du Maurier wants the reader to realise that power can make people afraid and can cause secrecy.

The actions of Mrs Danvers, present to the reader, how a person’s power can remain even after death. Mrs Danvers has kept Rebecca’s room just as it was before her death. The reader cannot comprehend why Mrs Danvers is living in the past, instead of moving forward. The way in which Mrs Danvers worships and maintains Rebecca’s room, shows the reader how powerful Rebecca was. The reader can see that Rebecca’s power has continued after her death and she still remains in control of Manderly. This explains why Mrs Danvers holds so much power at Manderly. It is as if she has taken over where Rebecca left off. Through this use of characterisation, Du Maurier has presented to the reader, how some people, with extreme power, can still rule over others after death and this can cause problems with life.

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Favell’s dialogue in Rebecca encourages the reader to see how money creates power. Throughout the text, Maxim is portrayed as being a rich and idolised figure. Once Favell tells Maxim he has evidence against him. He suggests that for “two or three thousand” he would keep quiet. This dialogue is conveying to the reader a direct link between power, money and corruption. Although Maxim refuses the offer, he still gets away with murder, because no one suspects him, as he is a respected figure at Manderly. Du Maurier is suggesting to the reader, that people with money have automatic power and they can use this power to their advantage.

In Rebecca, Du Maurier uses the dialogue of Maxim, to show the reader how a relationship can be jeopardised when one person holds most of the power. Maxim calls Mrs De Winter a “little idiot” when he finds out Mrs De Winter has hidden the pieces of the broken vase. The tone in which this dialogue is said, implies that Maxim believes he is more mature than Mrs De Winter. The reader is horrified that Maxim would be so arrogant, as to call his wife such an offensive name. Instead of sympathising with Mrs De Winter, he has carelessly brushed her problems aside by criticising her. The reader can see Maxim is a busy man, who believes that his life is more important than his spouse’s. Du Maurier has carefully chosen the words and tone to display to the reader, how in most relationships, if one person dominates over the other, the relationship is compromised.

Du Maurier uses actions to show the reader how first impressions can decide who holds the power in a relationship. When Mrs De Winter first arrives at Manderly, she is greeted by Mrs Danvers and as she is nervous, she drops her gloves. This action makes Mrs De Winter appear clumsy and unsophisticated. The reader can feel Mrs De Winter’s embarrassment and sympathises with her awkward position. The reader can see that through this first interaction, Mrs Danvers instantly knows she can overpower Mrs De Winter and does so throughout most of the text. Through this use of characterisation, the reader has learnt, how first impressions can show how dominant or submissive someone is. The reader is encouraged to realise, that the first interaction with someone can often set up the power balance in a relationship.

The reader is encouraged to see how power can be used to manipulate others through the actions of Mrs Danvers. Through previous characterisation the reader knows that Mrs Danvers has a strong hold over Manderly. Mrs Danvers uses this power to convince Mrs De Winter to wear Rebecca’s dress to the fancy dress ball. The reader can see that Mrs De Winter trusts Mrs Danvers, so she feels compelled to wear Rebecca’s dress. Du Maurier is encouraging the reader to realise, that Mrs Danvers can use her power to influence Mrs De Winter. The reader feels hatred for Mrs Danvers, as she has intentionally abused her power to humiliate Mrs De Winter. Du Maurier wants the reader to realise, that power can be used to take advantage of people.

Through characterisation techniques, Du Maurier has presented to the reader, her theme of power in Rebecca. Dialogue and actions of Mrs Danvers have shown the reader, how power remains and how power can be used to make others feel uncomfortable. The characterisation of Mrs De Winter, Favell and Maxim has been used to encourage the reader to realise how power creates fear and secrecy, how money can create corruption and power and how the power balance in a relationship can be decided by the first meeting. The way in which Du Maurier has portrayed her theme of power, as an obstacle in people’s lives, still makes Rebecca relevant to individuals today. The positions the characters find themselves in, in Rebecca, can easily be related to similar situations in the readers’ lives. This excellent use of characterisation could be one of the reasons why Du Maurier’s novels are so popular.

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Saturday, October 30, 2010

Research Paper on Democracy in Argentina

Research Paper on Democracy in Argentina

Since 1983 Argentina has been hailed as a democracy. Certain people believe it is a democracy, other countries pretend it is a democracy but this idea is in fact far from the truth. The country may well have taken steps towards becoming a democracy, especially compared to how it was before 1983 but from analyzing the history and facts, the truth is, Argentina has a long way to go.

Throughout this essay I will be trying to prove this by analyzing the military, political and economic reforms of both Alfonsin and Menem with regards to the people. That is to say how it affected the people and how much say they actually had in these reforms and this will in turn show how democratic the country is and how much further they have to go in order to be on a par with the north. I will briefly outline the lead up to Alfonsins reign starting in 1983 so comparisons can be made and it is possible to see how far democracy has come since the military regimes of before.

Throughout Argentina’s history there had been long periods of military rule. The country had grown used to it and therefore to change to democracy was always going to be an extremely troublesome affair as the roots of rule in the country came from the military. It all came to ahead in 1976 when growing social protest due to huge inflation, increase in the public debt and reduction in wages, caused the military to violently repress those people protesting. They banned all normal political activity and the dirty war followed. This was when the military ran the country through terror. Anyone who was even rumored to believe in something other than that of the military was killed. In all thirty thousand people went missing or were killed. They had a very firm grip on things in Argentina but in 1983 the first elections were held. They came about due to a number of things combining to become powerful enough so the military had to stand down. The loss of the Falklands War had made them look bad for a start. That combined with enormous human rights uprisings and lack of needed support for the military from the United States caused them to bring about an elected government in 1983. They had originally thought the US would support them but they were in fact on the side of Margaret Thatcher, Britains Prime Minister and more importantly they were in favor of democracy. Alfonsin went on to win these elections with 52% of the votes.
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J.A.Schumpeter believes, “the democratic method is that institutional arrangements for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the peoples vote.” This is a very basic sort of democracy, saying through talks of competition that other parties are involved and saying “the peoples vote” means that everyone has a say. This is simply saying that if there are elections, there is democracy which is true to an extent as elections are a democratic concept but there is a huge amount of other concepts to that have to be in working order if it is a true democracy. The US believe that as there are elections, then Argentina has succeeded in becoming a democracy and has hailed it in the past as an example to follow for all Latin American countries. Looking more closely shows that this is not exactly the case. It is not democracy ruling for the common good. The limited democracy favored the elites. The working class did not think they were in a democracy. All the powerful political people were amongst the upper class. The rest believed that democracy would only work if the class struggle in the country was sorted out. This has not happened, since this so called democracy has arrived the class struggle has become even worse with the elites becoming evermore rich and at the other end of the scale more people slipping below the poverty line.
Moving onto the elections in 1989 when Menem took over from Alfonsin, this was the first peaceful handover since the 1930’s. It shows how much more political stability existed at that time and again a good democratic turn. However, the law said that the same person cannot run for presidency again. When it came to the elections in 1995 Menem changed the constitution so he could run again for the presidency. This is hardly a democratic move. He had started ruling by decree, basically doing whatever he pleased. The public had no real say. R. Dahl wrote that democracy depended on a good set of rules that everyone abides by. Menem through this move and several beforehand, which I will go into later shows how, he was above everyone else. He could change the law with ease in order to suit himself. That is not a democratic way to rule a country.

One of the biggest factors stopping the country reaching and sustaining a proper democracy was the ever-present military. For a democracy to work, the government has to have a good control over the military and not let them sway ideas of the president through bullyboy tactics. In Argentina after a good thirty years of the military in power, they were never going to be content with their powers being toned down. This is what Alfonsin had to do, not only to try to reach a decent level of democracy but, which is actually also included in democracy, to get some justice for the human rights abuses that they had committed during the dirty war. Alfonsin was a true democrat but being the first real democratic leader after these problems with the military and them having been in power for so long before, he had an extremely difficult job to do. He had to base his democracy on the restoration of social and political rights. He changed a lot in the military in order to bring to justice the wrong doings of the dirty war. He cut their budget from 5.98% of GDP to 3.7% and in turn their salaries fell by 25%. He reduced the number of conscripts and they were not permitted to intervene in domestic conflicts. But the biggest, most democratic reforms that he made were to do with the judicial system. He decided that all members of the Juntas were to be put on trial. He made the reform that prosecutors were empowered to appeal decisions reached by military judges to civilian courts. This meant that many more cases were taken to civilian judges and so a fairer trial was given. A military judge would have been biased towards the junta, as he would feel a certain amount of loyalty towards him whereas a civilian judge would simply want a fair trial and to bring to justice what the Juntas did. In general, the civilians were given a larger say in military business. For instance they were given the top five positions in military defence and a civilian led National Defence Council.

These are all convincing changes made to the military and, in fact are democratic. It is possible to say then that at the beginning of Alfonsin’s reign, he was successful, implementing more democratic reforms in the armed forces. However in order to maintain this depoliticization of the Army, the economy had to be stable as well. This is where all the problems arose for the government to do with democracy. Alfonsin had turned down the austerity programs from the IMF and had tried to renegotiate the debt. Everything went wrong and inflation started growing. In 1985 he had to turn to the IMF’s Austral Plan, it helped with the inflation but the debt was becoming increasingly large. The middle and lower classes were suffering as they always did under these IMF packages. Strikes from the unions followed and in 1989 inflation was at an all time high of 12000%. Alfonsin had to turn to the military in order to keep everything under control. They were given more legal concessions. Their internal security role was reauthorized. They started gaining more political power and force again by the time Menem came in. This shows that as long as the country is under immense pressure from the north with their debt and the economy remains in a very unstable state, democracy is extremely hard to implement. The military are relied upon too much.

Menem took it a step further. He pardoned military in order to try and put an end to everything and let the people get on with their lives. He also needed the military, as he knew economic reforms would lead to social protest. This lack of freedom shows he had no real democratic tendencies. He needed the military to help him do as he pleased. Some retired generals were even appointed high up into his government showing the loyalty they had to Menem. A quote from General Luciano Menendez shows how the armed forces were really still running the country during Menems reign. “There is no possibility of a coup today, because today neither political forces, nor economic forces nor union forces are asking for it. And because what we began in 1976, Menem is finishing today.” It shows that the army is a silent force in Argentina. On the outside it seems that they do not have the power that they used to have but really they are running the country.

Politically and economically after the 1983 elections Alfonsin had the country’s best interests at heart democratically but he had too much to do. He had to choose between making the country a democracy, by depoliticizing the army or economic and social reforms. The country was crying out for justice from the dirty war which he start remedying but the economy had to be looked at as well so he had to leave the idea of democracy and military behind.

Menem’s reign is when it is possible to see more how far the country had to go to become a real democracy. The elections in 1989 went smoothly showing that there is a basic form of democracy there but if it is looked back on from now there were a few flaws. Menem lied to the people over why he should become president. From the start he was undemocratic. Not only, as said before over letting the military creep back in but also through some of his political reforms. For a start he was elected by saying he would help the poor by bringing in new social reforms and a rise in salaries. When in power he actually adopted more extreme neoliberalism. Extreme SAP’s were introduced. The poor then suffered more but he had the army to back him up. They had gone back to square one. The only difference being that he was an elected president with the military backing him. Politically he changed the Supreme Court. He increased the number of civilians in it from five to nine, the new people being followers of him. Anyone trying to take Menem to the Supreme Court therefore had no chance of winning their case. This meant that he was basically free to do as he pleased during his reign. He also started bypassing congress and ruling by decree. The congress is made up of civilian representatives. Bypassing them means they have very little say in anything. This meant that any law he wanted would be passed very easily, for example as written before he changed the constitution so he could be elected again. He had all the main power in Argentina and so was free to do as he pleased. These reforms of Menems were highly undemocratic. He was in fact elected again as inflation did go down a lot and he appeared to have the economy under control. People were scared of this huge debt and so he played on these fears. No one wanted the inflation to go up as much as under Alfonsin. Menem had brought it down to 9% growth per year. People wanted to keep this.

In the introduction I stated that Argentina was by no means a democracy. I still believe this and it is not possible to compare it to democracies in Britain or the United States. It is a different case in Argentina altogether as they have the constant problem of the debt and inflation rate. The country cannot suddenly decide that it should be a democracy as there are many factors involved, which are directly affected by this debt. The military will only stay quiet while the economy is relatively stable and there is no real political strife. There are constant problems in both politics and with the economy in Argentina, which is why the military are a constant threat. Alfonsin was in a very tough situation and in the end had to bow down to the military, as the economy was so unstable. Menem simply let them back in gradually. It is a vicious circle as you cannot have military intervention in a democracy, yet in order to keep the economy stable and everything under control, to an extent they are needed. The political reforms of Menem were very undemocratic but inflation was kept under control. The country was basically a democracy for the elites. They had a say in most things and most things in turn helped them. The poor had no say and in turn suffered immensely. Therefore apart from elections, which is a huge step considering before 1989 there had not been a peaceful handover since the 1930’s, the country very much remained undemocratic. In order to reach a working democracy they have to lessen this debt as at the moment everything is based around this.

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Essay on John Keats

Essay on John Keats

John Keats was born on October 31, 1795. He was the oldest of five siblings. One of them, Edward died at infancy. He lived a happy childhood in North London. His father Thomas Keats and his mother Frances Jennings owned a livery business called the “Swan and Hoop”. John was a very unique boy. He would answer people by rhyming the last word of his answer to the last word to their question.

John really enjoyed doing this, which paid off later in his life. Keats loved his mother very much and was very protective of her. Keat’s family wasn’t rich but they were well off. When Keats was 9 years old, his father fell off his horse on the way home and died several hours later. Jennings misery didn’t last long and she soon married a minor bank clerk named William Rawlings. Rawlings only wanted money and they broke up shortly after. After this, John’s mother disappeared. This caused Keats to lose his respect and hope for his mother.

During this time, the Keats children were sent to their grandparents John and Alice Jennings in Enfield. At Enfield he had a great teacher named John Clarke. Clarke went past the curriculum and as a result, Keats had a good education. John Keats and his siblings were quite popular at school also. John was known as a fighter and was very courageous and aggressive but also sensitive. He did not fit the stereotype for a future poet and at that time people were thought to be born poets and not made into one. John Jennings died in March 1805 and their financial situation began to plummet. John Jennings had been a loving man but he was also gullible enough to hire a land surveyor instead of a lawyer to draft his will. As a result, the will wasn’t very specific. The rest of Keats' life became a struggle for money. His mother soon turned up sick and tired. Keats whole attitude changed and he focused primarily on pleasing his mother and making her proud. He read all the time and studied very hard. He was awarded the school prize for best literary work of that year. Around this time, Keats had read almost every single book in his school’s library. His mother became very proud in him indeed. However, she soon died from tuberculosis when John was 14. His grandmother granted Richard Abbey as the guardian of the children. It was a terrible decision and because of the vague will, Abbey often deliberately withheld the children’s money. He was unsympathetic to the children and once referred to one of Keats’ poems as, “a horse that you cannot catch and isn’t any good once you catch it.”

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John Keats wrote his first poem at 19 years old just before his grandmother died. Keats wanted to be a poet but he knew that poetry is a privilege to the wealthy who do not have to work and can afford to indulge in word play. This was a very hard decision for Keats and to make it even worse, Abbey withdrew John and one of his brothers George from school and apprenticed John as an apothecary. John was part of the beginning of the Romantic period of poetry. Technique and common sense was in the past prized higher than inspiration and passion. Romantic poets began to spring up but their works were still disliked and thus it was very hard to make a decent living. There was also another popular form of poetry that tried to be romantic by glorifying things that weren’t so great. Keats took his work after a minor poet named Leigh Hunt whom he admired. Cowden Clark, a friend of John Keats, had read some of Keats’ work and was impressed by it. He then took some of John’s poems that he owned and brought them to a friend of his, who just happened to be Leigh Hunt. Hunt loved it and immediately asked Clark to bring him over to meet with Keats. Hunt and Keats became friends and Hunt would later prove very influential to Keats’ writing, for Hunt became a devoted critic.

John Keats then decided to end his medical career. He also had a friend name Benjamin Bailey with whom he went to stay at Oxford. Bailey was very well off and Keats enjoyed his stay. The campus was a quiet and peaceful place, where he could write poems and then take long walks with Bailey, discussing his works. Bailey was deep into studying theology and often had religious talks with Keats. Also, evidence shows that while at Oxford, Keats may have contracted a venereal disease. He began to take mercury (which had many terrible side effects) to try and cure it. Later, Keats regretfully moved back to London with his two brothers George and Tom. Tom then became very ill and soon died of tuberculosis. George met a woman and planned to marry her in America. John was lonely and all the rest of his family was gone. John Keats’ and his neighbor Fanny Brawne fell deeply in love and got engaged in 1819. However, the previous year on a trip to Scotland, signs of sickness started growing in Keats. They then moved to Italy, in September 1820 while still keeping secretly engaged. In February 1821, John Keats died peacefully in Rome of tuberculosis.

John Keats’ poem ‘Robin Hood’, was actually a letter to his friend John H. Reynolds. It’s a sad and melancholy poem comparing the days of Robin Hood and his band of outlaws to the days Keats lived in. Legend says that Robin Hood was an outlaw and a thief who stole from the wealthy. But to the villagers and peasants, he was a hero. Keats expresses how Robin Hood is almost like a hero to him also because of his lack of money throughout his entire life. Keats goes into telling about the medieval times and how honorable they were. He then talks about how if Robin and his crew were alive now, they would despair for things had drastically changed since their times. It sorrowfully explains how Robin would find all of his oaks cut down and used for industrial purposes. The industrial revolution was also going on during Keats’ life. Keats describes how the poor have no choice but to live a terrible life whereas in the middle ages you could grow things for yourself and live in the peaceful forest with Robin and his band.

In the poem, Keats shows skill at rhyming every line. He got a lot of practice during his childhood where he would rhyme his answer with the question anybody asked him. Keats is also a very descriptive writer and he uses metaphors in the line, “Of the forest’s whispering fleeces,” and in, “Many times have winter’s shears,”. They describe how the leaves on a tree form a coat and the sound of the wind going through that coat. The other describes how winter “shears” away plants and life like a shepherd cutting wool. When winter comes, all the green is drawn away to leave white and brown.

The 3rd stanza refers to the polar ray as the North Star. It says that you can look forever (using the North as a guide) and you will never find Robin Hood or anybody else like him anymore. Those days are gone now. Keats was a very educated person and he uses a couple references to medieval mythology. It mentions, “Gamelyn” who was a hero in a fourteenth century outlaw tale. Keats wouldn’t have known so much if it weren’t for his love of reading. At the end of the poem, Keats honors the times and people of Robin Hood’s days. He then states “Though their days have hurried by, let us two a burden try.” This means that even though that time period has gone by quickly, let Keats and the reader try as much as possible to bring back that kind of honor and merriment.

The poem ‘On Death’, is one of Keats’ shortest and most meaningful poems. It asks that what if death is really sleep and life is just a dream. The great times of our lives may just be imaginary like a phantom. We think that it is painful to die, but what if it is just the end of a dream. Keats shows how we all live great our lives while poisoning them with our immense fear of death. But would it be so terrible still, if you were only waking up?

Keats uses a great simile in the line, “And scenes of bliss pass as a phantom by,”. It refers to the beautiful things in our life that we value so greatly as a phantom or ghost. Phantoms cannot be touched or moved, they are only images. What if the people that you see around you are not really there and you are really just imagining them while you sleep in reality.

The idea that Keats is conveying is probably something that he truly believed in. This theory reassured Keats when most of his family died while he was still very young. When his father died when Keats was only 9 years old, he was only able to cope with the shock by imagining that his father was not in pain and was only waking up from a dream. Any death or tragedy that came to Keats, he could just deal with it like a bad dream and it will be over eventually. Keats was so aggressive and known to be a “fighter” because he wasn’t afraid to die. He would welcome death if it came. Keats did not feel like there was no greater pain than to die. He thought life continued on and got better. The Author also advise people not to be so afraid and says that we lead a life of sorrow and pain when the people we love die and when we become ill or close to death ourselves. We should instead be happy for them and go on with our lives and try to live up to their standards.

‘How many bards gild the lapses of time!’ was one of Keats’ earlier poems and one of Leigh Hunt’s favorites. Keats often, in his works, refers to poets as bards. The title and the first sentence say that there are so many poets that glorify the passing of time and the many intertwined events that take place. Keats states how, out of all of these poets, he only likes a few of them. He can get lost in the beauty of the poems. However, Keats states that when he sits down to write, he listens to what is going around him and sees the simplicity and beauty in the sounds of nature. These things do not bother him or hinder him from writing, they aid it. Keats likes to write about surroundings in which people live in and delve deeper into the simple things while other poets tell about events and comparisons of time periods.

Keats not only uses imagery in this, but he also talks about how he uses it in many other of his works. Keats really likes to use the images and sounds of nature in many of his poems. He creates wonderful mental images of the beauty of nature. Keats uses these for example in “The songs of birds- the whisp’ring of the leaves, The voice of waters-the great bell that heaves,”. The Author also sometimes uses personification to better describe the actions of nature. He uses it in, “the whisp’ring of the leaves”. That adds so much feeling to the descriptive, and the sound and image that you create becomes more dramatic.

Keats wonderful technique is very unique. As a kid he was known to be a sensitive person. Keats didn’t follow the obvious and sought further meaning into things around him. Keats listened to sounds a different way than everyone else did. He heard music instead of noise. Being a romantic poet, Keats loved and honored the olden days. But also being born during a time of great industrialism, harmony and nature were not paid much attention to. Some of the most enjoyable times were spent during Keats’ stay at Oxford with his friend Bailey. It was very quiet there even indoors. There, Keats could concentrate on his poems without disturbance yet also watch and listen to the peaceful things around him. Eventually Keats left Oxford and moved back to London where he hated it because it was very cramped and noisy. John became truly grateful of nature and peace.

‘To Autumn’ was one of Keats’ last poems. It has a deep feeling of serenity, freshness and abundance. Yet at the same time it shows decaying and the passing of something. Autumn is the time of harvesting and is also when there is the “most food on the table”. The glee and happiness is clearly shown in the tone of the poem. The Author describes also how Autumn is passing of summer and green life and the bringing of a dark cold winter. Autumn takes the summer’s warmth and rips down the leaves.

Keats wonderfully intertwines lots of imagery and tone in each stanza. The first stanza demonstrates how plentiful and fruity the beginning of autumn is. Imagery is used well in this stanza, especially in “And fill all fruits with ripeness to the core, To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells.” Then, in the second stanza, the tone changes slightly to a period of excess food and a great store of food in the granary. Keats also mentions a girl and how she watches a cider-press squeezing out the last of the juice. The tone dramatically changes in the third stanza. It becomes almost like a call of someone not wanting summer to leave and fearing the winter. That person notices the dark change and knows what follows it. Imagery is used to describe the birds that flock to fly south of the coming cold and the shortening of the days.

The idea that John Keats was trying to portray was that everything dark has a purpose. Spring wouldn’t be that invigorating if hadn’t seen winter for a while. Would we really appreciate light if we had never seen dark? Life wouldn’t be nearly as treasured if we never knew what death was. Dark things make people very grateful for the good things that they had. Keats really understood this and secretly summarized his life in this poem. Keats lost many of his family and friends. As a result, no mater what situation that Keats was in he was still glad to be alive. Keats was very grateful of the luxuries he had during his stay at Oxford, unlike most other people there, because he had witnessed poverty. The wealthy aren’t truly grateful unless they have been poor for a while.

‘Ode to Apollo’ displayed Keats’ great respect for many well-known poets. Apollo is the god of the arts including poetry and music. There is also a lot of history involved in ‘Ode to Apollo’. Keats had a very good education as a child and was thirsty for knowledge. Keats knew a lot about Greek mythology and culture thus giving the poem a very ancient feeling tone. The author once again refers to poets as bards throughout the literary work.

In the line “whose chords are solid rays, and twinkle radiant fires,” a metaphor describes Apollo’s harp as having strings made of the suns rays. Keats also uses stanzas to individually describe seven poets. The poets are Apollo, Homer, Maro, Milton, Shakespeare, Spenser, and Tasso. All of these poets were highly admired by Keats. Irony is used when Keats describes Homer in “Looks through renovated eyes”. This is situational irony because Homer was blind.

The last stanza separates itself from the rest of the poem. In it, Keats states that the bards mentioned in the poem all had lineage with Apollo. This clearly shows that Keats highly admired these poets. When Keats read most of the books in the entire library of his school, he probably did the best thing he ever did to aid his career. He shows advanced knowledge of Apollo and the other poets in ‘Ode to Apollo’. These poets’ style often appears in many of John Keats’ poems. When Keats liked what he saw he adapted some of their technique.

John’s life was full of many hardships and difficulties that would be almost impossible for anyone to normally bear. However, Keats was able to go on with his life and cage up his emotions. When he writes, Keats puts his entire mood into the work. Those emotions can be traced through the poem and they add true passion to his works. Using this style, Keats wrote some of the best literary works ever created.

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Friday, October 29, 2010

Disseration on Emotional Intelligence

Disseration on Emotional Intelligence

The concept of emotional health is predictor of success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health. An amygdale attack in your brain sets your heart to racing, poised for fight or flight. According to Dan Goleman, our two amygdalas rule our emotions, our feelings, and our relationships, our learning. In the physical health part stress is one of the leading parts in the young Americans life. Physical health is important in or lives because everything we do is physical and if we do not take care of our bodies we cannot take care of the mind.

In emotional health analytical thinking is always influenced by our emotions. If we have a mature and health emotional relationship we can control any situation that comes before us. Every body can get anger, but it takes an emotional healthy person not to resort to violence. One of the parts of emotional health is self-awareness.
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We need to know our strengths and our weakness and how to be decisive. When a person can identify what they are good at and what they need work in they will always be the ones would in a tight spot will come out on top because they are better equipped to handle the situation. The second part in handling emotions. Knowing how to handle upsetting or uneasy feelings is the base point for emotional health. Motivation is the third goal. The important element of motivation is hope. Having a goal and planning and taking the necessary steps to reach that goal shows that a person in deed show that they have hope that they will reach that goal. In most families the parents teach hope, optimism, and motivation which is always good. This is showing that the parents having taken the necessary steps to make sure their kids will be a productive citizen in the real world. Empathy the fourth part of emotional health teaches people to read other peoples feeling by the tone of their voice or facial expressions. Knowing when someone else feels can go help in many situations. How smart you are has nothing to do with empathy. Empathy is what keeps the society, as we know kickin. Social skills are the fifth part of emotional health. Without social skills I believe that the whole world as we know would not exists. Imagine walking not talking to any one the and every day you live seems to be the same everyday. The people that lack in social skills are usually the ones that are in need of major emotional health help because social skills incorporates all the other aspects of the other parts. Emotional intelligence takes part in school achievement, job success, marital happiness, and physical health. Emotional development programs should be integrated into the curriculum and the life of the school.

I can relate to these steps of emotional health because through the years my parents have constantly preached these elements to me. I have discovered through out my life that all the test and predicaments I have been through have helped me become a better person. I need to work on my social skills because I do not like talking to people that much. I would not call my self shy but I rarely talk to people. It might seem strange, but I think by playing football and meeting different people I will eventually get over it. My physical health to me is in pretty good shape though. I eat a lot of junk food but the weight never stays. I also drink a little alcohol every once in while which I know is not good. This brings out a lot of hidden emotions in some cases, which might not always be good. I feel that if I cut down on the drinking I will take care of my physical and emotional health all together.

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Essay on JFK Assassination

Essay on JFK Assassination

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was officially pronounced the youngest president of the United States in 1960. He spoke out against all injustices and tyranny in the world that will win the support of oppressed and people of all races. With such a kind heart and persistence to making the world a better place it’s clear that Kennedy’s assassination was unexpected. But was John’s short term in office beneficial for the government or for the people, why would anyone conspire against this gentle person, and what impact did this assassination have on America.

President Kennedy lived a comfortable childhood in Brookline, Massachusetts. It was the modest suburbs of Brookline where he would develop his peaceful personality, completely cut off from violence. There has always been a political history in the Kennedy family, ever since the first Kennedy descended from Ireland. John’s grandfather was a Boston politician and made an earnest living. His father, Patrick Kennedy graduated from Harvard and married the mayor of Boston. Patrick was promoted to manager of the Bank of Boston and made a fortune. This would soon result to bigger more luxurious homes, first in Brookline, then to the suburbs of New York City. Here is where young John Fitzgerald would attend private elementary schools, and also was introduced to his family faith, Roman Catholic, by a local priest.
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His education rose as he graduated from high school and enrolled into top-notch schools: such as Princeton, Stanford, and finally Harvard where he would eventually injure himself during a football game, causing serious back trouble. This unfortunate accident would deprive him of continuing to play football and also unable him to join the Army so he could serve his country. Now with this physical handicap John will decide to strengthen his knowledge of politics other than his physical strength. He would take two trips to Europe so he could observe international political power first hand and quickly became interested in getting involved himself. John had a good eye for corruption and saw the world in different others perspectives if necessary. In 1952, Kennedy will announce his candidacy for the Senate against the Republican, Henry Cabot Lodge, jr. depicted his campaign on the slogan “Kennedy will do more for Massachusetts.” Defeating Lodge by more than 70,000 votes John realized the power he has obtained and aimed higher. John knew that Senate will not grant him the legislation needed to change the corruption he has been witnesses slowly destroying the constitution. As senator he expanded his program to cover all of New England and succeeded in uniting the senators from the area into an effective voting unity. His goal to unite the United States with other world powers has begun. Ambitious and knowing of the support he had with Massachusetts business men and common civilians, John would run for presidency. John Kennedy would defeat opposing republican candidate Richard M. Nixon and change the way people would think of a Roman Catholic in power. John F. Kennedy was devoted on proving the Roman Catholic slur wrong. His speeches consisted of liberalism and civil rights. Claiming that his word was stronger that opposing republican candidate Richard M. Nixon. John stated that “We stand today on the edge of a New Frontier,”(Earl Latham, 96) giving a name to his program. These words were strong enough to win votes and declare him the youngest president and first Roman Catholic ever to hold office. Kennedy was inaugurated as president on January 20, 1961. He devoted his entire inaugural address to international affairs, calling on his fellow citizens "to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself."(Earl Latham, 112) This was his most famous political expression. People trusted him because he assisted in any poor nation’s aid and compromised peacefully with nuclear threats. This would eventually lead to his assassination on gloomy day of November 23, 1963, where as everything President Kennedy has accomplished had become history.

All of America would weep the murder of John F. Kennedy that day. Everything he had accomplished would not be forgotten though. The ending of World War II, the peaceful compromise with Cuba, and aid to education all will be remembered. His assistance to welfare, civil rights, and life will forever shape the body of government to these days and inspire others to follow in his footsteps. Never will President John Fitzgerald Kennedy be referred to any less than the best president this country has to offer.

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Thursday, October 28, 2010

Research Paper on Achilles

Research Paper on Achilles

The three characteristics that I am about to mention are all very important for an epic hero, such as Beowulf or Achilles, who both exhibit the characteristics very well. Courage is a characteristic in Beowulf and Achilles, which all epic heroes must have for them to be classified as heroes. In addition, both of these characters affect the fate of nations, because if they did not, they would not have any significance, and would not have been written about. Finally, both of these characters interact with supernatural beings, who liven up the story, and make it more appealing to the reader.

Both Beowulf and Achilles have great courage and there were many similarities in how they used it, along with some differences. Beowulf and Achilles use their courage to defeat their enemies, as shown with Beowulf against Grendel, Grendel’s mother, and the dragon, and with Achilles against Hector. All of these instances could have resulted in the hero’s death, which is why courage was so important. Beowulf seems to have honor in his courage, such as fighting with no weapons, and leaving Grendel to die by himself, not while being humiliated. On the other hand, Achilles desecrates Hector’s body without any honor at all.
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Beowulf and Achilles both greatly affected the fate of their nations and changed them forever. Beowulf saves the Danes’ kingdom from Grendel, saved his own people from attack, and influenced their lives, thereafter. Achilles helped the Greeks in the Trojan War and his homeland certainly honored him for this. The difference between the two was that Beowulf had a lasting effect on his people and was mourned and remembered for years to come; whereas, Achilles, although he was still remembered by his people, did not seem to foster such love and care from them. However, they both prevented years of turmoil and conflict within their land and abroad, and for that, their ability to affect the fate of nations is very similar.

Beowulf and Achilles both dealt with supernatural beings, although Beowulf dealt with them directly for most of the story; whereas, Achilles dealt with them indirectly, with the exception of his mother, Thetis. Beowulf fought with Grendel, Grendel’s mother, and the dragon, who were all supernatural beings. Apart from his mother, who Achilles conversed with in the story, the Greek gods dealt with Achilles indirectly, such as Athena making Hector stop and fight Achilles.

However, Beowulf knew he was dealing with supernatural beings, which he recognized as demons of Hell, and Achilles knew and believed in the various gods, so a similarity between the two was that they both knew they were dealing with supernatural beings.

As I have stated, Beowulf and Achilles are certainly epic heroes because of these characteristics. Although they are similar in many aspects, they also have many differences, which most likely arose because of the different surroundings in which the authors lived. These resulting differences give the epics the ability to entertain the reader in different ways, and they both undoubtedly entertained generations of readers, and may do so for even longer.

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Essay on Farming

Essay on Farming

When society today thinks of farms they typically think of mom and dad waking up to the rooster crowing, fields filled with hand planted crops and cows grazing in open pastures. This fairytale farm story is far from reality. In the early 1920's farmers discovered that when adding vitamins A and D to the feed of animals they would no longer require exercise and sunlight in order to grow(Factory Farming). From this point on farmers began keeping larger amounts of animals on the same size farms. As time has gone on, farmers have realized many different methods of producing bigger crops and more meaty animals.

The debate grows heated as each side battles trying desperately to have their views heard. Farming industries are defending their practices of creating revenue through large scale farms. Wether it is through huge chicken, cattle, pig, or crop farms, supporters of this industry feel they are going about their business in the best way possible. On the other hand activist argue the majority of these large companies are merely ‘factory farming’. Recently these tactics of farming have begun to be considered inhumane by several opponents of what activists call factory farming, the process in which animals are treated no longer as animals but as food producing machines and crops are produce for the soul purpose of revenue(Factory Farming). Are these large farms in fact ‘factory farms’? And if so, should this process of ‘factory farming’ continue?

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Around the world this clashing of opinions produces many different views on what is the right, moral or most ethical approach to farming. The farming industry believes in their process of large scale farming or big business production. Large farms are one of the world’s largest industries. According to Dr. Joseph Mercola, researcher of many different aspects of the farming industry, “farming has grown into a $15.6 billion dollar industry world wide.” In the United States alone there are an estimated 1.91 million farms (Mercola). Over the years many of the small mom and pop farms have found in nearly impossible to compete with these large farms. In the last twenty years the average size of existing farms has grown from 451 acres to 653 acres (Bayer). These astronomical increases in farm sizes are a direct result of large farms becoming increasingly popular, beneficial and even more so, efficient.

In addition to large farming becoming one of the worlds largest industries, supporters also feel another benefit to large farming is its regulation. In research by Peter Rosset, it was found that, “ninety-percent of the nations poultry production is controlled by ten companies.” The USDA is responsible for monitoring meat and poultry production in the United States, along with many other responsibilities. Meat and poultry qualities are then graded on a scale of A through D, grade A being the highest quality possible. The benefits of having so few companies involved in the nations poultry production, and in many cases all other types of meat, is obvious. It is much easier to regulate a small group of farming companies than a nation full of hundreds even thousands of small farms. In turn with such a limited number of farms suppling the entire nation, the people of the United States, as the customer, can be sure they know exactly what they are purchasing. Not only does it benefit the customer to know what they are purchasing, in addition, the United States government provides subsidies to large farms. Dr. Mercola states, “Large farms receive nearly twice as much in government payments [subsidies] as do small farms.” Through these large farms receiving such a large portion of the government subsidization they are able to use this extra income to in turn provide the nation with the cheapest food costs in the world. Almost any person in the United States can find it possible to eat a steak if he or she chooses. This is not the case around the world. In fact, in some countries it is nearly impossible to eat meat at all.

Another benefit of large scale farming is that which it brings to the areas these farms are located. There are two ways for a large farm to get started. First a company can buy rural land and start a farm. Or second, a company can purchase an existing small farm and begin expanding upon it. Whichever method is decided on the benefits will be seen immediately. “Farms are vital to the economy,” explains Rosset. From the time a large farm begins jobs are available. When establishing a large farming industry in a rural community you need workers from day one. Wether it is to build the barns, silos, prepare the fields or design plans for the building, jobs are created from the start. Not to mention in most cases these industries develop a new town which creates hundreds of jobs due to lack of supply and increased demand. A community begins to develop in all aspects as a result of one company needing hundreds of employees.

Many benefits come from the continuation of large scale farming. Supporters place their values in supporting the global economy, the regulation of large industry, dependability of what already exists, and the continued development of the individual. On the other hand there are activists of factory farming. Activists of factory farming have quite different values. They value animal rights, human safety, environmental conservation. With these values in mind, people and organizations who are opposed to large farming believe factory farming should not continue.

As societies views on what is appropriate change, so do many peoples opinions of what is politically incorrect. Animal rights are among top issues of people speaking up for those who cannot do so for themselves. The opponents of factory farming feel one of the most important reasons why such a process should not continue is that animals in these factory farms are being treated inhumanly. Celeste Cgovern, a well-known activist against the large farming industry stresses, “Animals on today’s factory farms are stripped of all that is enjoyable and natural to them and treated as nothing more than meats, eggs, and milk producing machines.” Cgovern is referring to the concept that in many cases in the food industry “animals today [ that are] raised on factory farms have their genes manipulated and pumped full of antibiotics, hormones and other chemicals to encourage high productivity” (IDAUSA). There are many others opposed to factory farming who continually lobby congress trying to provoke some kind of a change. The Humane Society of The United States (HSUS) has an extensive web site devoted solely to factory farming. Claims can be found there stating twenty to thirty thousand chickens can be found crammed onto the floor of a building 40 feet by 500 feet. The HSUS also claims on hen farms, used to produce eggs, nearly “50 percent of new-hatched chicks are males who are killed a day or two after hatching.” These new-hatched chicks are simply killed because they are not needed. This is only one reason why opponents of factory farming feel this process should be ended.

Another major problem associated with factory farming is that these farms facilitate the spread of disease. Through over crowding and major doses of antibiotics and other chemicals not only do these factory farmed animals contract disease much easier, it has also been found in some cases to spread to humans. A great example of this process is the infamous Mad Cow disease. Mad Cow disease began in cows and eventually through the use of large scale farming spread amongst a population. These cows had been raised to be slaughtered and sold in grocery stores across the country. The USDA had to recall thousands of pounds of beef from hundreds of stores around the nation because the fear that some of these cows possibly might have contracted the Mad Cow disease.

Factory farms profit from increasing sales. If it is possible to fit more animals in less space, than factory farms are saving money. The problem arises due to the lack of cleanliness of these factories. Three million animals are killed every hour in the United States alone (Cgovern). In many cases the housing units for chickens, hens, turkeys and cows are only cleaned out every two or three years. This produces bodily waste build up and extreme levels of ammonia and other hazardous gases. Now add the chemicals the animals are given to accelerate growth and opponents say these conditions are unhealthy and in many cases “thousands of animals die every month as a result of unexplained illness” (Factory Farming).

Opponents of factory farming also feel that in addition to the inhumane treatment animals and the spread of disease, these farms also are a major source of water and air pollution. In a time when more and more focus is being put on the conservation of our country, opponents of factory farms believe “Federal legislation on factory farms has been sparse” (Hattam). In most cities and towns there are laws requiring the treatment of human waste before it can enter into the water supply. This is not the case concerning animal waste. One hog produces four times as much waste as the average human (Bayer). Opponents feel the wastes from these factory farmed animals are, in many cases, being dumped into local water supply. If it does happen to be treated much of the pollutants are seeping into the soil through run offs and into the air through improper ventilating systems of the animal housing facilities. When waste seeps into drinking water supplies, it causes severe public health threats. “The United States Environmental Protection Agency tests show that in 17 states fecal streptococci and fecal coliform bacteria can be found in groundwater from animal manure” (Bayer). Legislation is currently being proposed, by senators in Iowa and Illinois along with representatives in California, to mandate some types of regulations on animal waste treatment (Hattam).

Although battles continue amongst supporters of large farming and opponents of what they call factory farming it seems as though no resolution is in the near future. Other possibilities exist besides large farms such as organic farming but it seems as if cost to begin organic farms might be to expensive for now. The is hope however. With conservation and environmental protection being a major issue in the world today only a series of small events or perhaps a catastrophic one might be all that is need to answer the question, should the process of ‘factory farming’ continue.

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Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Term Paper on CSR

Term Paper on CSR

The long academic journey from my childhood to a doctoral student pursuing varied research, engaging in both gaining as well as sharing knowledge has been mired in varied experiences, all of which have been part of an enlightening process honing my future academic skills whilst contributing to my concerns on the one hand as well as an attitude of optimism on the other, towards the future of society at large.

From my days as a young college student, having had the privilege of attending the same college as the noble laureate Amartya Sen, my interest in political-economy as one of the key areas of concern was further reinforced through realistic exposition of the state of Indian polity, society and economy by my teachers. My academic interest was further sustained and shaped during my post graduation years at the Jawaharlal Nehru University considered one of the premier universities for advanced studies in India. The research skills developed and the knowledge gained through rigorous course work entailing extensive field-work in many areas helped formulate a broad whilst comprehensive idea of national and international polity and economy.

My journey to M.Phil was possible due to the encouragement I had from my parents who were extremely considerate and equally conscious of the need to educate girls instead of marrying them of as is the trend in a developing country like India where education to a girl child is often considered undesirable due to a plethora of socio-economic factors. My research years since M.Phil were also supported and sustained by the Junior Research Fellowship that was awarded to me by the government of India.
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Subsequent fellowships awarded by various organizations and financial support from varied quarters helped me gain international exposure as I had the opportunity of presenting academic papers and attending various seminars and workshops in India and abroad. My academic interest also prodded me to write extensively for various journals, articles, books and websites both in India and abroad. Amongst the seminars attended special mention may be made of the Harvard Project for Asia and International Relations 2001, the Third AFLF conference, 2001 at Manila last year and my participation as a moderator of the first session and presentation of the Background paper for the conference titled the Future Leader’s E-conference on CSR, organized by the World Bank (18-27 March 2002) as also an e-course An Introduction to CSR undertaken under the aegis of the World Bank. My interest in Corporate Governance, Corporate Citizenship and CSR were also re-emphasized by the course taught at the Law University.

I was also fortunate to have undertaken two consecutive teaching assignments, first at the National Law University Bhopal and consequently at the Department of international Relations Jadavpur University where I am teaching at present. These assignments have facilitated a process of interaction and sharing as well as gaining of knowledge through various syllabi designed and courses taught ranging from Issue of Governance: State-Business-Civil Society Debate in Asia to International Law, South Asian and West Asian Politico-Economic scenario.

My interactions and networking activities at the third AFLF and consequently its continuity through encouragement received from the World Bank and opportunities of participation in various fora has helped me immensely. Despite the dearth of resources and limited opportunities in India stemming from varied factors like gender and caste considerations to name a few, this has also given me the courage to open the APASE Indian Chapter with a fellow doctoral research student as a part of which we plan to organize a roundtable on CSR in both Kolkata and Delhi by the end of this year.

The opportunity to attend the fourth AFLF meet would help me significantly in this regard through extensive interaction and networking activities with key resource persons, speakers and facilitators and delegates the world over. This would serve as important lessons learnt as also provide support from varied organization through contacts developed. This is crucial both in terms of personal academic capacity enhancement as well as contribution to society at large through future writings, seminars and workshops organized on the future of corporate affairs and its contribution to sustainable development by virtue of an analysis of their existing relationship with government, local communities and civil society in not merely India but also in the larger Asian context through comparative analysis with corporate experiences the world over.

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Essay on Gandhi

Essay on Gandhi

Gandhi believed that in order to get independence from Britain, India would need to use peaceful, non-violent and non-cooperation methods. Many people agreed with Gandhi but there were also a lot of people who disagreed. The method worked with some things but there were some things that were just too much for one person to handle.

For the most part Gandhi’s technique worked. When Muslin and Hindu people were rioting Gandhi decided to fast. At first it didn’t help at all. People continued to fight and they didn’t care what anyone had to say as long as their “enemies” were dying. Finally, as Gandhi was near death, the people brought an end to all the fighting.

The Great Salt March is another example that the method worked. During The Great Salt March Gandhi led a protest from his ashram to the sea. He did this in objection to the British domination of the salt production. Hundreds of thousands of people follow Gandhi to the sea and there was worldwide attention. After the march was over the British changed the tax on salt. The Indians no longer had to pay anything extra for this essential need.

Gandhi also proved that non-violence worked when him and his followers opposed the unjust policies of South Africa. Gandhi burnt the passbooks that the Indian people had to carry around to show where they belong. Gandhi also established the ANC, the African National Congress to fight the unfair rules. He used non-violent methods with civil disobedience.
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Indians also burned cloth and made their own homespun cloth. This was to protest all the British made cloth and start to make their clothes themselves. When people stopped buying the British made clothes it made less money go the Britain. Gandhi’s wife said that British made cloth “makes hunger and unhappiness". That statement is true because the cloth was so hard to get and it made the Indians poor unhappy and hungry trying to get it.

Gandhi’s approach to independence did work. It showed Britain that the Indians had more heart than anyone else. They held their head high no matter what was happening because they stood up for what they believed in. If they had used violence their independence would have been pushed further away from them because it would have made it much easier for the British to conquer them.

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Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Essay on Population Explosion

Essay on Population Explosion in Pakistan

In this essay paper I will introduce the concept of overpopulation and its definition in the literal sense. Then I will discuss its effects on the Pakistani economy and its impact on the agricultural sector. This will be followed by an analysis of overpopulation being source of other social evils. Then overpopulation will be discussed in the international scenario followed by a brief analysis of the causes of overpopulation. That will be followed by the efforts required at the individual and collective spheres. Finally the future course of action would be discussed with some recommendations and a brief conclusion.

Introduction

Population explosion is a global problem. It is equally true of Pakistan. Everyday we come across the oft-repeated phrase, “Population Bomb is ticking”. A state based on Islamic ideology should be an ideal state. Since its inception Pakistan had to face the problems of illiteracy, poverty, pollution, unemployment, lawlessness & terrorism, inflation, loans, corruption, defective tax structure, government instability and many more chronic problems. Unless we achieve a control on population, these related problems will not be easily solved.

Pakistan and Overpopulation

At the time of partition, the area, which today comprises Pakistan, had a population of 33 million. The following table shows population of Pakistan at different times since its inception.

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Year Population (in millions)
1947 33
1972 66
1998 130.5
2000 140
Table-1 Comparison of population at different times

According to experts, under the same growth rate, the population of Pakistan would be greater than that of China by the year 2035.

Even after fifty-six years of its independence, Pakistan is still struggling to find a respectable place in the comity of nations. All the efforts made in the past seem to have gone in vain. Every sector of life today tells a sorry tale. The problem that could be blamed for all this sorry mess is overpopulation in the country. Overpopulation emerges as the main villain in Pakistan for a number of reasons. Every other problem mentioned earlier seems to have grown from the demon of this overpopulation.

Definition

Literally speaking, overpopulation arises when the resources in a country fell short of meeting the needs of its people. A number of factors could lead to the emergence of overpopulation.

Birth rate is the most common indicator that the countries today use to keep a check on population . Pakistan today suffers from a high birth rate in the country. But the birth rate was high even in the past and still overpopulation was nowhere to be seen. What factors today have translated the high birth rate into overpopulation? The advancements in the medical field have led to a sharp decline in the death rate. The life expectancy has increased due to the use of imported health technologies. So, a decline in death rate has in other words led to the problem of overpopulation. Pakistan is a developing country and as many others like it is trying hard to survive in the capitalist world. A huge population of around fifteen crores, that could have been an asset to the country is today a huge liability. Fast increasing population is thus a source of constant danger for Pakistan.

Impact of Economy

Overpopulation has badly hampered the economic growth in the country. High population is responsible for a decline in the per capita income . This leads to a decline in the purchasing power of the people. As the demand for goods decreases then by “Demand & Supply” law, the investment in the country will also suffer. Such a stagnant economy will lead to closing of factories and businesses and in return add to joblessness and poverty. Even if the country somehow is successful in attracting foreign investment, still overpopulation will not allow these investments to have a positive effect on the country’s economy. Greater population means more number of hungry souls to feed. With the number of productive earning members in a family small compared to unproductive members, there is felt a drag on limited income of poor families. This is the problem of “Dependency ratio” which is acutely felt in poor countries.

For years, social services in the country have suffered even after sincere efforts by successive governments. The fact remains that more schools, hospitals, and parks are of little comfort if the population keeps on increasing at an alarming rate.

Impact on Agricultural Sector

Agriculture is another sector, which has been adversely affected by the rapid increase of population. About 70% of Pakistan’s population is employed in the agricultural sector. Overpopulation is even having an adverse effect on agricultural outcome. More population means smaller farms, and that leads to a decline in productivity. Availability of cultivable land in 1990 was 0.17 hector per person and the estimated availability of cultivable land by the year 2025 will be 0.07 hector per person. The same would happen with the forests and also with the availability of fresh water.

People having smaller farms have no other choice but to migrate in hope for a better life. This leads to urbanization, which itself is a major social problem .

Overpopulation Causing other Social Evils

Over population has contributed towards an increase in a number of social evils. Lawlessness, crime and corruption are all the result of population explosion. The fight over resources has divided the society into two groups i.e. those who have all and are not willing to share it and the second group that is fighting for its mere survival. This fight between haves and have-nots has the inherent seeds of conflict in it, which if erupted could imperil the peace and order in the society. Overpopulation in cities has also contributed to toxic pollution. A greater number of vehicles on the roads mean the availability of large quantities of poisonous gas for people to inhale. Sewage problems and lack of clean drinking water can also be attributed to the population problem.

World Scenario

The world has crossed the six billion mark in population . After years of industrialization and technological advances, the world still suffers in providing basic necessities to the masses. Apart from few exceptions in Europe having a negative birth rate, overpopulation is a common problem of many nations around the world. Many of the countries have tried hard and to some extent they have been successful. China, around three decades ago, was facing shortages in food but today it is the largest growing economy in the world. The “One Child Policy” has done wonders for this new economic power. China has also proved the fact that through proper planning a huge population could be transformed into an economic asset.

Causes of Overpopulation

Following is a brief discussion of some of the causes of overpopulation in our country:
  • Warm climate (puberty attained by females at an early age)
  • Early marriages
  • Joint family systems
  • Polygamy
  • Lack of recreational facilities
  • Belief that God is ‘Raziq’ (belief that every child brings its food with him/her)
  • Love for male issues (couple going for more babies)
  • Illiteracy, people think that more children mean more working hands
  • Misinterpretation of Ullemas
  • Unawareness about the use of contraceptives

Efforts put in by Government

Family Planning Association, a private venture, started work in 1953.
Government started providing family planning services at its health centers in 1960.
A National Planning program was formed in 1965.
American Aid for family planning started in 1974.
Provincial Governments initiated Family Planning Programs in 1983.
Community health center started by Government in 1993.

Future Course of Action

It is right time that we nip the evil in the bud with proper planning. Education is the key to success against the menace of overpopulation. It will not only generate awareness against the hazards of overpopulation among the masses but will also create a healthy environment for birth control methods to flourish. Poor literacy rate in Pakistan is certainly adding to the difficulties, already being faced by the health workers in their fight against the problem.

The role of media is also an important factor. With most of the population illiterate electronic media could prove to be a huge success in getting the message across. Print media too needs to emphasize the problems of overpopulation on a more regular basis. Availability of birth control methods in the remote areas of the country should be ensured. The role of lady health workers should be expanded and the good office of every union council should make their supervision compulsory. “Devolution Plan” was devised to make the participation of people at the grass roots level. Now it is time that we solve the problem of overpopulation with a greater participation and support of these local councils. But this task will be not as easy to accomplish, as it may appears to be.

According to a report by Population Action International Washington, a great reason for population increase in Pakistan is that the Government has made a very insignificant investment in social sector owing to religious problems and secondly women having no say and freedom . A conservative society like ours is certainly not ripe to carry out a war against overpopulation. Therefore, the role of religious leaders emerges as an important aspect if we are to succeed against this menace. Big landowners in rural areas too command a lot of respect among the masses. It is time that they join in against the fight for a better future. Once these two classes are on the side of the government, there is no way that the government will not be able to solve the problem. Another factor that has for long proven to be a hurdle in solving population problem is the poor state of our womenfolk in the society. The rights of women must be restored and the discrimination against them must be stopped. Many women in the country are aware of the problems generated by having large families but they have little say in deciding about the strength of the family. In a male-dominated society as ours women often fall victim to the blind wishes of their male partners. Women often die in labor and owing to the lack of gaps between the successive births. Their health also deteriorates to an alarming stage.

Recommendations and Conclusion

  • Family planning facilities be made a part of health facilities
  • There should be a greater role for local and provincial governments
  • Role of NGOs and doctors in disbursement of Aid received for family panning
  • Males should be urged to cooperate more
  • Status of women to be raised in society as done by present government by giving more seats in assemblies
  • Better health and educational facilities for women
  • Issue to be taken as a national crisis
  • Role of media to be encouraged especially in rural areas
  • Government programs should involve Ullemas and NGOs
  • Greater participation of landlords
Problem of overpopulation is very serious because it leads to frustration, which means chaos. Chaos means anarchy and anarchy endangers the state.

Pakistan is today standing at the crossroads. It will either perish forever or will emerge as a stronger nation. What are needed is a vision and a sincere leadership that could transform dreams into reality. The problem of overpopulation has now started to haunt us and unless we tackle it pragmatically our dream of a bright and glorious future will just remain a pious wish. It needs a multi-pronged attack to deal with overpopulation. A strong Pakistan should be our first priority and if we have to make certain hard decisions for its accomplishment no one should hesitate to lead and pull the trigger. Indeed, Pakistan comes first even before our personal vested interests.

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