Monday, January 31, 2011

Research Paper on Mrs. Dalloway

Research Paper on Mrs. Dalloway

"Mrs. Dalloway" is considered by many critics to be one of Virginia Woolf’s greatest novels revealing a mastery of form and technique for which she became known, stream of consciousness technique. The book itself is not like any other book in the traditional sense that is emphasizing the plot, characters, actions, etc. Rather it traces the reactions and feeling of the characters as they go around London, meeting each other. The narration shifts from one character to another so that the events of the day are told from different points of view. And it consists of two seemingly unrelated narratives, one telling us the story of Clarissa and the other the story of Septimus.

The story takes place in London. The timing is a mid June day and the year is 1923, after the Great War.


The story begins at 10 am when Clarissa goes out to buy flowers. She wants to throw a party in the evening of the same day. On her way to the florist, she thinks about her old family house at Bourton, and of Peter her old lover. She sees Hugh Whitbread an old friend of hers and invites him to the party. As she walks down Bond St., she passes by two window shops. The first, being that of a bookshop, displays a verse by Shakespeare “Fear no more the heat of the sun/ Nor the furious winter’s rage.” And the other one displaying dead fish on a block of ice. Clarissa thinks about life and exclaims: ”That is all “. She also thinks of her daughter Elizabeth and her tutor Miss Kilman. We come to know that Clarissa hates miss Kilman for introducing Elizabeth to religion.

Clarissa gets to the florist and in the mean while two incidents paralyzes the motion in the street. One is a very important looking motorcar and the other is an airplane soaring in the sky. Among those in the street were Septimus and his wife Lucrezia. The couple was on their way to see a Dr. Bradshaw.

Clarissa returns home and Lucy, her servant, tells her that Lady Bruton has invited Richard, her husband, alone to lunch. This makes her feel left out and insulted. Clarissa retires to her attic. Woolf here insinuates about sexuality and virginity mentioning the white starched bed sheets. She tells us about Clarissa’s sexual life. Clarissa reflects her sexual life and wonders if she has failed Richard sexually. She recalls here homosexual encounter with Sally Seton when she kissed her on the lips. She then goes down to mend he green dress and to her surprise Peter Walsh comes in. he tells her that he is in London because he wants to see about a divorce for a married girls he is in love with in India. All in all, the meeting was not a successful one and Peter greets Clarissa quickly and rushes out as Elizabeth comes in.

Peter now annoyed and irritated wonders in the streets of London. He walks to Regent’s Park, smokes a cigar and falls in a deep sleep. He sees a vision and wakes up. He recalls the scene at Bourton in which he knows that Clarissa would marry Richard and not him.

During this time Septimus and Rezia are in Regent’s Park. Rezia leaves Septimus for a walk; feeling embarrassed because of the strangeness of her husband and asks herself why should she suffer. Peter thinking how London has changed and of Clarissa again, sees the couple arguing and thinks that it is a lovers’ fight.

Now the narration shifts to Septimus. We are told his story of how he has volunteered to go to war. He wanted to be a good soldier, that is why he forbidded himself from feeling. In the aftermath of the war, he realizes that all his romantic believes about the war and patriotism are nothing but idiocy and that his lack of feeling is a great crime. Woolf here tells us the experience of Septimus with doctors, Dr. Holmes and Dr. Bradshaw. We kind of hear her own voice echoing in the background.

The couple heads to see Bradshaw and as they reach his clinic, the doctor knows immediately that Septimus is severely ill and that it is best if he be treated in an asylum. Rezia here feels angry and deserted.

The narration shifts now to tell us about Hugh Whitbread. Woolf ironically describes his aristocratic manners. He meets with Richard and goes to Lady Bruton’s house for lunch. We know later that Lady Bruton has invited them both only to use them. She wanted to make use of Hugh’s style in writing letters and of Richard’s ideas as a politician to write a letter to the Times magazine about emigration to Canada. Also Lady Bruton intimidated Richard by telling him that Peter Walsh is in town. In fact, Richard did feel jealous and intended to tell Clarissa that he loves her in so many words when he goes home.

And as he intended he buys Clarissa some flowers and when he gets home he gives her the flowers but could not find the words to tell her that he loves her. In a way Clarissa understood. Very little happy time was spent together, and Richard goes off to mind his business. Clarissa now alone, wonders how she had never had any interest in politics. Her interest was always throwing parties. She feels great pleasure in it and thinks that it is her gift. It is her offering to the world, she thinks.

The door opens; it is Elizabeth telling her mother that she is going with Miss Kilman to the Army and Navy Surplus stores. Miss Kilman hates Clarissa as much as Clarissa hates Miss Kilman. Kilman finds refuge in religion while Clarissa finds the notion detestable and cruel. Clarissa feels that this lady wants to take her daughter from her. In fact Clarissa was right to think so because Miss Kilman’s intention was to do influence Elizabeth and make her hate her mother.

Clarissa then thinks about love and religion. To her both create the urge to control and dominate. She overlooks the old lady next door and to her this lady is a symbol of independence and privacy.

Miss Kilman and Elizabeth are now at the stores drinking tea. Kilman wanted to pour her unhappiness onto Elizabeth to gain her sympathy. Although Elizabeth is influenced by Miss Kilman’s ideas but she cannot but find her disgusting and overpowering. Elizabeth leaves Miss Kilman alone and wonders off home. Kilman now sits alone like a defeated beast and then heads for a sanctuary of religion. And Elizabeth wondering in the streets of London, reaches Strand, a working quarter of London, she thinks about Miss Kilman’s ideas about the poor and about professions being open to women of her generation. Elizabeth does not want to be like her mother, throwing parties and caring only about societal conventions, but she aspires to have a career of her own.

Septimus now overlooking the Strand feels normal. He has overcome his fear some how and sits chatting normally with Rezia who is sewing a hat. All was well until Dr. Holmes barges in; he wanted to take Septimus to the asylum. Septimus wanted to escape this fate and found the window an only exist. He enjoys the rays of the sun till the last minute and then throws himself out.

Peter Walsh sees the ambulance carrying Septimus’s body and considers it a sign of civility. When he reaches his hotel he finds that Clarissa has sent him a letter. He dines out and then decides to go to Clarissa’s party after all. When he reaches the Dalloway’s, he finds servants running around in final preparations for the party. He sees Clarissa nervous greeting her guest as they arrive. Clarissa is worried that the party will be a failure and feels defensive under Peter’s critical eye. He thinks that all English people are snobs.

The prime minister is announced and then a Lady Rosseter who turned out to be no one but Sally Seton. Both Sally and Peter sit together talking. Clarissa sees them as a link to her past. The Bradshaws were also invited and they showed up late at the Party. Sir William Bradshaw tells Richard about some of his patients among those Septimus. And Lady Bradshaw tells Clarissa that Septimus has committed suicide that same evening. It is noted that all the characters of the novel are present at Clarissa’s party, all but Rezia and Septimus.

Clarissa affected deeply by the news of Septimus’s suicide, she retires to be alone in a room. She identifies herself with the pain of Septimus and then considers him as a Christ figure, sacrificing himself for her to have her parties.

In the mean while Peter is searching for Clarissa and as she appears he feels great happiness “for there she was”. This conclusion is very much a beginning as it is an ending.

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Essay on Power of the Media

Essay on Power of the Media

The media has impacted society for decades by selectively reporting what they feel the public needs to know. Therefore, reporters are able to brainwash their audience by offering numerous distractions including opinions. Opinions, true or false, often alter society's view. In the sniper case, as in many other cases, instead of informing the pubic, the media inundates the viewer with biased information. The sniper case of October 2002 is a prime example of the media controlling and manipulating public knowledge. The media frenzy hurts these cases more than it helps them. The media not only informed society about the sniper case but also included numerous distractions and irrelevant information and attracted unnecessary publicity.

Although the media was able to help solve the sniper case, all the distraction and superfluous information was unnecessary. The lack of relevant information provided in the sniper case caused news producers to get creative by adding extraneous elements in their productions. For example, the media often showed reenactments. In the sniper case, manikins were used to demonstrate the positions of the bodies. They also used manikins to demonstrate the path of the bullet as it traveled through the body. Not only were the demonstrations harmful to the victims’ families, but they were also irrelevant.



Reporters often overwhelm viewers with irrelevant information and useless opinions. Journalist, Mike Drew admits that in the first few days of the sniper attacks, it was unknown whether the sniper was attacking alone or was a male or female. However, the 24-hour news channels were using “he” and “him” when referring to the sniper.

There were also assumptions that the shooter was Caucasian, although he was African American (Drew). The police had few leads and limited the amount of information released to the press. However, the media reported any information remotely related to the case. At one point, the media had the public focusing on a white van.

Everyone at the crime scenes searched for a white van; unfortunately, white vans are extremely common. Innocent people willingly surrendered to being searched; their only crime was driving a white van. Looking for suspicious people or events might have been more effective in this case; however, the media gave away what might have been a possible lead. Therefore, it is important to remember that everything the media reports is not only available to the honest public but also to the potential suspect and other unlawful people.

Although officials limited the amount of information released, reporters often did a little investigating on their own. Through investigation, reporters may obtain crucial information. However, releasing information too soon increases the chances of hindering the police from solving the case; it is also possible to give away crucial information that could jeopardize the case. Not only does it make the case more difficult to solve, but all the media coverage puts ideas into the minds of criminals allowing them to learn from the mistakes of others. Through the media and the internet, it has become easier for violent offenders to obtain information. All of the media coverage assists criminals when perfecting their strategy. In the sniper case, the shooter was able to prove that whatever patterns he had, he could break. Police believed “he was striking in a small area of Montgomery County,” James Alan Fox, a criminologist at Northeastern University in Boston, explains; however, “his next move, of course, was to go to Virginia. So they said he is only targeting adults, children are safe. So his next move was to kill a child” (Stolberg). The media’s false assumptions helped perfect the sniper’s plan by misleading officials.

The media failed to consider any circumstances in their reports. Reporters used all sources of information that might have pertained to the case. Some reporters had no problem attacking officials or ruining reputations as long as they obtained “news.” News broadcasting stations focused solely on the sniper case for weeks. At times the media was forced to report opinions instead of facts; opinions are easy to misinterpret. Analysts, doctors, professionals, and nobodies were constantly being interviewed, sharing their thoughts and opinions. The reporters, like their viewers, often make false assumptions based on the opinions of “professionals.” Due to the lack of “news,” reporters interviewed Mohammad's father on CNN. Mohammad's father's relationship to the case is unknown. The father had not seen Mohammad in four years, nor were the viewers able to understand anything he said due to "technical difficulties" and the fact that he spoke with a Jamaican accent. As long as the interview draws in viewers, the station is content, despite the fact that the viewers gain no knowledge from watching the program.

When “battling for scraps of information” to draw in viewers, reporters often let things “get out of control”(Drew). The news deals with actual events in our communities; it has an enormous impact on our lives. Therefore, the media has the power to shape the public's opinion. Due to the media’s effect on the sniper case, a federal judge has refused to allow open access to the court hearing for 17-year-old John Lee Malvo. The Washington Post, Baltimore Sun, and New York Times filed motions to be allowed to attend the hearing; however, the media has already planted a seed in the viewers’ mind. There is no question; the public has decided John Mohammad and his companion, John Lee Malvo, are guilty. Although it has not been proven, the power of suggestion the media has over the public has become stronger than the facts. Everyone wants the case to be closed, and there is comfort in an arrest that the media supports. The sniper is obviously a criminal genius; could he have framed Mohammad? The gun was in his vehicle, so does it belong to him? Two lives are at stake; reporters should not be the ones to decide their punishment, but too much faith has been put into the media.

There is a fine line between news and gossip. The effects of the media on society are critical. It was obvious in the sniper case there was little information and a lot of speculation. Instead of reporting the news and informing society, the media reported anything related to the case, whether the information found was relevant or not.

In the media’s defense, reporters often quote the First Amendment: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibit the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or of the right of the people peaceable to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances." However, the founding fathers could not foresee the future, and at one time, a man's integrity was his bond. Hence, now days, reporters should use honor in their reporting. The media should look not only at the facts but consider the impact of those they report on.

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Sunday, January 30, 2011

Research Paper on Moon Landing

Research Paper on Moon Landing

July 20, 1969 is a defining moment for an entire generation of Americans, a historical day on which astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first man to set foot on the Earth's moon...or did he? Could this triumphant event just have been an elaborate plan fabricated in a secured sound studio? The American public, blinded by their swelling national pride and desire to beat the commies to space, ate up the entire convoluted scheme so deviously cooked up by NASA?

There are definitely some cracks in the conjured up story so masterfully invented by NASA that on the surface seem like nothing, but actually gives them away. Technology in the last 60's and early 70's is laughable by today's standards; computers then had about the thinking power of a modern day toaster oven and the computers they used, in size, took up more space than the ship had room for. Was the minimal amount of technology in this era really enough to get three men out of the Earth's atmosphere and two of them to the moon? NASA might have originally pursued their lofty goal of a moon landing with high expectations and the belief they could really pull it off but with severe limitations, a decade old deadline to keep, and to save face in front of the soviets what else could the NASA scientists do? It is just too damn convenient that NASA scientists could have made such astounding progress so fast and with such efficiency.


The hard facts speak for themselves. When the lunar module lands on the moon its engines exert approximately 3000lbs of pressure. Now this should have left an enormous hole in the ground, but no hole was left behind. NASA does all moon landings on the light side of the moon because of the supposed radio difficulty on the dark side. I don't care what kind of special protective suit the astronauts were wearing, with the temperature on the moon being an average of 260 to 280F they would have fried. Furthermore, the extreme temperature variations from shadow to sunlight would have caused significant contraction and expansion on the astronaut's equipment making it almost certain they would breakdown and fail. The moon is just too damned hot to land on, let alone have astronauts collect rocks, play golf, and take a wealth of pictures to be sent back to Earth.

The alleged Apollo space missions brought back breathtaking film and still pictures to be marvelled at, but also to be scrutinized. Even though the moon would have been too hot to keep film from melting the pictures came out surprisingly clear. The phoney moon pictures were spectacularly done, but in some (not just the ones with unidentified shadows) there lies the hidden truth. Some photographs seem to be softly lit, showing a gradual shading effect like on Earth. These photographs must be forged because on the moon the shadows are pitch black and the light blindly bright. Something lightly shaded like some of the pictures is impossible because on the moon secondary light sources can't be used. For example try shining a flashlight at the sun and see what you can light up. In all the lunar film there are crosshairs marking distance. Some of the crosshairs in the pictures appear to be behind an object while others are in front of it. How could this be? This could not happen unless the crosshairs were put in after the photograph was made. Now there are always three astronauts on every Apollo mission, one must stay in the module while the other two can get out. So why in a certain picture are there three astronauts? Two reflected from the third's helmet. Perhaps a breach in protocol, or perhaps a grave mistake during an artistic photography session by NASA.

Now there are always jackasses that believe in the NASA conspiracy, but their only point is that there are no stars in any lunar pictures. Well it is true, as stated before astronauts always land on the light side of the moon. Try going outside during the day and count how many stars you're going to see.

Many Americans believe there was a conspiracy by the government in the JFK assassination, so why don't they believe in the NASA conspiracy? The great national pride an entire generation felt for being the first on the moon is blinding the American public in plain view of extremely convincing evidence even more damaging then the "magic bullet theory". This evidence clearly shows that the entire Apollo space program is an elaborate charade put on by NASA. The hoax has gone on long enough. Even though the moon landing is a cherished memory for many I think the vast majority of the American public would rather know the truth.

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Essay on Mining

Essay on Mining

In The Mountain, the Miner and the Lord, Harry M. Caudill does an absolutely profoundly superb job of describing life as it truly was for most coal miners whether they were white or black. To begin with coal country, located mostly within Kentucky and West Virginia, is simply over impoverished and cannot be described in any other manner. The coal mining areas were the poorest most underdeveloped areas to begin with and, as far as the U.S. goes, still are today.

Life has never been easy, overindulgent, or flamboyant for the people in this area. Caudill does a perfect job of pushing this idea forth and describing the emotions of one man in particular so that we may know, as a new and unknowledgeable generation, what life really was like for some persons of the hardest working generation to thus far grace our country.



I believe the reality Caudill creates with his images is beyond compare. Throughout this short story there are many passages that take me straight to the rugged and beautiful coal mining country of Kentucky, and even beyond that to the poor desolate company towns during the unarguably most desperate time of this century. Caudill’s passage “Now as he trudged along the rain-drenched street in the last light of the dying day Sam sagged beneath a new burden. As he turned and mounted the three wooden steps to his door he carried the only food he possessed: a wedge of cheese and a five-cent box of soda crackers. The fire in the grate had dimmed to a mere handful of glowing coals that responded slowly when he knocked out the aches and added lumps of fresh fuel.” I believe is one of his best and tells the life story of a mining man quite well (324). First of all it seems as if the small towns as a whole have the general character of being gloomy, depressing, and wet, and Caudill makes this evident with his description of the muddy street. Living conditions were inevitably poor, with most miners living in small wooden dwellings that were barely more than shacks. One can easily imagine a tiny and drafty all wood structure roofed with black tar paper and drenched with sooty rain. As one nears the end of the passage one sees what is clearly the worst part of being a miner during the depression.

Unhappiness is abound and unavoidable, but our character Sam does a wonderful job of trying. He has next to nothing to eat and barely has a source of heat. Warmth and nourishment are two of life’s blessings that we often take for granted, but Sam did not. The best part about this is that Caudill makes all of this perfectly visible and even somewhat tangible to his audience.

Caudill does a wonderful job with both ethos and pathos, however logos is not very necessary.

Caudill grew up in this very area and was actually a personal acquaintance of Sam Hawkins. The story in itself is a very emotional one, but when added to Caudill’s perfectly concise descriptions the reader finds himself in Kentucky. I do not know if any one person could have done a more accurate job of portraying the life of Sam Hawkins than Caudill, as he did through his imagery, pathos, and ethos.

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Saturday, January 29, 2011

Research Paper on Miss Brill

Research Paper on Miss Brill

In many stories, a major character trait of a protagonist is often presented by his or her own actions and conversations. However, in the "Miss Brill"? the minor characters serve to present her major character trait. In the story, the minor characters around Miss Brill function to reveal her major character trait of isolation. Since Miss Brill always stares at outside world from her personal view point, readers have to interpret all the thing or event she sees. Thus, we should look at the minor characters carefully and then we can find out her isolation is revealed especially by the beautiful woman with the bunch of flowers, the ermine toque, the old invalid gentleman, and the young couple.


First, the beautiful woman is similar to Miss Brill. In the story, only a couple of sentences are used to describe the beautiful woman but she isn't a trivial character. Through her behavior, we can imagine what had happened before. It is clear that she seems to be nervous and angry. We can notice this by her action; she throw the flowers away as if they'd been poisoned. Maybe she had been proposed by a man with the bunch of flowers, but she must have rejected the man because probably she doesn't want to accept the man. This situation is contrast to how Miss Brill is isolated from the society. The beautiful woman don't accept the man while Miss Brill is not accepted by the society. However, by contrasting two of this women, their loneliness are emphasized. Therefore it is possible to think that the beautiful woman is one of the minor characters that reveal Miss Brill's isolation.

The appearance and the behavior of the ermine toque can be compared to Miss Brill‘s. The old and shabby ermine toque is similar to Miss Brill’s old fur and both objects are the reflections of each woman. This fact reveals that both of two women are old-fashioned ladies. In addition, the ermine toque is completely ignored by the gentleman in grey. This means she isn't attractive woman and also Miss Brill is the same with her. Miss Brill feels the same as the ermine toque and we can notice this by the word "The Brute! The Brute!"(paragraph 8) which abuses the gentleman in grey. Therefore the ermine toque is identified with Miss Brill in the story and these details reveal that the character of the ermine toque is used to reflect Miss Brill‘s isolation.

Like the ermine toque, the old invalid gentleman is one of the most important minor characters in "Miss Brill". Although there are few words mentioned about this man, he is the another minor character revealing Miss Brill's isolation. It is ironic that the importance of the old invalid gentleman lies in their lack of communication. Of course Miss Brill reads newspaper to him but it is not an interactive communication between the two characters. All of these mean she is isolated from the society, like being isolated from the old invalid gentleman.

The young couple sitting on the "special bench" are two more essential minor characters. They bring on the climax of the story, because it is the young couple that make Miss Brill awaken herself to her real position in society. They are different from the ermine toque and the old invalid gentleman; they show Miss Brill‘s isolation directly by speaking ill of her. After listening to their giggly and reviling conversation, she is shocked, and skips her Sunday treat and dashes by the baker's. Therefore, in this part, the young couple plays an important role in revealing the fact that isolation is the major character trait of Miss Brill is represented evidently.

Other minor characters also show Miss Brill‘s isolation but particularly the four mentioned minor characters(the beautiful woman with a bunch of flowers, the ermine toque, the old invalid gentleman and the young couple) present her major character trait of isolation. It is not obvious whether it is better or worse that Miss Brill realize her real condition. However, it is obvious that her isolation from the society is revealed clearly by these several minor characters. Therefore it is important to check the behavior and the conversation of the four former minor characters carefully.

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Essay on Mesopotamia

Essay on Ancient Mesopotamia

The region known as Mesopotamia is known to all as the birth place of civilization. Mesopotamia has an overwhelmingly rich history. It is contributed to by many religions and ethnic groups. Because of the strong religious influence in the area, there are many myths and legends about monuments and locations.

Mesopotamia was established in an area known as the Fertile Crescent. At this point in history, people settled wherever there was an exceeding amount of natural resources. The crescent was an ideal area. Mesopotamia was the name given to the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia means ‘between the rivers’ (Dowling). With the rivers on either side, the land remained full of nutrients and perfect for farming.



The first known inhabitants of Mesopotamia were the Sumerians. These people formed methods for irrigating the land. Irrigation caused crops to flourish and created a surplus of food. After surplus was established the people began to form other types of trades. At this point the first civilization was formed. A civilization is defined as a city-based society held together by economic enterprises (Sumerian).

At the heart of each city-state was the ziggurat. This was a shrine to a god. Life revolved around this holy temple. Those with high community status and various merchant or trade workers lived on the ziggurat grounds. There was also a place to keep sacrificial animals on the grounds (Sumerian).

The writing system of the Sumerians is the oldest known system. It was called cuneiform. This comes from the Latin word cuneus, which mean wedge. The scribes would write using wedge like symbols on moist clay tablets. When these tablets were baked, the information would be permanent (Sumerian).

The next people to inhabit the Mesopotamian region were the Assyrians. Assyrian culture was based on war and military power. During the entire span of the empire, the current monarch was always trying to overcome and occupy a neighboring empire. Of which Babylon was always a preferred prize. All conquered people were forced to migrated and in turn they were guaranteed protection. This melting pot was inflicted on purpose causing the combining of many cultures and languages (Hooker).

The Assyrian state was based on war and conquest. Upper classes were mainly military officers and commanders that grew wealthy from their military victories. The Assyrian army was the largest known to this area. The constant victories were aided by Assyrian inventions such as iron swords, lances, metal armor, and battering rams (Hooker).

The constant focus of war in the Assyrian culture led to growth in mathematics and sciences. Their advancements medicine even affected as far away cultures as Greece.

Among their many mathematical inventions was idea of a three-hundred and sixty degree circle and the inventions of latitude and longitude (Hooker). The third of the ancient empires of Mesopotamia was the Babylonians.

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Friday, January 28, 2011

Research Paper on Harlem Renaissance

Research Paper on The Harlem Renaissance

The Harlem Renaissance, also known as the New Negro Movement started at the end of World War I, but only began to get recognized around 1924. The Harlem Renaissance was made up of chiefly writers and was considered a phenomenon. This movement started at a time when racism was still at large.

African Americans had to deal with the KKK and other racial prejudices in society. The Harlem Renaissance was significant because it was the first time African Americans expressed their views on racism and their self-love for one another, using lyrical styles that was never seen before in African American writing. Two of the most prominent poets of the time were Arna Bontemps and Langston Hughes.

The Harlem Renaissance happened fifty seven years after the Emancipation Proclamation. Previously, African Americans didn’t have much education or a chance to make their mark in the literary world. They didn’t have much of a chance because they were still looked upon as inferior. They were also thought not to have a distinct cultural heritage.


The United States got involved in World War I in the year 1917. At that time, race riots were happening and lynchings were frequent. After World War I ended in 1918, African Americans started coming to the North hoping to escape the racist treatment in the South. Unfortunately, life in the North wasn’t that much greater. In the South, more and more race riots occurred and many black people were beaten and killed-- this was known as “Red Summer” (Anderson, pg. 196). Also, the number of lynchings were increasing. This is what spurred the outbreak

of African American artists. They grew tired of keeping quiet and focused their emotions into their writing. “The emergence of the New Negro symbolized black liberation and the final shaking off of the residuals of slavery in mind, spirit and character. This new man shed the costume of the shuffling darky, the subservient and docile retainer, the clown; he was a man and a citizen in his own right: intelligent, articulate, self-assured and urban.” (Lightner, 1996) The Harlem Renaissance started to fade between the stock market crash and the Great Depression.

Arna Bontemps was born in Alexandria, Louisiana. He and his family moved to Los Angeles when he was three, because of racist incidents in Alexandria. Bontemps dropped out of a white boarding school, because his father told him not to “go up there acting colored”. He didn’t like the idea of hiding his racial heritage and transferred to Pacific Union College. A year after he graduated, he started to publish his poetry. Bontemps was influenced by fellow poets, Langston Hughes and Countee Cullen. In many of his poems, Bontemps draws from folklore-- spirituals, blues, and jazz (Bengtson, 2000). In his poem, “A Black Man Talks of Reaping” Bontemps bitterly presents the black man’s experience. He implies that the black race forever plants, but never reaps what they sow-- labor without reward. In Bontemps eyes he always felt black people were working overtime to be equal with whites, but their hard work was for nothing. He felt their social capacity didn’t change significantly. An example of this was during World War I, when blacks were called to serve in the war, but were still treated as second class citizens. They were still segregated and didn’t get the same treatment as white soldiers. A verse from “A Black Man Talks of Reaping” is: “Yet what I sowed and what the orchard yields/ my brother’s sons are gathering stalk and root/ small wonder then my children glean in fields/ they have not sown and feed on bitter fruit.” (Bengtsson, 2000). In another poem, Bontemps writes about a different issue, he describes the dark despair during slavery. This poem was called “Southern Mansion”. Lines like “chains of bondmen dragging on the ground” gives the poem an eerie tone.

Arna Bontemps did not just write poetry, he wrote novels and essays also.
Black Thunder: Gabriel’s revolt: Virginia 1800 was set during the slave uprising in year 1800. It was said to be “the only novel dealing forthrightly with the historical and revolutionary traditions of the Negro people” (Bloom, pg. 3). The way Bontemps wrote the protagonist, Gabriel was inspiring. Even when he was caught for the uprising, he still possessed hope and courage. Gabriel fought when his fellow slaves ran for their lives. The novel establishes the concept of freedom, and is found in later works of Bontemps. Black Thunder surpassed the boundaries and ideology of “the Negro novel”.

One of the most well known poets during the Harlem Renaissance was Langston Hughes. He was born in Joplin, Missouri. He has written many poems and stories. His style was of a jazz and blues flavor. Hughes was one of the major poets to break the tradition of African American literature. Instead of just writing about racial prejudices, he also celebrated the Black lifestyle. “There is so much richness in Negro humor, so much beauty in black dreams, so much dignity in our struggle and so much universality in our problems, in us--in each living human being of color-- that I do not understand the tendency today that of running away from us, of being afraid to sing our songs, paint our own pictures, write about ourselves.” says Hughes. (Bloom, pg. 70) It was clear that Hughes stood by this statement, because it showed in his work. In “My People”, Hughes calls African Americans beautiful-- using the endearing term “my people”. He compared their eyes to the stars and their souls to the bright sun. It was well known that Langston Hughes was very proud of who he was.

Hughes also wrote about the hardships of being Black. In some of his writings, racist issues and the lack of equality in America were discussed. Hughes believed in the American Dream, and was proud to be an American.

Unfortunately, the American Dream didn’t pertain to African-Americans-- they weren’t treated equally, despite what the laws implied. In his poem, “Democracy” he says “I tire so of hearing people say/ Let things take their course/ Tomorrow is another day/ I do not need my freedom when I’m dead/ I cannot live on tomorrow’s bread.” (Knopf, pg. 285) In 1931, Hughes visited the South for a tour and saw the treatment of blacks there. He also recognized the differences between blacks in the South and blacks in the North. The Southern blacks didn’t agree with Hughes’s American ideals. Hughes’s book Magnolia Flowers is a collection of poems that explores the black man’s lack of freedom with references to lynchings in the South. One of the poems in the collection was “The South”. “Its masculine aspect the South is bestial, sub-human, a predator and scavenger, and in its feminine aspect a degenerate femme fatale, a syphilitic whore.” (Gates, pg. 144)

The poem’s metaphors relate to history because the usual excuse for lynching a black man was because he was accused of raping a white woman. Most of the times, the accusations were false. At the end of the poem, the narrator says he will go to the North because it’s nicer there. A verse from “The South” is: “And I, who am black, would love her/ But she spits in my face/ And I, who am black/ Would give her many rare gifts/ But she turns her back upon me.” (Knopf, pg. 173)

The Harlem Renaissance was an extraordinary time for African Americans. Writers of that time shocked the world. The vernacular and jazzy language that was used in the writings were extremely revolutionary. The selection of these two poets/novelists wrote about the issues that were present at that time. In their writing you can feel what they feel-- that is why the Harlem Renaissance is so important. The writing brought so much life to the topics they wrote about.

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Essay on Hockey

Essay on Hockey

Hockey is a fast, exciting sport played by two teams on a sheet of ice called a rink. Each team has six players on the ice, one goalie, two defensemen, two wingers, and one center man.

The players skate up and down the ice shooting or passing a hard rubber disk called a puck with sticks. They score points by hitting the puck into the net.

Hockey is much faster and swifter than any other sport. As the players streak across the ice, their powerful shots and passes can send the puck faster than 100 miles [160 kilometers] per hour. A goalkeeper on each team defends his net from the puck going in. They must often make quick slides across the on their skates, stomachs, knees or backs to stop the puck from going into the net. A puck that crosses the goal line is a called a goal and scores a point for the other team.

The side that scores the most goals wins the game. To keep the action fast, hockey has an unusual rule. It is the only major sport that allows players to change or substitute during play. The game is rough and includes lots of hitting and some fights, although fighting is against the rules.



The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, Romans, and Arabs, perhaps among the earliest of stick-and-ball games, played forms of hockey. A sport similar to hockey, called Hurling, is known to have been played during the 1st millennium in Ireland, and other Europeans in the Middle Ages adopted similar sports. The historians don’t know for certain where the name Hockey came from. But most of them thought the name hockey have been adapted by the English from the French word hoquet (shepherd's crook). How ever was the name first given to the sport in the 18th century, but was not in common usage until the 19th century.

Hockey then started in Canada in the mid-1800's. By the 1900's it had become Canada's national sport. Since then, hockey has become popular in many other countries including Russia, Sweden and the United States. Hockey is grouped in many different divisions including minor hockey, which is grouped into age categories, SJHL, WHL, OHL and IHL, which involve the smaller cities in province or state, and NHL, which involve the bigger, better known cities in Canada and the United States. Each period begins with a face-off at the center face-off spot. A face-off also starts play again after it has been stopped for any reason. During play, the puck must normally be kept moving. If it is hit over the boards, held by the goalie, out of the referee's sight, frozen between opposing players, or is otherwise temporarily out of play, an official blows a whistle for a face-off. A player may move the puck along the ice, pass it to a teammate, or shoot it at the goal, but rules limit these plays in certain ways. One extremely important rule states that no player of the attacking team may be in the attacking zone ahead of the puck. One player must carry or shoot the puck across the attacking blue line before any other player on the team crosses the blue line.

For violations of this rule, an official signals the offending team offside and conducts a face-off in the neutral zone. A player may pass to a teammate anywhere in the same zone. The player may also pass from the defending zone to a teammate in their team's half of the neutral zone. If the pass is received past the centerline an official signals the pass offside and conducts a face-off where the play began.

Hockey requires a variety of skills. They include checking, skating, passing, stick handling and shooting. Checking is the way a player takes the puck away from the opponent. There are two main types of checks: stick checks and body checks. For a stick check the player uses his stick to hook or poke the puck away from the opponent. In a body check the player bumps against the opponent with a hip or a shoulder to try any block the opponent's progress or throw the opponent off balance. Both stick checking and body checking are allowed only against a player in control of the puck or the last player to control it. Skating is the most important hockey skill. Players must be able to turn sharply, skate backwards and perform many other maneuvers while skating at top speed. They must be able to do this with their head up and while stick handling the puck.

Passing occurs when a player who has the puck passes it to another player. In most cases the players use their sticks to propel the puck toward the receiver. These passes are either flat passes or flip passes. To make a flat pass the player sends the puck traveling along the surface of the ice. To make a flip pass the player causes it to rise off the ice to avoid interception by an opponent. Sometimes the passer simply leaves the puck behind, so that a teammate can get it, this is called a drop pass.

Stick handling is the use of the stick to control the puck. The player first moves the puck with one side of the blade and then with the other side while skating. The player makes some sweeps of the stick some wide and some narrow. In this way the player keeps the opponent guessing as to the next move and also makes it difficult to steal the puck.

Shooting is the skill needed to drive the puck into the net and score goals. Most shots are either wrist shots or slap shots. In a wrist shot the blade does not leave the ice. The player uses strong wrist action to propel the puck. For a slap shot the player raises the stick for a back swing and brings it down against the puck with great force. Slap shots are more powerful but less accurate than wrist shots.

Offside plays and icing account for most violations of the rules. For these violations, the offending team risks losing control of the puck in the resulting face-off. For more serious violations, players receive penalties ranging from two minutes in the penalty box to removal from the game, but each team must always have at least four players on the ice. If a third player is penalized while two teammates are in the penalty box, a substitute may replace the player on the ice. A teammate may serve the goaltender's penalty.

Hockey has five main kinds of penalties: minor penalties, major penalties, misconduct penalties, match penalties and penalty shots.

Minor penalties are given for violations like holding, tripping or hooking resulting in two minutes in the penalty box. The team must play short-handed until the time is up or the other team scores. But if the same minor penalty is awarded against players on both teams they sit for the full to minutes and two different players may replace them on the ice.

Major penalties are given mainly for fighting or cutting or drawing blood with a stick, they result in five minutes in the penalty box. The penalized team must play short-handed for the full five minutes, but if a player on each team receives a major penalty at the same time, substitutes may replace both players on the ice.
Misconduct penalties are given mainly toward the improper treatment towards an official, which results in ten minutes in the penalty box, but a substitute may replace the penalized player. A game misconduct penalty is given mainly for more serious offences against officials.

Match penalties are given for deliberately injuring or attempting to injure an opponent. The offending player is removed for the rest of the game and usually given extra penalty minutes depending on the severity of the incident, which a player on that team has to serve.

Penalty shots are free shots at the opposing goal defended by only the goalie. They are awarded against the defending team when an attacking player throws his stick or is pulled down from behind and is so prevented from taking the shot.

Those are the rules and regulations of the fun and exciting game of hockey.

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Thursday, January 27, 2011

Research Paper on Harrison Bergeron

Research Paper on Harrison Bergeron

At last, in the year 2081, there is a world of perfect equality. With ‘average’ levels of intelligence, physical strength and appearance balanced out, America has finally become a utopian society. Yet there are flaws, and still inequality within the mask of equality that belittles all those with above-average skills. Brief yet effective, Kurt Vonnegut’s "Harrison Bergeron" is a bitter satire of a futuristic America, seen through the eyes and voices of its citizens.


Vonnegut shows us through characters the different opinions each civilian feel towards this equality law. There is Hazel, who is of ‘average’ intelligence and too stupid to acknowledge even the death of her own son. Her thoughts come and go, drifting here and there. Hazel and all the other Hazel’s in America are the ones who make the leaders of America feel so safe; for she is harmless and easily manipulated to fit their needs.

But then there is George; who is of above-average intelligence and physical fitness. He must not only endure the irritation of the ear transmitter every time he thinks too much, but also carry the burden of heavy weights around his neck to make up for his physical state. The transmitters are made to blast loud noise and disturb his train of thought, till his mind is as blank as his wife’s, while the weights hinder him and force him to bend over at the force. Though the man understands what happens when his son dies right before him on the TV screen, he is unable to express his emotions.

And at last, our hero Harrison, a boy born with such intelligence, physical capabilities and handsome appearances that he was strapped into the most up-to-date technology barring the boy from his above-average skills. But he could not be hindered, and even when he was sent to jail, Harrison found a way to break free.

He and his ballerina were the most brilliant people anyone had ever seen, and because they exploited such skills, were made to pay the ultimate price. Before these new laws were enforced, citizens of America would’ve died to have a certain look or figure. But now, in the year 2081, talent, appearances and practically everything that makes us unique are forbidden. The opinions of these enforced handicaps are mixed, as these three examples show, from desire to indifference, and from indifference to vulgar hate. And yet, it is from these three main characters that we get a sense of what life in 2081 might be like, and the real power behind Vonnegut’s story.

Harrison Bergeron satirizes equality in this story through the use of characters. It shows us the differences and the minds of average civilians versus those of above-average ones. George is strapped with bothersome implements while Harrison is forced to disfigure himself to deem ‘average’ in appearance. It is satirical in this way, because futuristic America goes overboard with the desire for equality. The message is clear though, and it reminds us that we shouldn’t try too hard to be equal in every way. Uniqueness, individuality and personality are what makes us so special, and this world so interesting.

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Adolph Hitler Essay

Adolph Hitler

Adolph Hitler, a German political and military leader, was an extremely powerful man. Hitler was able to influence people’s thoughts creating a fully militarized society that eventually launched World War II. Hitler created an anti-system to build the Nazi Party into a mass movement that was against the non-Aryan race. He instituted sterilization and euthanasia measures to enforce his idea of racial purity among German people and caused the slaughter of millions of Jews, Gypsies, Slavic people and many others that he considered inferior. How did Hitler plan on eliminating these people? This question is unclear to me. I wanted to fully understand what Hitler was planning to do with all of the people that he thought of as inferior. Why was Hitler so intolerant with them? How did Hitler so easily spread his strong hate throughout all of Germany? Why was Hitler especially intolerant with the Jews? How was he able to make sure that the people he was killing were actually Jewish or of the non-Aryan race? By answering these questions I hope that I will be able to find the true answer of what Hitler’s ultimate plans were.

Hitler hoped to conquer the entire world. At one time he dominated most of North Africa and Europe. I think that by eliminating the people that didn’t fit into the “blond hair and blue eyes” category, the Aryan race, Hitler felt that he would have an easier time in taking over the world because the German were all in favor of Hitler’s idea, and the non-Germanic people were “non-believers” of his thoughts.



I know that Hitler enforced concentration camps throughout different parts of the country. Also referred to as “Death Camps”, the concentration camps are what claimed the lives of more than 10 million people during World War II. These camps contained innocent bystanders and put then in inhumane living conditions. Families were forced to be separated and didn’t have free rights or choices.

Hitler spread his hate for the non-Aryan race by using propaganda. He was able to influence the people of Germany to turn against the inferior race and by using misleading information making them believe that killing was the right thing to do. Hitler assured the German soldiers that people of the non-Germanic ethnic race were “non-human” and “deserved to be killed”. (Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2001)

In researching what Hitler’s main plans were, I have found a lot of helpful. Hitler had a lot of control during the time of the Holocaust. He was determined to change people’s opinions and make them do what he wanted. Hitler used different types of propaganda every day in everything that he did. He used repetition in his speeches and interviews. He made several references to killing the Jews and others of the non-Aryan race. This idea finally stuck into peoples heads and they believed it was the right thing to do. (Questions about the Holocaust page 1)

He used assertion when he made it clear to the Germans that they were doing the right thing and the people of the non-Aryan race deserved to die. He assured the soldiers that the Jews were taking over all the businesses and that they were going to soon control everything. He told the Germans that as soon as all of the non-Aryan race was gone then they would have a better life. (Microsoft Encarta 2001)

He used lying propaganda when he said that the Jews were bad people and didn’t deserve to live. Hitler’s facts were always misleading to his benefit. He must not have realized how much of an impact his false accusations would eventually change the world.

He used selection when he left out all of the good things that the people of the non-Aryan race did. He didn’t mention to the Germans that a lot of the Jews were good, kind and helping people.

Finally Hitler used pinpointing the enemy. Hitler made it clear to the Germans that “blond hair- blue eyes” was the master race and all others were inferior. He made the Jews wear the Star of David, which made them stand out on the crowds. (Questions about the Holocaust page 1)

Propaganda obviously changed the minds of the Germans to turn against the non-Aryan race. I think that at the beginning Hitler knew how powerful speech is and how much it influences people’s thoughts. By using all of these different types of propaganda, Hitler was able to let the German soldiers do all the killing for him.

Hitler also built several concentration camps. At these camps life was horrible for the inmates! Also known as labor camps, the concentration camps were what claimed the lives of most of the non-Germanic people.

Some major camps were:
Auschwitz: Auschwitz was the first concentration camp established in Poland. This camp killed 35% of the Jews killed during all of World War II. About 2 million prisoners were killed in Auschwitz.

Buchenwald: This camp was one of the most famous labor camps known for working people to death. The prisoners actually had to build this camp themselves, which took then 2 years! This was the only camp ever built by its prisoners. At this camp there was extremely horrible conditions.

Dauch: Dauch claimed the lives of more than 1.5 million prisoners. At this camp bodies were piled into graves 400 high. When they ran out of room, they started cremating the bodies. Dauch is responsible for the idea of cremating bodies at the concentration camps.

These camps are some vague examples of what when in the lives of the non-Aryan race. By building these camps Hitler was able to “wipe out” a large amount of non-Germanic people.

Hitler contained the Jews in sections of towns called ghettos. He derived this idea from Pope Paul IV who established ghettos in Venice. Although in 1870, the king of Italy, Emmanuel II abolished the ghettos… Hitler thought that they would be very helpful in his plan for annihilation of the Jews.

When did the “Final Solution” actually begin? Even thought thousands of the Jews were killed as a result of the third Reich, Hitler didn’t plan on killing all of the non-Germanic people until 1941. (Questions about the Holocaust page 3)

“ The decision on the systematic murder of the Jews wasn’t made final until the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941” (Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia)

Hitler never was tolerant with the non-Aryan race. He jumped to conclusions that they were all bad and never gave a majority of them a chance. He just assumed that they were the biggest threat of his goal to rule the world. He never gave them choices of what they wanted and he never thought what he was putting them and their
families through.

Hitler’s plan on elimination the non-Aryan race was complex. He used all the false images from propaganda and convinced the Germans to the Jews to concentration camps. Essentially all Hitler wanted was to be in control of the world. He knew that the non-Germanic people were his only obstacle in achieving his goal. Basically, Hitler planed to kill everyone that stood in his way of power. This was his only real plan, and though not a very moral one, it did help him to advance to his next step in taking over the world.

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Wednesday, January 26, 2011

Pay to Write My Book Report

Pay Someone to Write My Book Report for Me!

Academic book reports are assigned in colleges and university to check up students how they understood the ideas, plot and characters in the book read. Writing a book report is similar to essay writing, you write about the book you are assigned for reporting on. If you want to succeed in completing of your book report, you should possess great writing skills and abilities to express your thoughts and impressions on a shit of paper. Choose an original topic for your book report and feel free to write a good book report.

If you experience some complications in book report writing, find articles about how to write book reports in university, high school and college. There are a lot of book report guidelines and writing tips for students online. If you hesitate how to structure your book report or outline the book you are writing the report on, read free book report samples and examples of book reports available online. But don't use them as your own book reports – all free book reports are pre-written and plagiarized. If you need to get a non-plagiarized book report, you will have to contact book report writing services at which you can purchase custom book reports online – they are committed to write high-quality book report papers from scratch. Worried about who will write my book report for money? Got lost whom can I pay to help write my book report for me online?

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Essay on Memorial Day

Essay on Memorial Day

It is celebrated in most states on the last Monday in May, Memorial Day is a time to remember the U.S. men and woman who lost their lives serving their country. To me it is a great holiday that does not get full recognition and there is not full awareness about this holiday. To me Memorial day is a great day of remembrance. It is a time to thank the soldiers that put forth there souls to help our country and community. Without these soldiers, the United States of America would not be like it is today and also other countries would not be the same. Many soldiers fought in numerous wars and battles to protect us and we now show our appreciation by having the wonderful holiday, Memorial Day. I think we need to expand the interest in Memorial Day too.



I think that “Gone From Our Lives, but Not From Our Hearts,” is a good phrase for this situation. It is a phrase that has an indescribable meaning. I think is means that for those who fought and passed on, that we still remember you and we still celebrate you presence to this day. As though it seems you have passed on, your still together with us not only during Memorial Day but everyday of our lives.

The history of Grafton National Cemetery travels in the past quite a ways. It was reviewed in 1865 by two gentlemen the in idea of having all the war dead reburied in a location available from all parts of the state. They got their idea approved and were to select a site. The work began during the spring of 1867 to construct this famous cemetery. Within two years 1,251 bodies had been buried in the national cemetery. The process stabilized each year to develop into what it is today. About half of these graves were marked my numbers because lack of information of these soldiers. The first Memorial Day celebration was scheduled for May 30, 1868 to mark the anniversary of General B. F. Kelly entering Grafton to start the opening land rendezvous of the Civil War. Through the past years it has progressed into the Grafton National Cemetery.

I have briefly summarized and gave the best information to my knowledge about the Grafton National Cemetery. I have concluded that Memorial Day is such a wonderful holiday and shall continue to increase in meaning.

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Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Research Paper on Edgar Degas

Research Paper on Edgar Degas

Edgar Degas was an inspiring Parisian painter who lived in the nineteenth century. He was one of the original artists defining Impressionists art. He painted everyday things. He painted ballerinas rubbing their ankles and rehearsals for a ballet performance. He would paint “women et toilette,” women combing their hair or drying off after a shower. He also did a few landscapes, however, the hallmark of Degas art was world of theatre, dance and music (www.Gardens of the Sunlight-Edgar Degas 1). It is hard to talk about his pieces chronologically because many overlap. Today, even though he is not around, he still may be one of the most inspiring artists in the world.

Edward Degas was born on July 9, 1834 in Paris. His father was a wealthy banker and his mother descended from French nobility. She was born in New Orleans. His mother died when he was thirteen. People speculated he never talked about his mother after her death because it hurt him too much.

When he was younger he spent many hours in museums, theatres, and concert halls. He received an education at Lycee Louis le Grand in Paris. He took an art class there where he received many honorable mentions. It was also at school where he formed a close relationship with Ludovic Halevy. Ludovic Halevy was also from upper middle class society and would become Degas’ influential life long friend. Despite Degas’ father’s love for the arts, especially Renaissance painting, Degas’ father did not want him to become a painter. In 1853 Degas’ father sent him to law school. Even there Degas would doodle instead of concentrating on his studies.

Degas would visit the studios of artists, many of which were his fathers friends and frequent the Louvre. At age eighteen and a half Degas received permission to copy famous artists paintings from the Louvre. In order to develop their own skills, nineteenth century artists copied paintings by the old masters, study their drawings and technique (www.metmuseum. org /explorer/Degas/Html/life. Html 1). It was when Degas was in these places that he met Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. Ingres was a world-renowned painter.


After leaving law school Degas spent 1854 through 1859 in Italy studying art while staying with family. Degas was familiar with Italian art before his trip. In the nineteenth century there were no art schools and most painters went through apprenticeship with a master. Degas became apprentice to Lois Lamothe, who was one of Ingres’ more advanced students. As a result of his contacts with the Italian masters he produced paintings on historical subjects, “genre scenes” and began to focus more on color and movement. The most famous genre scene is The Bellelli Family, an oil work on canvas (c. 1858-1860). Pictured are his aunt, her daughters and her husband. In the painting it shows the unhappiness between the husband and wife. The wife in the picture is in mourning as her father recently passed away (Degas’ grandfather). It is speculated that the man in the framed drawing behind her is her deceased father. The work also shows Degas’ use of asymmetrical compositions, a style he learned from studying photos of Japanese art. Degas admired the asymmetrical compositions and the concentration of surface pattern of the Japanese art. His paintings reflect these influences. Degas often cut out parts of the images in his paintings. For example, in this painting the dog’s head was cut out of the picture and only the backside was showing.

While in Italy another important friendship Degas made was when he met Gustave Moreau. Moreau was a painter raised in the academic tradition who favoured large biblical or classical subjects, treated with great attention to detail (Copplestone 23). Moreau drew pastels with bright colors and Degas was inspired by this. Many of Degas’ finest works were pastels. It would not be an exaggeration to say that Degas was himself one of the finest of all pastellists (Copplestone 23).

In 1862 at his father’s insistence Degas went back to Paris. Here his circle of friends was a group of artists who called themselves the Impressionists. They included Claude Monet, and Edmond Duranty, both well renowned painters. They thought that any work should be more revealing to a person’s temperament, age, and as whether he was coming from work or a lovers rendezvous (Encyclopedia of art 1268). It is at this time that Degas starts to paint more real life scenes instead of the classics. In Paris in 1873 Degas had his first Impressionist exhibition with Monet and Renoir. The title of the show was called Exhibition of the Impressionists. An impressionist artist’s aim was to create an impression of a scene or subject like a photograph. The Impressionists wanted to make it a picture of real life with no frill. It is a style of painting originally developed in France in the 1870’s with Degas and his group of artist friends. At this showing Degas work received mixed reviews. Some critics detest them, while others write about him favorably and name him the leading figure among the new group of artists ( Chronology of the artists life 4).

Degas did not consider himself an Impressionist. He liked painting urban surroundings and the human body in motion while the other painters liked to paint nature. Many of the Impressionists thought that impressionist art required one to work outdoors, directly in view of nature in order to get truthful light and atmosphere. Degas actually mocked this idea that an impressionist artist had to work outside. Degas is reported to have said “Why would I painting is not a sport” (Coppelstone 12). But like the Impressionists he painted and drew the real world in a real, truthful light as if from a photograph.

Degas developed many interests that affected his work but one of the most significant was Horse racing. Horse racing started in France and the exclusive Jockey Club was founded in 1833. In France, horse racing had the stigma of being very snobby and being a social activity for the rich. Of the Impressionist artists only Manet and Degas painted horseracing. This is probably due to the fact that none of the other impressionist artists could aspire to the required social level of the Jockey Club. Degas went to horseraces a lot but his paintings of jockeys and the races were done in the studio or from photos when available. The birth of photography was an aid and inspiration for Degas giving him visual information he hadn’t had before. It captured the images for him so he could make compositions of them at a later date. Degas produced over 45 paintings, 20 pastels, 250 drawings, and 17 structures on horse racing. He painted At the Racecourse with Jockeys in Front of the Stands (C.1869-1872). Degas painted the practicing before the race so it would seem real. This painting is interesting because it shows Degas use of natural light by his painting of the silhouette of the horses and the riders.

In 1870 Degas work was interrupted by the Franco-Prussian war where he volunteered to serve in the artillery. As a result Degas believed he got an eye disease. This eye disease slowly affected his work and eventually blinded him.

In the 1870’s Degas started to paint Ballerinas. He was attracted to ballet because of his passion for music and he was always at the opera and concerts. The opera house provided unusual viewpoints like light and dark artificial lighting. He liked juxtaposition of illusion and reality. Degas would paint the dancers rubbing their ankles or fixing their tutus. He would always paint something that let you know that it is just a performance without special effects and without magic. He would draw the orchestra or a man standing backstage waiting for his part stretching. Degas would let you know the real life story. Degas never had known relationships with women but some say he may have had relationships with ballerinas. One of his most famous paintings is The Dance Class (c.1873-1875). Here the dancers are supposedly watching the dance master while reading letters and scratching their backs. The water can under the piano gives the picture humor. The picture is interesting and it shows what a real dance class was like back in the late 1870’s. Degas used little color in this painting. The only color he used was the color of the sashes around the dancers waists. Another creation he made was the sculpture of the Little Dancer Aged Fourteen (c.1880-1881). When it was exhibited it received mixed reviews. Some people loved it while others thought it was a poorly dressed ratty-looking girl. This sculpture was made with real ribbon and tutu.

Degas had no financial necessity to sell his works but when he did he might ask for them back to make some changes and he would forget to return them. Some people think he would do that on purpose because he did not like to part with his work. Once in a letter to his friend Ludovic Halevy, Degas complains that he has to draw ballerinas over and over because of the demanding public. However, Degas never painted dogs or flowers because he had asthma.

In the 1870’s through 1880’s Degas was fascinated with people doing daily chores. Degas was not poor so he had no financial necessity to do chores. Everything was done for him. Although much of Degas art depicts the working classes, or at least working women, he had little sympathy for or understanding of any class other than his own. His interest in working class-women was the detached curiosity of an anthropologist studying the ways of a primitive tribe (Bade 8).

In the 1880s Degas also started to paint “women et toilettes.” He would paint women drying their hair or washing themselves. He painted things as if you were looking through a keyhole. He says “Hitherto the nude has always been represented in poses which presuppose an audience, but these woman of mine are honest, simple folk, and unconcerned by other interests than those involved in their physical condition” (Bade 30). In 1886, Degas created a painting called After the Bath, Woman Drying her Feet. The person viewing the picture is given the feeling that they are sneaking a glimpse of the person in the picture without their permission. This picture was shown in the Impressionist show of 1886.

Cafй concerts were amongst the most popular thing, of Parisian entertainments. Degas enjoyed going to them. At the Cafй concerts there were jugglers and magicians and prostitutes. He felt the concerts shared many visual features with the ballet paintings. There are the same striking divisions between the dark orchestra pit, audience and brightly lit stage; the same magical effect of gas footlights dissolving the solidity of forms on stage (Bade 26). One of the paintings Degas created is called Cafe-Concert, Les Ambassadeurs (c. 1876-77). This painting is a pastel over monotype. Monotype is using wet ink painted on a non-absorbent piece of material such as metal and then pressing it onto paper to make a print. It usually makes only one print. In this particular painting after Degas printed his monotype he colored over it with pastels. This picture shows a lively social life with singers and music. The picture suggests that people are having a good time.

In Degas later years he started to paint in a more cubist style and to paint and draw some landscapes. He became obsessed with photography as an aid to his art. He also had models come to his studio so he could copy them for his paintings and sculptures. One of the more cubist paintings he did was Landscape (c.1998). This picture gives you the feeling of monotone and heaviness since it is done in black and white oil. A painting such as Landscape, presents the structure of the buildings in a way that seems to anticipate the cubist vision, (drawing through the use of cubes) thus underlining the point that even toward the end of his career Degas’ approach to art was innovative (Sutton 301)

As Degas grew older and due to his failing eyesight, he started to sculpt and model with wax over metal armatures. These sculptures remained in his studio and it was not until after his death that they were they cast into bronze. He says to a friend” I’m always modeling with wax” (Encyclopedia of Art 1273). At this stage of his life he also favored pastels over paint.

Throughout his life, Degas was always admired by friends and family for his great wit and charm but he could sometimes insult you or make fun of you in his humor. In his old age, he became very antisocial and he hated mankind. He was always anti-Semitic but he never let his racial opinions color his art. In his later years he was always lonely and had broken ties with his lifelong friend Ludovic Halevy due to his anti-Semitic views. He sometimes wished he had a wife and children. Degas stated he never married because ”I would have been in mortal misery all my life of fear my wife would say, “that’s a pretty thing” after he’d finished a picture” (Bade 5).

On September 27, 1917 Degas died. He left his art to his friends and cousins. At one point in his life Degas had such a collection of artwork that he considered opening his own private museum. Much of his work was also auctioned successfully and purchased by museums. Degas hated conventional prettiness and there is great irony in the fact that dancers now adorn table mats, greeting cards, and jigsaw puzzles and have in fact become harmless and pretty (Bade5).

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Research Paper on EEOC

Research Paper on EEOC

Many years ago there was a large amount of discrimination in the workplace and no laws to protect employees. Title VII was passed which prohibits discrimination in hiring, firing, training, promotion, discipline etc. on the basis of an employee or applicant’s color, gender, race, national origin or religion. If an employee feels they have been a victim of employment discrimination they may a file a charge or claim with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). The EEOC will handle all claims by following a common procedure and following all rules.

First step the EEOC will take is to make sure all nonfederal government employee claims are filed within 180 days of the event where the discrimination occurred and federal employee claims are filed within 30 days of the event. Many states have their own fair employment laws and have state and local enforcement agencies for employment discrimination claims called “706” agencies. If there is a “706” agency in the jurisdiction, the EEOC must defer the complaint to the “706” agency for 60 days before investigating.


Once these issues are determined then the EEOC will proceed with the complaint. Within 10 days of the filing date of the complaint the EEOC will give notice to the respondent, the employer. The EEOC will then review all new charges to indicate whether it will go through the mediation process. If mediation is chosen then both parties will be notified offering mediation. Both parties have 10 days to accept or decline mediation. If both parties elect mediation then there is a 60-day period of in-house mediation or 45 days for external mediation. During this time both parties will tell their side of the story, express opinions, provide information and express what they want out of the charge. If an agreement occurs then it is settled.

If the parties do not agree to mediation or the mediation is not successful, the charge is referred back to the EEOC for investigation. The EEOC will then interview the employer and the employee and any other witnesses. If there is a reasonable cause for the charge then the EEOC will bring both parties together with an “EEOC specialist.” The specialist will provide the findings of the investigation and discuss with both parties ways of conciliation. During this process both parties will have an opportunity to discuss the issues raised in the charge, clear up misunderstandings, determined an underlying interests or concern, find areas of agreement and finally to incorporate agreements into resolutions. The majority of claims filed are settled at this point.

Mediation is an efficient process which saves time and money avoiding lengthy investigations and unnecessary litigation. The mediators are a neutral third party who’s role is to help the parties resolve the matter, therefore having no interest in the outcome. Mediation is a confidential process, it is not tape recorded or transcribed and notes during the mediation are discarded. Settlement agreements do not constitute an admission of any violation of laws by the employer. Mediation avoids lengthy and unnecessary litigation.

If the EEOC finds there no cause for the employees complaint, then the employee is notified by a right-to-sue letter. This means that if the employee wants to continue their case, they are free to do so, having followed all of the EEOC process. The employee can sue the employer in federal court within 90 days of receiving the letter.

If there is no conciliation, then the EEOC may eventually have to file a civil action in federal district court. The employee with the right-to-sue letter can take the case to court seeking judicial review. In Title VII, it states that the courts give the EEOC decisions de novo review meaning a court can only take a discrimination case for judicial review after the EEOC has been through it’s regular process, finding no grounds, has disposed of the case. If a party takes it to judicial review and is not satisfied with the court’s decision and has a basis upon which to appeal, the case can be appealed all the way up to the US Supreme Court, if it agrees to hear the case.

In a situation where the employee wins the case, the employer is then reviewed regarding its liability. The employer could be liable for back pay, front pay, retroactive seniority, make-whole relief, compensatory damages and punitive damages. Back pay can back up to two years before the actual filing of the case with the EEOC. Front pay would involve any future earnings that the employee would have received due to absence of discrimination or reinstatement to his or her position. Retroactive seniority is another which involves seniority that dates back to the time the claimant was mistreated. Make-whole relief would include attempts to put claimant in position he would have been in had there been no act of discrimination. Another liability would be compensatory damages which is money awarded to compensate the injured party for direct loses and punitive damages are awarded when malicious action have been shown from the employer.

The EEOC mediation process is an important part of reconciling differences without costly and lengthy lawsuits. Mediation is fair because there is a third neutral party that has nothing to lose or gain from the outcome. Mediation is confidental and doesn’t constitute an admission of guilt by the employer. 70 to 80 percent of cases go to mediation and the majority of these are settled and disposed of at this stage. The EEOC plays a very important role in discrimination cases.

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