Monday, April 7, 2014

Essay on Ecosystem

In ecology, an ecosystem, is the set formed by a partnership or community of living beings (or biota) and its biological, geological, edaphic, hydrological, climatic, etc. (biotope). The elements constituting an ecosystem develop a network of energy and matter exchange for the maintenance and development of life. The term was coined by Arthur George Tansley in 1935, to describe the basic unit of nature. A unit in which plants, animals, and habitat interact in the biotope. In the ecosystem, the role of soil is to provide a diversity of habitats, act as storage, processor and transfer medium for water and other products.

In 2004, the authors of the report commissioned by the UN and called the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment have explicitly included the necromass defining an ecosystem as "a dynamic complex of plants, animals, micro-organisms, and the nonliving environment acting interaction as a functional unit."

We can speak of natural ecosystem, naturally balanced: at each level, the biomass is stabilized through interactions with other levels.

In 2012, The IUCN has announced plans to create (before 2025) a "Red List" of vulnerable ecosystems, endangered or critically endangered in the world. This initiative is a tested and supported by a Venezuelan biologist Jon Paul Rodriguez who worked on the importance of local data and regional red lists criteria (2001) then made such a classification for terrestrial ecosystems of Venezuela published in 2011 and in 2011 a reasoned list of criteria of environmental assessment of the health of ecosystems and prioritized threats to ecosystems.

An ecosystem is all the fauna and flora together in a natural area. It is composed of producers (plants), consumers (animals) and bioreductive agents (micro-organisms), which are supported by emitting energy from the sun.

The ecosystem is a natural system that tends to evolve towards a stable theoretically stable state called climatic climax while being capable of evolution and adaptation to abiotic and ecological context. We talk about ecological regression when the system evolves from one state to a less stable state. Ecosystems, such as the biosphere are still in a state out of equilibrium, constantly drawn to a climax by complex feedback loops.

A living ecosystem is healthy when all agencies and inert environments that form it are in equilibrium.

Diseases are developers and pathogens (bacteria, virus, fungi, pests, etc.) that merely regulate an imbalance but are by no means the cause. Their presence is, instead, a manifestation of the ecosystem need to find a balance and ensure its sustainability.

Eradicate the limit, even by biological control is postpone the problem, often prevent the self-regulation of dysfunction. Good basic knowledge in botany, entomology, plant pathology, agronomy, soil science, embryology, genetics, etc. allow another reading of what the disease process is.This is an approach similar to the Ecopathology.

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