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Monday, February 28, 2011

Term Paper on Slavery

Research Paper on Slavery

What is slavery? How did it get so deeply rooted in America? Who would stop the spread of slavery in America? Slavery had many protestors, but one man stood out in the 1858 Illinois senatorial campaign against the expansion of slavery and that man was Abraham Lincoln.

Slavery is defined as submission to a dominating influence. Which alone cannot be fully understood as the traumatic lifestyle in which a person is entrenched. To enslave someone is to take away their self worth, to strip away their identity, as they know it, and label it for economic gains. “Their labor or services are obtained through force; their physical beings are regarded as the property of another person, their owner, and they are entirely subject to their owner’s will (Nettels 98).”
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The practice of slavery has been in existence since prehistoric times, although advancements in agriculture made it an institution in early historical times. Slaves were needed for “various specialized functions (Nettels 98)” in these societies and were obtained through raids or “conquests of other people or within the society itself, when some people sold themselves or their family members to pay debts or were enslaved as punishment for crimes (Nettels 98)."

The first African slaves that came to America landed at Jamestown, Virginia, In 1619. The number of slaves imported to the colonies was relatively small at first. Not until the development of the “plantation system” in the southern colonies in the later half of the seventeenth century, did the importation of African slaves greatly increase. By the time of the American Revolution, about 22 percent of the total population were African slaves, amounting to about 500,000 people. With the influx of the slave population came about the antislavery movement, as shown by the actions of the Methodist Episcopal Church which suspended one of its bishops for refusing to emancipate slaves he had inherited through his wife, in 1894. Southern states with economic interest justified slavery and were willing to fight to protect what they considered was their right. The northern states, not being so economically dependent on slavery easily could see the moral dilemma that slavery brought about. The south, however, with to much to loose put economic values ahead of moral ones. Not wanting to loose the South to succession, congress came to an agreement with the Missouri Compromise in 1820, which regulated the expansion of slavery in the United States for three decades until repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.

With the repeal came debate in Congress as to how the federal government should handle this issue of slavery, the northern states wanting to abolish it all together and the southern states wanting to keep what they felt was their rights, along with states rights alive.

There was one leader who stood out in this time against the expansion of slavery and that man was Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, in a log cabin that his father built in Hodgewville, Kentucky. He was pushed by his stepmother to learn how to read and write at an early age, and learned the Bible well, which would show in his later writings like the “Gettysburg Address” and his “Second Inaugural Address”. The Lincoln’s moved to Illinois in March of 1830, and it was there that Abraham Lincoln’s political career began. In the spring of 1832, Lincoln ran for a seat in the Illinois House of Representatives, Which he later lost, but it gave him ties to the Whigs party, to which he would remain faithful until he left over the question of slavery in the 1850’s.

Two years later, Lincoln would later run for representative to the Illinois legislature in 1834, this time winning. It was during this time Lincoln also studied law, and in 1836 he became a licensed attorney. He was noted for his “shrewdness and practical common sense” and also his “invariable fairness and utter honesty (Gwinn 369).”

Lincoln’s first public stand on slavery was in 1837, when the Illinois legislature voted to condemn the activities of the abolition societies that wanted “an immediate end to slavery by any means (Gwinn 369).” Lincoln declared that slavery was “founded on both injustice and bad politics, but the promulgation of abolitionist doctrine tends to rather to increase than abate its evil (Gwinn 370).” Lincoln wanted to end slavery but also wanted to stay within the constraints of the Constitution in doing so.

After Lincoln served on the seat for three consecutive terms, He became disillusioned with politics, and in 1838 went back to practicing law where he became a prominent lawyer.

In 1854, congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and stated that “each territory could be admitted as a state “with or without slavery, as their Constitution may prescribe at the time of their admission (Gwinn 370).” With the passing of this act Lincoln’s interest in politics was rekindled and he became a forceful spokesman for the anti-slavery movement.

During the 1858 Illinois Senatorial campaign Abraham Lincoln ran for the Republican party against the author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Democratic senator Stephen A. Douglas. With the breaking apart of the Whig’s party and becoming what is now known as the republican party Lincoln in his acceptance speech for the seat said “A house that has divided against itself cannot stand, this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free (Cuomo 93).” Douglas accused Lincoln as being a radical, saying that he threatened the stability of the Union. Lincoln responded by challenging Douglas to a series of seven debates largely concerning the expansion of slavery. It was in these debates that Lincoln’s view on slavery was fully understood. Lincoln did not want slavery expanding into the new territories and would write that “I, too, believe in self-government as I understand it; but I do not understand that the privilege one man takes of making a slave of another, or holding him as such, is any part of self government (Cuomo 92).” Lincoln wanted to keep slavery in the south where he hoped it would die out naturally.

He debated Douglas on issues of expansion and morality, arguing against the proposition “that the slave holder has the same political right to take his Negroes to Kansas that a free has to take his hogs or his horses (Cuomo 92).” As Lincoln continues, “this would be true if Negroes were property in the same sense that hogs and horses are. But is this the case? It is notoriously not so (Cuomo 92).” He also said on the issues of morality that “if the Negro is a man, why then may ancient faith teach me that all men are created equal; and that there can be no moral right in connection with one mans making a slave of another (Sandburg 74).”

Lincoln’s view on slavery was clear to all that heard these debates, and brought him national recognition. Even though he lost the election that year, he still clearly fought to stop the expansion of this evil institution called slavery with his great literary sense. If Lincoln did not stand against the expansion of slavery in the 1858 Illinois Senatorial campaign, he might not have been able to win the presidency in 1860, and eventually put an end to what he thought was a moral wrong- slavery.

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Research Paper on Tartuffe

Research Paper on Tartuffe

Tartuffe is one of those villains who must be played melodramatically, where every movement and speech of his drips with shallowness and hypocrisy. If Tartuffe is played this way, the audience will quickly learn to hate and scorn him as much as the other characters do. But to turn the textual Tartuffe into an onstage rogue requires special care on the part of whoever plays Tartuffe, the director, the sound and lighting guys, the costume designer, the technical director, and everyone backstage. If all of these groups work together, Tartuffe’s stage time will make Tartuffe a success.
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Before each part of the theater can begin work on dehumanizing Tartuffe, everyone involved must understand why a company would go to such great lengths to make Tartuffe more evil. Tartuffe was first read in 1665 to King Louis XIV of France. The church and the monarchy were very connected, and both had absolute power over all of France. To criticize one was to criticize the other, and that meant shame and possibly death to whomever dare do so. So Tartuffe, a man who uses his "religious piety" to get money and sex, was not only knocking God, but also knocking France. This was the worst of crimes during that era, making Tartuffe the worst of characters. Thus, modern companies must show modern audiences just how bad of a person Tartuffe was.

Tartuffe does not appear until Act III, which gives the audience two acts to learn of the villain’s misdeeds and hypocrisy. So the actor playing Tartuffe has to embody the role stereotyped for him by the audience. He can’t look like a romantic lead, yet also can’t be mistaken for Richard III. Someone of medium height and build, with blond hair and blue eyes, would best suit the "look" of Tartuffe. This actor must walk proudly, with his head always up and a dishonest smile on his face. He needs to walk with a longer-than-normal stride, showing his excessive confidence. And he needs a noticeably fake accent, one which seems to be hiding a more common tongue. Words that sound religious must always be emphasized, regardless of whether they’re dealing with religion or something else. And his speech must always be priestly, as if he is giving divine knowledge to the great unwashed.

Tartuffe’s attire needs to be more elegant than any other character in the play. He needs to be dressed in a very showy and ornate robe, with gold trim along the edges. The robe should touch the floor and possibly a few inches should drag behind him, giving him a pretend look of royalty. The color of the robe needs to be distinctively off-white or some color that the audience will know is not true white. If the costume designer thinks Tartuffe needs shoes, they should be sandals the Apostles of Jesus would wear.

Whenever Tartuffe is on stage, his presence needs to be overemphasized. If an overhead light followed Tartuffe around onstage, the audience would recognize how big of a character he is. The light should not be the usual incandescent white…possibly a light red or orange. The light should be darker when Tartuffe is interacting with other characters and white when Tartuffe is near Orgon. When Orgon becomes aware of Tartuffe’s hypocrisy, the light should either change to dark red or vanish completely.

Tartuffe needs to be overplayed. The more visual and textual techniques the company can use to portray Tartuffe, the better. This is a character that is breaking the moral code of his time through lies and treachery, so the theater must dramatize him to get the point across to the audience.

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Sunday, February 27, 2011

Term Paper on Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis Research Paper

Tuberculosis, which can target any body part, results in the death of nearly two million people every year. TB is an infectious disease that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis usually found in the droplets of an active TB patient (1). According to historical studies, TB was known to the ancient Egyptians, in fact, the analysis of the spinal column of the mummies from 2400 BC shows a definite pathological signs of TB decay. Thousands of years later, A. Waksman discovered the power of fungi in decreasing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth, and was able to isolate actinomycin that was too poisonous for use in both humans and animals. His second discovery, streptomycin, showed a more noticeable success; the bacteria vanished from the patient’s sputum and he made a quick recovery (2). By 2020 the incidence of TB disease will rise to 100 million new cases and will account for 36 million deaths a year. Nowadays, one person gets infected every second (1).
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Transmission, symptoms, and treatment are the three criteria by which tuberculosis, an infectious disease, can be described.

Although droplet transmission is the most common way to transmit TB, direct contact and infection via intestines are unusual ways to transmit this disease. TB is usually contracted by spreading through the tiny droplets that may spray into the air when an individual carrying the bacteria sneezes or coughs (4). Having direct exposure to bacteriogenic materials is another way to contract TB; therefore, workers, who are in close contact with these materials, are at most risk to develop TB this way, for example dissecting assistants, doctors, ranchers, and butchers. Finally, a person can get TB by eating contaminated animal products such as raw milk or undercooked meat from an infected animal (3).

Symptoms vary according to the infected organ. The commonest site of tuberculosis disease is the lungs, but it can spread to other organs specifically joints, bones, central nervous system, and urinary. Several symptoms are associated with pulmonary TB, including cough, fatigue, slight fever, and pain when breathing or coughing, while extrapulmonary TB symptoms may be back pain if the spine is affected, or blood in the urine of a patient with TB of the kidney (1).

The treatment regimen includes at least three or preferably four specific antibiotics that can be changed if the causative agent develops drug resistance. The initial regimen for treating TB should include four drugs: isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol; however if the bacteria becomes drug resistant then streptomycin is used instead of ethambutol (1, 2). Occasionally, the drugs may cause serious side effects. Possible side effects of rifampin, which are similar to symptoms of flu, include fever, chills, muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting; while those of ethambutol are kidney and vision related (1).

In conclusion, tuberculosis is an infectious disease that can be described according to its transmission, symptoms, and treatments. It can be transmitted in various ways such as droplet, direct contact, and infection via intestines. Since pulmonary TB is the most common form of this disease, symptoms related to the lungs often appears as the disease progresses. Finally, certain antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment of TB that may differ if the patient contracted TB for the second time. Therefore, understanding TB in order to decreasing the mortality caused by it are the purposes of this term paper.

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Research Paper on Recycling

Free Research Paper on Recycling

Environmental concerns about the huge landfill space that is being taken by construction and demolition debris has brought up a new technique in salvaging construction material and recycling demolition debris. Although one process exists for two types of waste, many have tried different strategies in dealing with this problem. These strategies vary between "separating and sorting" then "crushing and reducing" and "crushing and reducing" then "separating and sorting".

PROCESS OF C&D DEBRIS RECYCLING
C&D debris refers to materials generated as a result of construction and demolition projects. Metals, wood, rocks, concrete, rubble, soil, paper, plastics and glass are among the many materials that are considered C&D debris. Realizing that the disposal of C&D debris in landfills consumes large amount of space and is economically and environmentally costly, the need to get acquainted with suitable recycling processes is becoming more and more essential (1, p.18). Although, only one recycling process has been developed, there are different strategies for implementation.
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TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTES
Type I - Roadway and Site Conversion C&D Waste
C&D waste is classified as Type I if it consists mainly of rubble with a little ratio of "clean" materials such as wood, metals, and plastics. Type I waste should be easily separable in order to be considered as "clean". The composition by weight of a Type I C&D debris is (2, p.6.31):

Rubble
concrete, asphalt 40%
soil, rock 20%
Wood 30%
Metals, plastic 10%

Type II - Construction and Interior Demolition Waste
This type is mainly generated from urban structure such as office buildings, stores, etc.. Type II contains mixed fractions of concrete, drywall, framing, ductwork, roofing, windows, corrugated, packaging, etc.(2,p.6.32) . Due to its high heterogeneous composition this type is difficult to separate, it is mainly made of:

Rubble 25%
Wood 33%
Metals 20%
Corrugated 12%
other (carpet, residue, etc.) 10%

C & D WASTE PROCESSING STRATEGIES
Primary separating equipment used with type I are very efficient while with type II this procedure along with hand sorting will take lots of time. Processing procedure is determined by the type of waste and the possible use of the output materials
(2, p.6.32). Table 1 shows the different contents of C & D waste .

Table 1 Contents of C&D Waste (2, p.6.31)
Waste type Contents
Rubble Soil, rock, concrete, asphalt, bricks
Tar-based material Shingles, tar paper
Ferrous metal Steel rebar, pipes, roofing, flashing, structural members, ductwork
Nonferrous metal Aluminum, copper, brass
Harvested wood Stumps, brush, treetops and limbs
Untreated wood Framing, scrap lumber, pallets
Treated wood Plywood, pressure-treated, laminates
Plaster Drywall, sheetrock
Glass Windows, doors
Plastic Vinyl siding, doors, windows, blinds, material packaging
White goods/bulky items Appliances, furniture, carpeting
Corrugated Material packaging, cartons, paper
Contaminants Lead paint, lead piping, asbestos, fiberglass, fuel tanks

Type I C & D Waste Processing Strategy
Clean rubble can directly be placed into a grizzly feeder where a jawcrusher and hammermiller could act on it for reduction.

- Debris placed into grizzly feeder
Sorting and reducing first is more practical than crushing if the debris contains material such as plastics, paper, rags, or contaminants such as paint, lead pipes, etc.. After crushing the mix is then screened to remove fine soil and small rocks. Any contaminants, ferrous, and non ferrous material is removed by either manual picking or magnetic field belt. If wood is present in the rubble then the mix is guided towards a flotation tank where the wood will float and thus the separation from rocks is achieved. Another system instead of a flotation tank could be used and that is an air classifier. The air system is more expensive to use, but if the recycling plant is located in a region where there is strict rules about water pollution, thus requiring that the water from the flotation tank to be treated, then an air system might be a better option.

Crushing, reducing and then sorting and separating is much more recommended with systems made from 80% to 90% rubble, wood, and few contaminants. A general processing layout is shown in figure 2 and is available as both fixed and
portable designs(2, p.6.34).

- Recycling plant
Type II C&D Waste Processing Strategy
It is essential that type II C&D waste be sorted and separated before being crushed and reduced since this type of waste could have asbestos, paint, lead pipe, etc.. These contaminants could render the mixture hazardous if they where to be crushed into small pieces, consequently making hand-picking extremely difficult or even impossible to do.

- Separating and sorting
After removing big contamineous material, the mix is introduced into a disk screen in order to separate the soil from rocks.

- Hand-picking
This has proven to be essential in order to increase the efficiency of handpicking in a later stage.

Eventually, material recovered will be free from contaminants and rubble will further be processed according to the need of the local market(2, p.6.36).

- Aggregate of size 0-60mm

CONCLUSION
In recycling C&D debris, many considerations should be accounted for; such as the nature and the type of the material. Knowing these properties, it is possible to choose and apply the suitable process strategy: with type II materials, sorting and separating at an early stage before crushing reduces the risk of coming out with a contaminated recycled material. In contrast to type II material, type I material can be ,in most cases, more easily and safely crushed before being sorted since the percentage of contaminants is negligible.

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Saturday, February 26, 2011

Term Paper on Unemployment

Unemployment Research Paper

The three main economic issues facing Australian government include: economic growth, unemployment and inflation. To understand Australian recent performance, the measurement, trends, causes and effects will be analyzed in each issue. Meanwhile, the influence of the global economy and the interaction amongst these three issues will be also discussed.

Economic Growth (EG)
EG can be defined as the increase in the volume of goods and services (G & S) that an economy can produce over a period of time. It is measured by annual rate of change in real GDP, i.e. the percentage (%) in the value of G & S produce in an economy over one year, adjusted for rate of inflation.

Graph
By mid 2000 the Australian economy had recorded 9 years of continual growth, averaging around 4% per year, but it tends to slow down, by 2003, EG has slowed to 2.9%. However, it is still well ahead of most industrialized countries.
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These causes of Australia's EG trend can be explained by the Aggregate Demand (AD). AD is the total demand for G & S generated by the sum of all spending in the economy. AD = Consumption (C) +Investment (I) + Government Spending (G) + Export (X)


  • Import (M). Therefore, the change in AD is the result of the change in these components.
  • Consumer and business expectation about the inflation. Inflation creates uncertainty. If they expect the price to increase, they buy now, and verse-vice.
  • The level of interest rate (IR). IR is the cost of borrowing. Low IR encourages C and I.
  • The distribution of income (Y). The more even the distribution of Y the higher the level of spending.
  • Y levels and C references. It can be explained by using the multiplier process. It occurs when extra spending (e.g. I or G) is injected into the economy. It stimulates further spending, which in turn stimulates yet more spending, and so on. The higher the level of spending, the greater the multiplier effect.
  • Cost of capital equipment. It is affected by the level of IR, tax concessions, cost of depreciation and the cost and productivity of labour. The most important factor behind the Australian sustained growth during the 1990s is the improvement of productivity, especially in computer sectors.


The effect of EG

  • Living standard "EG" means more G & S are produced, which increase the ability for household to enjoy a higher material life.
  • Employment according to derive demand. The increase demand for G & S increases the need of labour to produce them.
  • Increase inflation - high EG can result an increase in price and a large claim in wages.
  • External stability - increase in Y means increase the wants for M, which results in increase in CAD.


Unemployment
Unemployment refers to the proportion of people in the Labour Force (LF) actively seeking work but unable to find one. LF is people actively seeking work in the working age (>=15 years old). The data from the survey of ABS, Job network and CenterLink can be used in the measurement of unemployment. Unemployment rate=Unemployed/LF.

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Australia becomes the low unemployment country for the first time. The figure reveals the unemployment rate decreasing and below the average for industrialized nations. 6.2% at the end of 2002, compare to an average of 7.1%.
Recently, UR rises from 6%-6.2% since the 2003 treasurer budget speech.


  • The level of EG. The sustained low UR is contributed by the sustained EG of the economy. As mentioned above, EG helps to increase employment, so that reduce unemployment.
  • Microeconomic reform and structural change. It alters the pattern of the demand and production within a society, which results numerous job losses and de-skilling. E.g. in Australia during late 1980 and early 1990, there were a lot of job losses in manufactory sector.
  • Level of I. The falling in the level of I will result increasing in unemployment. e.g. the downsizing of Telstra and Qantas, increase the size of unemployment.
  • High cost of labour. High cost of labour means high cost of production, to minimize cost, business will replace labour with the more efficient machine, which result in increase of unemployment.


Economic and social effects of unemployment:

  • Opportunity cost. Unemployment means the resources are not being used sufficiently. Therefore it reduces the society's ability to maximize their satisfaction of G & S, and have lower living standard.
  • Cost to government. Some unemployed people may live on welfare. The increase in unemployment will reduce the government revenue.
  • Social cost. Unemployment results loss in self-esteem, or increase domestic violence, and crisis. It brings insecurity to the society.
  • Unemployment for particular groups. In Australia, the non-english speakers and indigenous Australians are discriminated against.


Inflation
Inflation is the sustained increase in price of general G & S. the common measurement is Consumer Price Index (CPI). It measures the quarterly change in a basket of goods according to their importance in C. inflation rate=% change in CPI=points change in CPI/CPI in previous years.

Graph
Strong productivity growth has been a key factor in Australia's low inflation performance throughout the 1990s. The inflation increases by 2.9% in 2001-2002 compared with 2000-2001.in 2000-01, the CPI directly affected by the introduction of GST. It is expected to be moderate in 2002-03 (2.75%).

Causes of inflation

  • Demand pull inflation
  • Too much demand chasing too few goods, price is bid up.
  • Cost inflation
  • An increase in source of production, i.e. raw materials and wages force the price to rise in order to cover the cost.
  • Imported inflation
  • Increase in imported goods increases the cost of imported components, which results the increase in domestic price.
  • Inflationary expectations
  • Inflation creates uncertainty. The producer will increase the price if they expect the price to rise, as a result, the worker also requires an increase in wages in order to cover the future inflation. (e.g. the war leads to the expectation of increase in oil and gold price.)


In Australia, the impact on drought and the rise in international oil prices, like GST, are one-offs, which have lifted inflation but not persistence inflation trends.

Effects of inflation

  • Economic growth and uncertainty - inflation results from a fast economic growth but constraint on growth at the same time. Inflation can be solved by contractionary monetary policy, which hence slows down the economy. Therefore, it creates an unclear version for future C & I.
  • Wages price inflationary spiral - wage increase which results in price increases and then lead to a larger claim on wages, it works in a spiral and hard to break.
  • Unemployment - the level of unemployment and inflation are closely related, especially in the short term. High unemployment often associated with a low inflation.
  • Exchange rate impact - Low inflation rate results an appreciation in the value of AUS.


In conclusion, in Australian economy, the decrease in EG (from around 4% to 2.9%) has resulted an increased in UR (from 6% to 6.2%) and a decrease in IR (increased by 2.9%). It is due to the instability of the world economy (i.e. war, SARS, etc.) and the slow down in the domestic markets (i.e. the effect of drought and appreciation of the AUS, etc.). However, compare to other industrialized countries, Australian economy remains strong. This is because of the effective government policies, which keep the interest rate low and maintain the inflationary around target. Therefore, some sectors still remain relatively strong, with household C, business I and non-residential construction (i.e. the non-financial purpose building industries) helping to sustain growth. The outlook of Australia's economic performance is depending on the post-war Iraq and the recovery of the world economy.

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Research Paper on Saint Thomas Aquinas

Research Paper on St. Thomas Aquinas

The works of St. Thomas Aquinas the medieval Christian philosopher are a corner stone of Christian Theology. With access to the recently recovered writings of Aristotle, Aquinas revolutionized Christian thinking with his Aristotelian arguments for God’s existence. Aquinas’s five arguments for proving God’s existence, though somewhat outdated by today’s knowledge of modern physics, remain valid, and applicable.

The five arguments are as follows:
  1. The Argument from Motion.
  2. The Argument from Efficient Causality.
  3. The Argument from Possibility and Necessity.
  4. The Argument from Grades of Goodness in Things, and
  5. The Argument from the Governance of the World.
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Of the five arguments put forward by Aquinas, the argument from governance of the world is the strongest. In this argument Aquinas states that God is the being “by whom all natural things are directed to their end” (Melchert 282). This is a strong argument in support of god’s existence because it explains the ability of animals to react to their environment, when they have no knowledge of why they do so. Of the remaining four arguments, the argument from grades of goodness, in which Aquinas claims that God is the measure of all things good, is arguably the weakest. This argument uses qualitative properties to measure “goodness”, and is therefore subject to opinion. Aquinas also fails to include the counter-measure to this qualitative grade of goodness, which must exist for all qualitative measurements.

In his argument from the governance of the world, Aquinas states that all natural bodies move towards an end. According to Aquinas, this movement is evident in these natural bodies as they always act in the same way, so as to obtain the best result. Since bodies lacking knowledge cannot move towards an end on their own, these creatures must be guided by another being which has knowledge and intelligence. It is this being which we call God (Melchert 281).

Aquinas’s argument for governance is a strong case for the existence of God. The Ability of animals to achieve an end with no knowledge of how they will do so is implausible. These ignorant creatures cannot possibly conceive how and by what means they will achieve their ends, but are able to do so anyways, obtaining the best results time after time. Because natural bodies lack the knowledge to change themselves, they must be a directed by a knowledgeable being. This being is God. For example: As the seasons change, the arctic hare is able to change the colour of its fur, so that it can better hide itself from predators. While the hare does not have the knowledge to actively change its colour, it does so anyways. This change in colour is caused by a governing force, which directs the hare to its end (the change in colour). This unseen force must be from a knowledgeable, intelligent being, to know when it is time to direct the change in colour of the hare. Such a being can only be God.

Aquinas’s argument for governance is one of his strongest; it clearly shows how God works in nature. Things that lack knowledge cannot move to an end, but require direction to reach it (Melchert 281). The fact that natural bodies receive this direction is one of the strongest arguments of Gods existence. The Inherent problem with Aquinas’s argument is that it conflicts with Charles Darwin, and his evolution theory. Darwin’s theory claims that the ability of a natural body to achieve an end is merely a process of natural selection, those creatures unable to meet the end simply die off. Even though it conflicts with Darwin, Aquinas’s argument can be manipulated to say that God is the force that gives animals the ability to evolve, retaining some of its strength.

While Aquinas’s argument for God’s governance of the world remains one of the strongest, the weakest of the five ways of proving god’s existence is the argument from grades of goodness in things. In this argument, Aquinas states that “the maximum in any genus is the cause of all that genus...therefore there must be also something which is to all beings the cause of their being, goodness, and every other perfection; and this we call God.” (Melchert 281) Though this is a valid argument for the existence of God, as it places God as the measure of all things good, it leaves several questions unanswered. The grade of goodness cannot be quantitatively defined, making it a qualitative observation that is open to interpretation. One man’s view of goodness could greatly differ from that of another’s conception of greater good. The second inherent fallacy in this argument is that it only gives one side of the scale, the ultimate goodness, what would be the opposite side? For every qualitative measure there must be a counter measure, (hot and cold; wet and dry, etc).

Aquinas fails to take this into account these counter measures in his argument, and instead argues that the maximum of the genus is the cause of all in that genus (Melchert 281). This argument does not allow for extreme opposites, which all qualitative measurements have, and for grades of goodness would be evil. By using qualitative measures, and not taking the opposite of the maximum into account, Aquinas’s argument loses much of its weight. While remaining valid, this omission of opposites makes the argument the weakest of the five.

St. Thomas Aquinas provides us with five strong arguments for God’s existence, each with it’s own values and flaws. The argument from governance of the world is the strongest. It places God as the director all things natural moving towards an end, which explains how bodies lacking knowledge can move to an end. Of the remaining four, the argument from grades of goodness is the weakest. This argument uses qualitative measures of goodness against God, but fails to take into account the opposite of these measures, which must exist for all qualitative observations. It is this lack of counter measures that takes away the support from the argument. Aquinas’s five arguments for proving God’s existence remain a corner stone of Christian theology. Each argument requires faith, as even in our scientifically advanced world, we cannot come up with a scientifically sound test for God’s existence.

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Friday, February 25, 2011

Term Paper on Revenge

Term Paper on Revenge

Many people today think about revenge and its many different forms. There are extreme forms and then there are the not so extreme forms. The main question that people think about is whether revenge is justifiable even if it is a not so extreme form. The answer to this question relies most on what the person’s morals are in life. Since revenge occurs so much in everyday life it is a very complex topic and the answer to whether it is justifiable or not changes from person to person.
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The ethics of revenge are definitely dependant on the person’s personal ethics. People must decide for themselves what their stance on revenge is. Different religions have different stances on what they think of revenge. Whether you are a strong believer or not may determine what you stance on revenge is. For example the catholic religion says to its followers to always forgive the person that has violated you and to never hate anyone. This may be a good way to go through life, but if you were to just forgive and forget someone it exposes you to be violated once again by that person or someone else. There are many other different religions that may preach some other belief about pertaining revenge or may say the same thing in some another way. There are many other issues that effect a person’s decision on revenge such as: their culture, personal experiences, their parent’s stance, and even their social class sometimes.

Revenge comes into everyday occurrences, sometimes a person may think that it is called for other times they may not. Lets say that someone tells another person a very personal secret and this secret is accidentally slipped out. The person who has been hurt may try to avenge the other person by telling a secret that they know about that person or will they just let it go? Another minor incident that may occur in everyday life is if some was to spill something on someone else. Do u think revenge is called for? One person may think that revenge is perfectly justifiable in this situation another person may think of this as a frivolous accident. These two instances may seem to someone very minor but they are good examples of everyday occurrences that may or may not require revenge. Then again there are the extreme instances that are not so common in a person’s everyday life such as the murder of someone’s good friend or their relative. Revenge in this case may certainly seem necessary in the person who was hurt by this action. Others however try to forget about what happened in order to move on in life. There are infinite instances that occur time after time.

My stance on whether revenge is justifiable or not is very mixed. I have honestly not thought about this topic enough to say what my stance is on the matter, also there are many different instances that I may think revenge is reasonable but then other times I think that it is not reasonable. The times when I think that revenge is not justifiable are when it would most likely just add to the chaos that was caused by the first action that took place. I believe that there are such things as accidents that just happen and should be forgivable. There are other types of people that are intensely hurt by a slight accident or misdeed. This type of person is easily driven to take vengeance on that person that hurt them. I myself do not agree with someone who takes revenge on someone else that by mistake spilled something on them or pushed them. There are other instances in life that are much more extreme than those. Other instances, which someone may think that revenge is completely necessary, would be if someone murdered a loved one. I completely understand why this person may think that revenge is totally reasonable. Whether or not their action of revenge is justifiable depends on how far they go to avenge them. If the person were to go to the degree of murdering that person that caused their deep hurt I would not agree with that; if they were to just simply put them away I would agree with that type of revenge. Relating revenge to current literature is very simple especially to the play Hamlet. Is the main character Hamlet justified in avenging his uncle for murdering his father? I personally think that Hamlet’s actions were justifiable.

One major event that may be very debatable to people currently is whether the vengeance being taken by the United States government towards Afghanistan. My stance on this subject is very biased but I believe that the actions taken by the government are very justified. An Afghan may think the total opposite of me they may think as well that their attacks are not wrong at all.

Revenge is it justifiable or not? After thinking about it even more the answer is still very ambiguous and debatable. There are many different instances and issues that a person’s mind goes through while thinking about this answer. The answer to this question lies directly on each person’s view about things. This question will always remain unanswerable.

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Research Paper on Queen Elizabeth

Research Paper on Queen Elizabeth

Elizabeth I was the queen of England and Ireland from 1553-1603. She had many talents, which enabled her to be a strong, capable leader. Elizabeth I was one of the most notable personalities of Tudor for many reasons, one being that she kept steadiness in a nation troubled by political and religious rebellion and maintained authority of the crown against the pressures of parliament.

Queen Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth’s birth was possibly seen as her father’s greatest disappointment as he already has a daughter Mary, and was hoping for a son and heir to the throne.
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When Henry died in the January of 1547 and his son Edward became King. Even though Mary and Elizabeth were officially illegitimate, before his death Henry had reinstated his two daughters into the line of succession. The order to the throne was Mary to follow Edward and Elizabeth to follow Mary. Edward died in 1553, which made Mary Queen of England. Mary was not a very popular queen, and was suspicious of Elizabeth. On November 17th 1558 Elizabeth finally succeeded to the throne. She was crowned Elizabeth Queen of England on January 15 1559. Although Elizabeth’s right to the throne was questioned, she eventually succeeded to become Queen of England.

Many changes were occurring around the time of Elizabeth such as religious, developments in knowledge and new ideas in England as well as throughout Europe. The world centered around Europe as America had only just been discovered, and was a land for adventures and explorers to discover and bring back to Europe items such as tobacco and potatoes. At this time the pope was arguably the most important person in Europe. France was troubled during the time of Elizabeth. It looked as though France was on the verge of rivaling with Spain as dominant power. Mary Queen of Scots claimed to be Queen of England, and England was venerable of an attack from both Scotland and France. Although France was officially catholic there were still a number of Protestants in the country. These people were called Huguenots. Literature bloomed through the works of Shakespeare, Marlowe, and Spenser. The Holy Roman Empire was a land made up of many provinces each governed by their own prince.

Scandinavian countries were monarchies, with Sweden and Denmark having their own sovereigns. Norway was under the rule of the Danish and Sweden was a protestant country.

Hungry and Poland were on the edge of the Turkish states and belonged to the Ottoman Empire.

The Ottomans were considered a threat to Christian Europe. Antwerp was the center of European trade in the Netherlands. During this time many Protestants fled to Europe bringing with them craftsmanship skills that England could learn.

Elizabeth was one of the most notable of her time from many reasons such as religious and political. She preserved solidity in a nation plagued by political and religious rebellion. Elizabeth eliminated religious unrest and took a strong protestant stand. She also re-established the protestant church. Elizabeth’s presence improved trade and the standard of living. She established the “poor law” which made every local parish responsible for their own poor people; this law lasted for around two hundred and thirty years. Homeless beggars were severely punished.

Elizabeth’s presence also helped unite the nation against foreign enemies. Elizabeth listened to the advice of the people around her, and would change a policy if it seemed unpopular.

Elizabeth’s religious compromise put many fears to rest. She proved she could lead in war as well as any other man could. Elizabeth was particularly wise in statecraft, and although she had the Tudor view that the crown remained higher over parliament she was tactful enough to avoid conflict between the two. When Elizabeth succeeded to the throne it meant the end of persecution for Protestants, and Catholics became aware that Elizabeth did not hold their religious beliefs like they passionately had been by Mary. Elizabeth was a dedicated Queen; in a way very few monarchs had been or have been since. She was a very determined woman and was one of the most popular Queens ever to reign. Under Elizabeth’s rule the nation became peaceful and prosperous.

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Thursday, February 24, 2011

Term Paper on Outsourcing

Research Paper on Outsourcing

Outsourcing is a strategic decision of a company to use an outside organization to perform work that is typically done within that company. This strict definition of the term covers only activities that were once internal to the company and includes only the process of moving the activity to the outside. Most companies involved in outsourcing, however, use a much broader definition. In this sense, the term can be defined as using a third party to service a particular product or using a technology provider to move into new delivery channels and markets. Outsourcing also includes managing the relationship between the buyer with its provider, or outsourcer, because nothing is more likely to lead to an unsuccessful venture than neglecting a partner (Lanz & Barr, 2000, p.1).

Like traditional selection process, the outsourcing process includes all the steps of planning, selecting, and managing the service providers. In comparison with purchasing or contracting out, outsourcing, however, differs in the strategy that drives it. In general, it is a strategy that allows companies to focus their talent and resources on improving and expanding activities that generate revenue, minimizing the effort spent on maintaining the infrastructure that supports the core of the business while also exploiting the skills, technology of some suppliers to strengthen their core competency as well as maintain their non-core sector (Murray & Kotabe, 1999, p.794; Leavy, 2001, p.47).
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Types of outsourcing

The range of arrangements between purchasers and service providers highlights a variety of outsourcing forms. Depend on the length of contracting time and the level of risk share, outsourcing arrangement can be classified into four types: total outsourcing, selective outsourcing, strategic alliance sourcing and insourcing (Currie & Willcocks, 1998, p.122).

Total outsourcing is when an organization chooses to contract out its service to a large single, preferred, trusted supplier. These contract usually last for five or ten years with the aim of nurturing partnership between the organization and that supplier. Total outsourcing enable the organization to concentrate on its core business activities, and remove the burden of having to manage and control what it considers to be a non-core service activity. However, total outsourcing carries with it the greatest interdependency between buyer and supplier and its success depends upon the development of a successful partnership between the two parties (Currie & Willcocks, 1998, p.126).

The notion that a single vendor cannot possess world-class capabilities in all areas of business leads to the view that companies should embark on selective outsourcing to multiple vendors. Selective outsourcing, sometimes called transaction-based contracts, which are usually shorter, single contracts, with a supplier who compete with other suppliers for the business of the client (Kakabadse, A. & Kakabadse, N., 2002, p.193). With this type of outsourcing, the interdependence of client and supplier is reduced to some extent as the client can flexibly switch from one supplier to another for the purpose of its business (Currie & Willcocks, 1998, p.126).

Strategic alliance sourcing is entering into an alliance or a joint venture with a supplier on the basic of shared risks and rewards. It might be implemented by selecting an existing supplier or forming a new one to which service can be outsourced. By doing this way, the organization can be able to influence the strategy and planning processes of the supplier as well as access to particular managerial and technical skills, which it does not have in-house (Currie & Willcocks, 1998, p.124). Strategic alliance sourcing might derive from the exposing of internal cost based activities to market forces, thereby turning them into separately managed profit centers, or have been viewed as a desired, alternative form of organization for the future (Chalos & Sung, in Kakabadse, A. & Kakabadse, N., 2002, p.193).

Insourcing is a strategy in which an organization would like to reduce risks and interdependency between it and the supplier by retaining an in-house service section and insource technical capability in the form of contractors in accordance with the peaks and troughs of the service needed. Insourcing solves the problem that, in some cases, the in-house technical capability is equal to, if not greater than, that of supplier; therefore, outsourcing would not gain benefits such as accessing special skills or human resources. However, there is no guarantee that an in-house service section, with contractors being managed internally as permanent staff, will create more effective service operations (Currie & Willcocks, 1998, p.127).

According to Murray and Kotabe (1999, p.792), when classifying outsourcing in terms of locational and ownership aspects of service sourcing strategy, there are also four types of outsourcing: internal versus external sourcing (ownership) and domestic versus global sourcing (location).

Why organizations outsource

Recently, increasingly rapid changes in all aspects of the environments, and in technology and international deregulation have challenged large corporations to compete on a global scale (Kanter, in Hendry, 1995, p.194). To meet this competition the giants had to learn to dance, to be flexible themselves, and to “do more with less”. Critically reviewing the sources of their value-added, many were beginning to contract out non-core functions and move towards to fast-moving, fashion-based industries (Hendry, 1995, p.194). Hendry also states that the forces of competition were greater by the effects of the recent recession, and cost-cutting in all forms became today essential. Companies were forced to look much harder than ever before at their efficiency. And among measures like downsizing, delayering, internal markets or reengineering, outsourcing also remained a key element of the cost-cutting mix (Kakabadse, A. & Kakabadse, N., 2002, p.193; Hendry, 1995, p.194).

However, reducing costs is not a unique reason that companies begin outsourcing services (Lanz & Barr, 2000, p.2). Sound reason could include improving service quality and management, focusing more on the core competencies of the organization as there is a change or expected change in the company’s markets. Gaining access to new technology and skills, reducing headcount, enhancing the organization's capability to develop new products and services, are identified as reasons for outsourcing. Shortening cycle times for market delivery, customer response is also a reason for contracting out (Leavy, 2001, p.48; Lanz & Barr, 2000, p.2; Bailey, Masson & Raeside, 2002, p.88).

What to outsource

The reasons why to outsource is certainly obvious; however, the most basic strategic choice is what to outsource (Leavy, 2001, p.48). Recently, companies seem to favor extensive outsourcing. More and more companies are being advised to concentrate on core activities and outsource as much as possible the rest. This approach has so much popular that it is sometimes hard for us to imagine why high levels of integration ever made commercial or strategic sense.

For instance, back to the early 1980s, the IT industry was dominated by a small number of manufacturers, like IBM and Digital, which controlled the key technologies in both hardware and software. These companies sold very high margin products directly to industrial and commercial customers. However, the situation, then, has changed dramatically. The IT industry has recorded rapid growth through the increasing convergence of computing and telecommunications, and has seen the emergence of a new mass-market segment following the arrival of the personal computer. This explosion resulted in the growing of the sub-supply sector, and gradually, contributed to the emergence of independent service providers in many non-core areas like construction, maintenance, and distribution. They are competitive in scales and reputation. As a result, today's industry leaders, like Dell and Cisco, now use extensive outsourcing. Cisco outsources most of its manufacturing and much of its product development. All of Dell's software and non-assembly hardware are provided by outsiders. Dell has no plants for making microchips, printed circuit boards, keyboards or monitors. It takes orders directly from customers and uses third parties for distribution and servicing. Its value proposition is focused on the provision of quality, customization and responsiveness at prices that competitors cannot match (Leavy, 2001, p.48).

James Brian Quinn, an expert in management, (cited in Leavy, 2001, p.48) states that extensive outsourcing is becoming more and more compelling, not just in the IT, but across the commercial spectrum. When properly developed, 'strategic outsourcing substantially lowers costs, risks and fixed investment while greatly expanding flexibility, innovative capabilities, and opportunities for creating higher value-added and shareholder returns'.

In terms of what to outsource, Ventkatesan (in Leavy, 2001, p.48) suggests that firms should concentrate on main components that are fundamental to product differentiation, and subcontract components that customers do not consider important. However, outsourcing, in this case, borders a too low level, which limits its potential.

On the other hand, Bask (2001, p.478) recommends that a company can outsource all of its logistics services through one provider once having core capabilities such as marketing and selling to enhance the performance of the company. Those services could comprise of transportation, forwarding, warehousing, price ticketing and distribution to retail stores.

Contrarily, Quinn and Hilmer (quoted in Leavy, 2001, p.48), are more adventurous when they advise that a firm should outsource any activity, except those where “it can achieve definable pre-eminence and provide unique value for customers”, or for which it has a “critical strategic need”. The most important thing is the opportunity to innovate, learn and create value with “best-in-class” suppliers.

Marketing has traditionally outsourced some of its functions to third parties like distribution and advertising, and today could be customers (Sheth, Sisodia & Sharma, 2000, p.60). For example, a company may contract with an outside vendor to serve certain customers - a change the customers may not even be aware of.

Fundamentally, the logic of customer outsourcing is to make unprofitable customers become profitable by making them a part of another company which has a more favourable cost structure (Sheth, Sisodia & Sharma, 2000, p.60).

Benefits gain from outsourcing

Adopting outsourcing arrangements, companies could get four broad benefits from these strategies as follows:

Specialization
Management must be focused on the areas which companies competitive advantages (Lanz & Barr, 2000, p.2). Having other suppliers in charge of supporting goods and services allows companies to concentrate on those activities in which they can establish distinctive core competence. By doing so, it allows companies for achieving economies of scale, thus producing goods or services more efficiently while improving quality through the application of specialist knowledge. In turn, the achievement of scale economies and quality improvement promotes the company’s competitive advantage (Kakabadse, A. & Kakabadse, N., 2000, p.109).

Speed
The rapid changes in the environment require organizations to be able to make and implement decisions quickly. The larger the infrastructure, the slower the company will change. Therefore, depending on the solution selected, an outsourcing solution can be up and run in a very short time (Lanz & Barr, 2000, p.2).

Flexibility
Enterprises that are to survive in competitive markets need to be able appropriately adjust their infrastructure scale and scope at low cost and a rapid rate (Hayek cited in Kakabadse, A. & Kakabadse, N., 2000, p.109). It is apparent that small enterprises with their clients, cooperated by performance-related contracts, have the ability to adjust more quickly and cost effectively to changing conditions than large integrated corporations.

Every company has limits on the resources it can call upon, the constant challenge is to ensure that these limited resources are directed towards the most important activities. Outsourcing allows the organization to redirect its resources from non-essential activities towards those essential activities, generating greater rewards (Lanz & Barr, 2000, p.2; Kakabadse, A. & Kakabadse, N., 2000, p.109).

Efficiency
Geography does not protect against cheaper products or services any more, because consumers can now shop globally (Lanz & Barr, 2000, p.2). Market competition usually leads to an environment of competitive pricing, thus forcing players to lower cost of goods and service delivery. In order to maintain a cost-driven competitive advantage, an efficient mechanism for reducing resource costs is outsourcing (Williamson, in Kakabadse, A. & Kakabadse, N., 2000, p.110). However, outsourcing only brings in efficiency where competition itself is an effective driver of price.

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Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Online Thesis Abstract Writing

Online Thesis Abstract Writing Help

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Research Paper on Augustus Caesar

Research Paper on Augustus Caesar

Augustus may have been the most important figure in Roman history. Through his long life (63 BC - AD 14) and his deeds, the failing Republic was converted to an Empire that endured for centuries.

After the great dictator Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, there was a struggle for power among the second triumvirate. Through the struggle, Octavian, Julius Caesar’s grand nephew, would come out on top and establish himself as the ruler of Rome. He became a different leader than his uncle in that he did not take the name of emperor or king but as simply the first citizen. Octavian came to the name Augustus Caesar in 27 BC meaning “revered one”. He became one, if not the greatest, leader as he helped the Republic overcome civil war and turmoil and established a new Roman peace known as Pax Roman. Thus for over 200 years, the empire was not damaged by wars and grew to know prosperity and growth.
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Pax Roman was achieved by the institution of a number of reforms. The empire’s economy prospered, through farming, manufacturing, and trade, and the Roman Army was strong enough to defend the frontier. First, Augustus brought the military under control. The number of troops was reduced and a fixed rate of pay was established in terms of service. He began to launch a series of military conquests that expanded the empire’s frontiers. When the empire reached its greatest size, Augustus had the troops serve to defend the current boundaries, and not conquer new areas. At the time of Augustus’ death, there was an estimated 250,000 to 300,000 soldiers that guarded the empire.

Next, there were many government reforms. Although Augustus let the Senate continue, it had little power and yet the Senators were happy to feel that they had a say in Augustus’ government. This new government maintained order, enforced the laws, and defended the frontiers. Provinces came to be honorably governed under the laws of Pax Roman. Roman law also came to unify the empire. The laws of the Twelve Tables established in the 400s BC, were modified and expanded to fit the needs of the new empire. Because of this, the Roman system of law later became the foundation for the laws of most European countries that had been part of the Roman Empire. If Augustus would never have come out as dictator or never been alive, the world’s government up to this day would be drastically different with a different foundation.

The Pax Roman era brought great prosperity in the form of trade, amusements and religion. Throughout this time, agriculture remained the primary occupation of people in the empire. New types of agricultural workers called colonus came to be in order to replace slaves in the empire. Comers greatly increased during this time because Alexandria and Rome became the Roman Empire’s greatest commercial center because they were the easiest trade route. Living conditions improved greatly for both the wealthy and the poor. Because of Augustus’s rule, the people came to know prosperity.

The arts came into even more light during this era as well. Romans enjoyed the theater, especially light comedies and satires. Most of the traditions of the Roman theater still exist in today’s theater, including staging and spectacle. Augustus encouraged the development of art and literature. A number of Romans produced works of great originality during this era, which are still studied up to this day. Without them, many of today’s ideals might be different. Such writers included Virgil, Ovid, and Tacitus. Along with the development of literature came the development of the Latin language. During the period of the Roman Empire, Latin was the language spoken by people in the West and Greek was spoken in the East. As the Romans expanded their territories they also expanded the Latin language. It has since acted as the basis of today’s vernacular languages including, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, and other such languages. The language also contributed the system of the Roman numerals the alphabet.

The peace of Pax Roman brought the development of Christianity and the organization of the church that still exist today.

Augustus brought an era of prosperity and peace to the world of Rome. Without him, the Republic might have lasted longer and delayed the achievements of the Empire. He brought reform to government, military and the arts. Everything that came into the new Roman Empire under Augustus Caesar continues into the world today. Latin became the basis of all romantic languages, their government became the basis of many western civilizations, and the arts of theater and literature passed on to create new forms of art and personal expression. If Augustus had never been born or had never gained the leadership role he did, Rome would not have been the same at all, it could have in fact still been a broken Republic. In addition, without Augustus Caesar, the entire world would be different because it would not have the influence and basis of the great Roman Empire.

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Term Paper on Diabetes

Research Paper on Diabetes

Scientists have just barley begun to figure out the genetics on Diabetes. Diabetes is such a common genetic disorder, it makes it much more complicated for scientists to learn about it.

There is two types of Diabetes, Type 1 Diabetes which usually develops in children, and Type 2 Diabetes which usually develops in adults.

Type 1 Diabetes (Insulin Dependant) called maturity-onset diabetes of youth (MODY.) This occurs when too little insulin is produced and the body’s own immune system is attacking the insulin producing areas in the pancreas. This type of Diabetes runs in families and several relevant genes have been identified. This comes from an autosomal dominant gene. Many children are affected with this type, and it really does not run in a real specific race or ethnic group because it is so common. Yet, after so much research being done, there isn’t much genetic history behind this disease.
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When people have Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough insulin. The blood sugar cant pass into the body’s cells to be burned. Instead, the blood sugar rises to a high level and overflows through the kidneys into the urine. When sugar enters the urine, water must go out with the sugar.

The results are the usual symptoms of Diabetes:
  • Frequent urination
  • Frequent drinking of liquids
  • Frequent eating of food
  • Weight loss
  • Changes in behavior
  • Bed wetting
  • Tiredness
  • Weakness
  • Blurry vision
If any of these symptoms occur, you should contact your doctor immediately, and they should know what to do from there. The child may have to come into the hospital to get their blood sugar tested and if it happens to be really low or high, the child may have to stay overnight at the hospital to get the blood sugar regulated.

A person with Diabetes is at risk with a lot of things, but for the most part, they can lead a normal life. There are few risk factors with diabetes that may shorten one’s life, but if handled the right way, it should not be a problem. In order to stay healthy, a person with Diabetes must follow a healthy daily diet plan, check blood sugars daily, inject insulin when needed, and exercise regularly.

Case Study
Charlie Eklund was diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes in the fall of 2001 at the age of four. He was hospitalized for four days, and hated it. Charlie has a mom, dad, older sister, and older brother. At first, it took the family awhile to get used to and understand his disorder, but after about four months the family learned how to cope with it. Charlie leads a normal child’s life, but with a little twist. He wakes up in the morning around 6:30 and tests his blood sugar, eats breakfast, and then takes an insulin injection. Charlie’s meals are normal food meals with a limitation an usually consist of three to four carbohydrates. Charlie has three snacks a day, one between each meal consisting of about two carbohydrates. He tests his blood sugars and eats lunch between 12:00 and 1:30 in the afternoon. Charlie does not usually test before his snacks during the day unless he feels really low or high. At dinner time, around 5:00 and 7:00 at night, Charlie tests his blood sugars, eats, then takes an insulin injection. And last, before he goes to bed around 8:30-9:30 at night, he tests his blood sugars and then eats a snack. Charlie has been dealing with diabetes for a year and a half now, and continues to be as normal as a child as possible. He attends Kindergarten every other day, and sometimes daycare. He is not a wrestler for Isanti and was just recently on national news Dateline for his extreme interest in fishing. Charlie is living proof that a person can live a normal life with a genetic disorder. Although, research is still being done, there is still no cure for Diabetes.

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Warning!!! All free sample term papers and college term paper examples on Diabetes topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education.

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Tuesday, February 22, 2011

Need Thesis Proposal Writer?

Need Thesis Proposal Writer?

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Term Paper on Boot Camp

Research Paper on Boot Camps

The last three days of basic training were marked by night infiltration, bivouac and a fifteen kilometer march back to the barracks. These were three grueling days, even compared to the rest of boot camp. We marched out to a bivouac site carrying m-16s and sixty pound packs.

The route we took to get there was ten kilometers of long steep Kentucky foothills, while harsh and trying it was a pale indicator of what was to come.

When we arrived at the site we were ordered to dig one full bunker per platoon and each person to dig a prone firing pit. The bunker is about five feet deep by three across, with the prone firing pit only about twelve inches deep, eighteen across, and six feet long. We used what is basically a sixteen inch shovel that we carried on our packs. This doesn’t sound too hard unless you’ve just marched ten kilometers at a blistering (literally) pace and are digging in the side of a mountain of about 40% rocks on no food. Once you dug in you had to lay in your firing hole for hours in the prone position not talking and doing anything but sleeping.
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Late afternoon we marched to a night infiltration training site two kilometers away. Once there we sat and listened to a couple of hours of instructions and lectures and a couple more hours of waiting and sitting. At this point keeping your eyes open is like the last mile of a marathon, but to sleep even for a moment is to suffer greatly. Finally we lined up to cross the course. The course was about sixty yards across, sand with logs and barbed wire, and flooded with water. It was November and a cold day at that. We had to low crawl across the course very slowly and methodically, keeping proper bearing the entire time. Keeping bearing was difficult because in the low crawl you have your face down in the sand and they were firing live rounds a few feet over our heads from heavy machine guns. In the center of the pit were huge steel rings lying on the ground. In those twenty foot rings mortars were constantly exploding showering you with sand, water, and fear. The noise was deafening. Once across, you charged a field and did the usual waiting for hours. Only now it was cold and dark and you were soaked and shivering and dreading the night ahead.

The night ahead was worse yet. We got back two hours later than our usual bedtime. Everyone had to take a two hour watch. You had time to change or sleep and almost everyone slept in their wet fatigues. The watch was horrific, almost beyond what I could bear. It was raining all night and you had to be vigilant as it was rumored the drill sear gents were going to try to raid your perimeter and if you didn’t see them you would be toast. I won’t even get into the ways you can be made into toast. There was no raid and we woke in the morning surprised we could still stand. I got about two hours sleep. We did field exercises all day that weren’t so bad accept for the fatigue. The rest of the bivouac is a blur to me. I was deliriously tired and hungry the entire time.

At two the last morning we woke to the usual unflattering screams and shivered around fire barrels wondering what was going on. They lined us into marching formation and told us to move out. We marched for hours up and down the steepest and longest hills I have seen away from The Rockies. We marched fifteen kilometers with our sweat freezing on us, blistering feet, rubbed raw crotch, and far beyond fatigue. I really can’t describe the pain of this march on a soft American boy like myself. It was the worst thing in a long line of worst things that I had ever experienced to that point.

At the end of the march near our barracks there was a ring of tiki torches in a small field. They turned and marched us into the ring in a single file line. My entire company stood there in circular row. You could see every one of them, faces barely lit by the dancing light of the torches in the still dark predawn. Our company commander was there with even higher officers beside him. Our first sergeant was there with even higher sergeants beside him. A colonel I didn’t recognize gave us some rousing speech in which we were honored for the first time in weeks as humans, and more as soldiers. Sergeants came around the circle and pinned little round gold US pins on us and congratulated us on becoming soldiers. These were the same sergeants that had belittled and dehumanized us for two months and now they spoke to us as humans. Even I couldn’t help but feel a little stupid pride, skeptical as I was about all this army nonsense.

I believe this rite of passage gave almost every private there a feeling of great acceptance and pride. Many of them cried with joy, or at least relief. Relationships within our platoon which had been very rocky at best, improved immediately. We didn’t get to sleep that day but the fatigue wasn’t that bad because of the feeling of accomplishment. I, being a little older than the others, could see the feeling of immense pride on the faces of all the other privates. As a rite of passage the three day torture and ceremony were extremely effective at solidifying the group and changing the personal identity of most of the company. The next day was graduation day when they would all get to see their families again and be done with boot camp once and for all. For me graduation day meant the opportunity to desert, which I did.

I do still feel some pride from going through boot camp, especially the final days and ceremony at the end. I have noticed also that I am different from people who have not gone through boot camp. I can recognize a soldier by their carriage now. While the main feeling I got for my group and culture through this was alienation, I believe that most everyone else got a deep sense of belonging from the ordeal. It was extremely interesting as study in the ways that one can be formed to fit into an entirely different sub culture and changed by application of another’s will and finally being accepted by that same oppressor.

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Warning!!! All free sample term papers and college term paper examples on Boot Camp topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education.

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